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Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN, VIT UNIVERSITY
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN, VIT UNIVERSITY
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Fuels

o

Major ingredient

carbon,

when combusted

large amount of heat.

o

During the process of combustion of a fuel,

carbon, hydrogen etc. will combine with oxygen to liberate heat at a rapid

rate.

Fuel + O 2

Products + heat

exothermic

at a rapid rate. Fuel + O 2 Products + heat exothermic Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

used for various domestic and industrial purposes.

The term combustion refers to the exothermal oxidation of a fuel, by air or oxygen occurring at a sufficiently rapid rate to produce a high temperature, usually with the appearance of a flame.

As most of the fuels contain carbon or carbon and hydrogen, the combustion involves the oxidation of carbon to carbon dioxide and hydrogen to water. Sulphur, if present, is oxidised to sulphur dioxide while the mineral matter forms the ash.

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Fuels

Classification

Chemical Fuels Primary fuels Or Natural fuels Secondary fuels Or Artificial fuels
Chemical Fuels
Primary fuels
Or
Natural fuels
Secondary fuels
Or
Artificial fuels
Solid fuels Wood, coal Liquid fuels Petroleum Crude oil Gaseous fuels Natural gas
Solid fuels
Wood, coal
Liquid fuels
Petroleum
Crude oil
Gaseous fuels
Natural gas

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Solid fuels Coke charcoal Liquid fuels Petrol, diesel, kerosene
Solid fuels
Coke
charcoal
Liquid fuels
Petrol, diesel,
kerosene
Gaseous fuels Bio gas, Water gas, Producer gas
Gaseous fuels
Bio gas,
Water gas,
Producer gas

Characteristics of a good fuel

o

High calorific value

o

Low cost

 

Low moisture content

o

o

Low non-combustible matter

o

Moderate ignition temperature

o

 

Moderate velocity of combustion

o

Controllable combustion

o

Should not undergo spontaneous combustion

o

Pollution free combustion products

o

Should burn in air easily without much smoke

o

Easy to transport

o

Storage should be cheap and easy

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Property

Solid fuels

 

Liquid fuels

 

Gaseous fuels

 

combustion

Slow combustion not easy to control it

 

Quick combustion it can be controlled

 

Combustion

is

rapid

burning

can

be

   

controlled

 

transport

Transportation is difficult

 

Transportation is easy through pipelines and containers

Transportation is easy through pipelines and containers

storage

Storage is safe

Risk involved in storage

 

High risk involved in storage

Calorific

Calorific value is relatively low

 

Calorific value is relatively high

Calorific value

 

value

is

higher

that

liquid

   

fuels

 

Engines

Cannot

be

used

in

Can

be

used

in

IC

Can be used

in

IC

used

Internal Combustion

engines

 

engines but to a lesser

engines

   

extent

 

products

Ash

and

smoke

are

No ash is produced but some flue gases are produced

No ash and no smoke are produced

produced during the process of combustion

 

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

 
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

oUnits of heat are Calories, k.calories B.Th.U (British thermal unit) or C.H.U (Centrigrade heat unit)
oUnits of heat are
Calories, k.calories
B.Th.U (British thermal unit) or C.H.U
(Centrigrade heat unit)
1
B.Th.U =
252
cal
=
0.252 k.Cal
1 k.Cal = 3.968
B.Th.U
= 2.2 C.H.U

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Calorific value of a fuel

Higher or Gross CalorificValue (HCV or GCV):

“ The amount of heat liberated when unit weight or volume of a fuel is completely burnt and the products of combustion are cooled to room temperature”

of a fuel is completely burnt and the products of combustion are cooled to room temperature”

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Low or Net CalorificValue (LCV or NCV):

“ The amount of heat liberated when unit weight or volume of a fuel is completely burnt and the products of combustion are allowed to escape”

or volume of a fuel is completely burnt and the products of combustion are allowed to

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

The calorific value of a fuel depends upon the nature of the fuel and the relative proportions of the elements present, increasing with increasing amounts of hydrogen. Moisture if present, considerably reduces the calorific value of a fuel. The calorific value may be theoretically calculated from the chemical composition of the fuel.

If both hydrogen and oxygen are present, it may be assumed that all the oxygen are already combined with 1/8 of its weight of hydrogen to form water.This fraction is then deducted from the hydrogen content of the fuel in the calculation.Thus for a fuel containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur, the calorific value of the fuel is given by DULONG FORMULA

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Determination of Calorific Value

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Calculation

m = mass of fuel pellet (g)

W = mass of water in the calorimeter (g)

w = water equivalent of calorimeter, stirrer and thermometer (g)

water equivalent of calorimeter, stirrer and thermometer (g) t 1 = initial temperature of calorimeter. t

t 1 = initial temperature of calorimeter. t 2 = final temperature of calorimeter. Heat liberated by the fuel = mL Heat absorbed by water and apparatus = (W+w)(t 2 -t 1 )

Heat liberated by the fuel = mL Heat absorbed by water and apparatus = (W+w)(t 2

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

1. 0.72 gram of a fuel containing 80% carbon, when burnt in a bomb calorimeter, increased the temperature of water from 27.3 o to 29.1 o C. If the calorimeter contains 250 grams of water and its water equivalents is 150 grams, calculate the HCV of the fuel. Give your answer in kJ/kg.

Solution. Here x = 0.72 g , W = 250g, t 1 = 27.3 o C, t 2 = 29.1 o C.

HCV of fuel (L) = (W + w) (t 2 – t 1 ) kcal/kg

x

= [(250 + 150) × (29.1-27.3)] kcal/kg

0.72

= 1,000 × 4.2 kJ/g = 4,200 kJ/kg

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

2. On burning 0.83g of a solid fuel in a bomb calorimeter, the temperature of 3,500g of water increased from 26.5 o C to 29.2 o C. Water equivalent of calorimeter and latent heat of steam are 385.0g of and 587.0 cal/g respectively. If the fuel contains 0.7% hydrogen, calculate its gross and net calorific value.

Solution. Here wt. of fuel (x) = 0.83 g of ; wt of water (W) = 3,500 g; water equivalent of calorimeter (w) = 385 g; (t 2 - t) = (29.2 o C - 26.5 o C) = 2.7 o C ; percentage of hydrogen (H) = 0.7% ; latent heat of steam = 587 cal/g

Gross calorific value = (W + w) (t 1 - t 2 ) cal/g

x

= (3,500 +385) × 2.7 = 12,638 cal/g

NCV

0.83

= [GCV – 0.09 H × 587]

= (12,63 8– 0.09 × 0.7 × 587) cal/g

= (12,638 – 37) cal/g = 12,601 cal/g

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Corrections

Fuse wire correction. Heat liberated during sparking should be subtracted from heat liberated.

during sparking should be subtracted from heat liberated.  Acid correction . Fuels containing Sulphur and

Acid correction. Fuels containing Sulphur and Nitrogen if oxidized, the heats of formation of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 should be subtracted (as the acid formations are exothermic reactions).

SO 4 and HNO 3 should be subtracted (as the acid formations are exothermic reactions). Prof.
SO 4 and HNO 3 should be subtracted (as the acid formations are exothermic reactions). Prof.

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Cooling correction.

As the temperature rises above room temperature, the loss of heat does occur due to radiation, and the highest temperature recorded will be slightly less than that obtained. Therefore a correction is necessary to get the correct rise in the temperature

The rate of cooling of the calorimeter from maximum temperature to room temperature is noted.

From this rate of cooling (i.e., dt°/min) and the actual time taken for cooling (t min)

then correction (dt × t) is called cooling correction and is added to the t2,

t1 term.

(t min) then correction (dt × t) is called cooling correction and is added to the
(t min) then correction (dt × t) is called cooling correction and is added to the

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

GCV = (W + w) (t 1 - t 2 ) –[acid+fuse corrections] x =

GCV = (W + w) (t 1 - t 2 ) –[acid+fuse corrections]

x

= (550+2,200) × 2.42 – [50+10] cal

0.92g

= 7,168.5 cal/g. NCV

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

= [GCV – 0.09 H × latent heat steam]

= (7168.5 – 0.09 × 6 × 580) cal/g

= 6855.3 cal/g

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Heat liberated by the combustion of fuel = VL Heat absorbed by the circulating water

Heat liberated by the combustion of fuel = VL

Heat absorbed by the circulating water = W (T 2 -T 1 )

HCV or GCV = L = W (T 2 -T 1 )/V

Let the mass of water condensed per m 3 gas = m/V

Then LHS per m 3 of gas = m x 587/V

Therefore LCV or NCV = L – mx587/V kcal/m 3

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

1. The following data were obtained in a body’s gas calorimeter experiment:

Volume of the gas used Wt. Of water heated Temperature of inlet water Temperature of outlet water Wt. of steam condensed

Calculate the higher and lower calorific value per m 3 at STP. Take the heat liberated in condensing vapour cooling the condensed as 580 kcal/kg.

= 0.1 m 3 at STP = 25kg

= 20 o C = 33 o C = 0.025 kg

Solution: Here V = 0.1 m 3 ; W = 25 kg; T 1 = 20 o C; T 2 = 33 o C; m = 0.025kg

HCV

= L= W (T 2 -T 1 )/V = 25(33-20)/0.1 = 3,250 kcal/m 3

LCV = HCV- (m/V) × 580 = 3,250 kcal/m 3 –[(0.025kg/0.1m 3 ) × 580 kcal/kg

= 3,250 kcal/m 3 – 145kcal/m 3 = 3105 kcal/m 3 .

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Dulong’s Formula

Dulong’s Formula The approximate calorific value of a fuel can be determined by knowing the amount

The approximate calorific value of a fuel can be determined by knowing the amount of constituents present:

Gross or higher calorific value (HCV) from elemental constituents of a fuel.

H = 34500 kcal/kg; C = 8080 kcal/kg; S = 2240 kcal/kg

Oxygen present in the fuel is assumed to be present as water (fixed hydrogen).

Available Hydrogen

= Total hydrogen - Fixed hydrogen = Total hydrogen - 1/8 mass of oxygen in fuel.

Dulongs formula for calorific value from the chemical composition of fuel is,

of oxygen in fuel. Dulongs formula for calorific value from the chemical composition of fuel is,

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN
Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN

Prof. Dr. F. NAWAZ KHAN