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36 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS, VOL. I, NO.

I, MARCH 2015

An Integrated Control and Protection System for


Photovoltaic Microgrids
Laijun Chen, Member, IEEE and Shengwei Mei, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract-The microgrid has shown to be a promising solution Several other strategies have been proposed for seamless
for the integration and management of intermittent renewable transfer between different microgrid operation modes [7]­
energy generation. This paper looks at critical issues surrounding
[9]. They include a seamless control methodology for a
microgrid control and protection. It proposes an integrated
control and protection system with a hierarchical coordination
PV-diesel generator microgrid that can operate both in the
control strategy consisting of a stand-alone operation mode, a grid-connected and islanded modes, and at the same time
grid-connected operation mode, and transitions between these does not require any islanding detection mechanism [7].
two modes for a microgrid. To enhance the fault ride-through Similarly, in [8], a control strategy has been proposed that
capability of the system, a comprehensive three-layer hierarchical
contains the control state/reference compensation algorithm to
protection system is also proposed, which fully adopts different
protection schemes, such as relay protection, a hybrid energy
effectively reduce the impact caused by microgrid operation
storage system (HESS) regulation, and an emergency control. mode transitions on critical loads and distributed generators
The effectiveness, feasibility, and practicality of the proposed (DGs).
systems are validated on a practical photovoltaic (PV) microgrid.
The control strategies mentioned above provide excellent
This study is expected to provide some theoretical guidance and
engineering construction experience for microgrids in general.
solutions for microgrid operational control. However, these
strategies are relatively independent having poor flexibility
Index Terms-Control strategies, integrated protection, micro­
and weak expansibility, which may lead to collapse when the
grid, operation modes.
microgrid contains multiple distributed generators. Therefore,
there is a need to integrate microgrid operational control
I. INTRODUCTION technologies at steady and transient states in more practical
HOTOV OLTAIC (PV ) technologies have received
P
ways.
widespread attention in recent years owing to their In addition to advanced control technologies, microgrids
ability to reduce fossil energy use and provide positive also require effective protection systems [ 10]-[ 12]. The
impacts to the environment. Photovoltaic generation in the maximum short-circuit current in a microgrid is generally
form of distributed photovoltaic microgrids that are integrated limited to less than two times the rated current because of
into the power system rely on efficient use of solar energy a large number of DGs configured with power electronic
[ 1], [2]. When compared to traditional distribution networks, interface devices [l3]. Power flow and short-circuit capacity
photovoltaic microgrids are distinctly different in terms changes are significant under different microgrid operation
of their control strategies and protection methods [3], [4]. modes. As a consequence, conventional protection methods
Specifically, when PV microgrids are being operated in in large-scale power grids are not able to effectively meet the
isolated mode, improving peer-to-peer control strategies needs of an inverter-dominated microgrid.
are considered as critical factors for supporting islanded
A range of advanced methodologies is available in the
microgrid operations [5]. In [6], the authors have presented
literature for microgrid protection. They include a simple
a coordinated voltage/frequency (V /F) and active power
three-phase four-wire system with differential current and
and reactive power (PQ) control system for both islanded
zero sequence current used to detect faults in a microgrid
and grid-connected mode in a PV microgrid [6] that shows
[ 13]; a protection scheme that uses both modes of operation
effective coordination between inverter V /F (or PQ) controls.
for optimally setting direction over current relays [ 14]; as well
Manuscript received November 2S, 2014; revised January 2S, 201S and as other protection schemes with voltage restraint algorithms
February 9, 201S; accepted February 13, 201S. Date of publication March or inverse time characteristics [ 15], [ 16]. All these systems
30, 201S; date of current version March 4, 201S. This work was supported
can be adapted to address the frequent changes in a microgrid.
by the National High Technology Research and Development of China
863 Program under Grant 2012AAOS0204, China, and the National Natural However, the main focus of these aforementioned methods
Science Foundation of China under Grant S132100S, S1207076. is on relay protection, and they tend to neglect regulation
L. J. Chen is with State Key Laboratory of Power System, Department of
resources and means available in the microgrid, e.g., energy
Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China (e-mail:
chenlaijun@tsinghua.edu.cn). storage systems. As a result, there is a need to further explore
S. W. Mei is with State Key Laboratory of Power System, Department of and develop integrated microgrid protection systems.
Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China (e-mail:
meishengwei@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn). Many recently built microgrid laboratory systems have been
Digital Object Identifier 1O.1777S/CSEEJPES.20IS.0000S based on the above mentioned control strategies and protection

2096-0042 © 201S CSEE


CHEN el al.: AN INTEGRATED CONTROL AND PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MICROGRIDS 37

schemes [ 17]-[ 19]. However, microgrids that are integrated the peer-to-peer and the master-slave controls. The second
with advanced control and protection systems have received part mainly refers to the idiographic control techniques, used
relatively less attention. in the local controllers, such as VIF control, PQ control,
This paper addresses key issues of PV microgrid control and droop control. The proposed structure is flexible so that
and protection. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: different control strategies and basic techniques can be applied
Section II presents the hierarchical coordination control sys­ to realize different microgrid operation modes. This paper
tem. The integrated and layered protection system is described mainly discusses the master-slave control combined with VIF
in detail in Section III. The field applications and test results control and PQ control, which is demonstrated in the following
are demonstrated in Section IV, and the conclusion is given in sections.
Section V.

B. Stand-alone Operation
II. HIERARCHICAL CONTROL SYSTEM
When the microgrid operates in stand-alone mode, the Li­
A. System Structure battery energy storage system (BESS) is the main power
Grid-connected and stand-alone operations are the two source for providing stable voltage and frequency with the
typical operation modes in a microgrid. The requirements VIF control [20]. To improve the practical application of this
of PV microgrid operation modes include: 1) The rnicrogrid system, the proposed VIF control block diagram is shown in
voltage and frequency should be stable and the power flow Fig. 2.
should be balanced, so as to realize the independent operation
in different modes; 2) The two modes can transfer smoothly
from one to the other, which can help avoid transient surge in
the microgrid. The proposed hierarchical coordination control
architecture is shown in Fig. 1. SVPWM
generator
PWM

Self-synchron iz"tion
pulse
L...-_---'

Self-isolation
Layer I: Fig. 2. YF control block diagram.
Operation
modes
In Fig. 2, varef, Vbref, and Vcref denote the reference of
the three-phase output voltage of BESS. Vd and Vq represent

{
the d axis and q axis component of the measured three
phase voltage ( va, Vb, and vc ) based on the dq coordinate
transform, respectively. Vdref and Vqref are the d axis and q axis

I I Droop control II
component of the reference voltage ( Varef, Vbref, and Vcref ),

I I V/F control II
r--------,
respectively.

: I contr
The proposed VIF control mainly corresponds to layer

I
Layer 2 :

Devi c e-level control


I: 2 in Fig. 1, which is based on the coordinate transform

O __I1 --'
'-.:...- L"7"o;::-_ P_Q_ _ _ _ _
; :�!��!s
s r
--==-==-==-=.==.:
=;::;.==-=
I

________
and proportion integration (PI) regulation with some basic
techniques, such as magnitude and phase angle calculation and
L _
space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). The proposed
VIF control has good dynamic response though it only adopts
voltage loops. Moreover, only two PI regulators are included
in the VIF control, which is more effective than the traditional

,:�:;�::{
VIF control.

C. Grid-connected Operation

L-________________________________�
The BESS is controlled as a power buffer to provide power
flow with PQ control when the microgrid operates in grid­
Fig. 1. Control structure of PY microgrid. connected mode.
Based on the fact that the current can be obtained from
Fig. 1 shows the three-layered hierarchical control archi­ power and voltage, a simplified PQ control is proposed as in
tecture of a PV rnicrogrid in which the microgrid operation Fig. 3.
modes are interchangeable based on the control strategies In Fig. 3, the quantities of current reference are obtained by
and some basic techniques. The microgrid control strategies utilizing the instantaneous power theory, and the current loops
mainly include two parts: the system-level control modes are used to regulate the output value with PI regulators. In
and the device-level control strategies. The first part includes addition, the SVPWM technique is also adopted in generating
38 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS. VOL. I. NO. I. MARCH 2015

Stage 3: Control modes transition.


The VIF control mode is immediately switched to PQ
SVPWM control as the contactor is turned off. At this point, the
generator PWM
pulse transition from stand-alone mode to grid-connected mode is
achieved.
2) Transition from Grid-connected Mode to Stand-alone
Mode: In general, self-isolation control is utilized to ensure
Fig. 3. PQ control block diagram. the smooth transfer from grid-connected mode to stand-alone
mode. However, to describe briefly, this paper mainly takes the
intentional islanding as an example. The stages are described
PWM signals. as follows.
The proposed PQ control strategy, as shown in Fig. 3, with Stage 1: Preparation.
two PI control units reduced and the decoupling control of The power flow regulation is the first stage, which can be
active and reactive power realized, has more applicability in achieved by adjusting the power reference of the BESS. The
engineering and is equivalent to the traditional control methods corresponding control block diagram is depicted as in Fig. 5.
in both power loops and current loops.

D. Operation Modes Transition


1) Transition from Stand-alone Mode to Grid-connected PQ
Mode: Self-synchronization control is adopted to realize the control

seamless transfer from stand-alone mode to grid-connected


mode. The detailed stages are demonstrated as follows.
Stage 1: Preparation-voltage regulation.
The microgrid voltage is regulated through VIF control with Fig. 5. The power flow regulation control.
the calculated voltage reference. Take the voltage magnitude
control scheme as an example; the control block diagram is In Fig. 5, PPCC-refand QPCC-ref
means the expected
shown in Fig. 4. active power and reactive power on the tie line, which are
preset as zero. Ppccand Qpcc
are the measured power on
the tie line. The reference power values (P;ef' Q�ef)
put into
the PQ control module are obtained from proportion control
and difference calculation, which are described in Fig. 5.
Then, the power flow on the tie-line should be regulated to
satisfy (2).
Fig. 4. The voltage magnitude regulation control.
{ Ppee :s; Plirnit
(2)
In Fig. 4, Vi-grid represents the power grid voltage Qpee :s; Qlirnit
magnitude of phase AlBIC, and Vi is the voltage of phase where llirnit and Qlirnit denote the threshold of the active
AlBIC of the microgrid, respectively. In the control block, power and reactive power, respectively.
only proportion control is utilized due to the fact that the Stage 2: Contactor states transition.

CV;') is applied to VIF control.


voltage is of AC sinusoidal quantity. The regulated voltage After performing the power flow regulation control, the
BESS can rapidly turn on the grid-connected contactor by
Then, the voltage magnitude, phase angle, and frequency delivering an 110 input signal to open the PCC contactor.
are adjusted consistently with those of the main grid, as The power interaction between the microgrid and the power
described in ( 1). distribution grid is so little that there is very little transient
surge when the contactor opens.
{ I!rnie -!gridl :s; !lirnit Stage 3: Control modes transition.
((!Vgridl -!Vrniel)/!Vgridl) x 100% :s; Viirnit ( 1)
The PQ control mode should be quickly changed to the VIF
IBrnie -Bgrid I :s; Blirnit control mode as the contactor is turned on. The transition from
where !, V , and B represent the frequency, voltage magnitude, grid-connected mode to stand-alone mode is then completed.
and voltage phase, respectively. The subscript "mic" and
"grid" denote the microgrid and power distribution grid. The III. HIERARCHICAL PROTECTION S YSTEM
subscript "limit" means the threshold of those variables.
Stage 2: Contactor states transition. A. System Structure
After the voltage is synchronized with the main grid, the The microgrid has many advantages when compared to
grid-connected contactor should be turned off by the BESS, the bulk power grid because of its smaller scale and fewer
in which an I/O output signal for turning off the contactor feeders. More information can be acquired through reasonable
installed on the point of common coupling (PCC) is generated. configuration of measurements and establishment of a data
CHEN el al.: AN INTEGRATED CONTROL AND PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MICROGRIDS 39

center, which provide possibilities for designing a compre­ where 0: is interior angle of the transformer. The directional
hensive protection system. A hierarchical protection system is power protection (DPP) method can be configured on this type
proposed as shown in Fig. 6. of feeder that only contains source.
The proposed hierarchical protection system, consisting of 2) Feeder Only Contains Load: A sequence component
relay protection, HESS regulation, and emergency control, protection (SCP) method is proposed for this issue. The main
is aimed at improving microgrid security. Compared to a principle of SCP is described as follows.
traditional protection scheme having only relay protection, the When a fault occurs in a certain load feeder, an equiv­
hierarchical protection system not only clears the fault, but also alent negativelzero sequence source is added to the fault
deals with adjustments of HESS and load shedding. Therefore, location, and the negativelzero sequence component spreads
it has many advantages. First, it is straightforward with three from the fault location to other lines of the network. Thus,
layers of hierarchical structure; second, many techniques, such the negative/zero sequence component of the fault line is
as relay protection, hybrid energy storage system (HESS) relatively larger than other lines. Therefore, the fault line could
regulation, and emergency control are integrated to improve be located by searching for the largest component among

Lfault = Lkl{(Ink = max(Izi,!ni))or(Izk = max(Izi,!ni))}


the reliability of the PV microgrid. The details of the three­ different feeders, which is expressed as (4).
layer hierarchical protection system is depicted in Section III,
B-D.
i= 1,2, . . .

where Lfault denotes the fault feeder and Li represents the


,n
1-------1

it h feeder. Ini and Izi are the negative-sequence current and


(4)
1 1

zero-sequence current of the it h feeder, respectively.


1 1
1 1

I I
Layer I: 1 1
Relay 1 1
1

�_��i� __ J � _ �e��s__ J
protection Another key point of the SCP is to determine when to
1 1 1
1 start the searching procedure as described in (4). When A­
F-u-n c-i
'-- n ---'
t -o n -.-d
B fault, A-G fault or A-B-G fault happens, there is an
obvious rise in the negativelzero sequence voltage, which can
be used as the trigger signal. Moreover, back-up protection,
such as over-current protection can be configured to clear
the symmetric fault, which does not produce a negative/zero
sequence component.
3) Feeder Contains both Source and Load: Inside the
feeder, the DPP method can be applied in the branches with
sources; SCP may be utilized in the branches with loads, and
the delayed SCP (DSCP) can be installed in the terminal of
the feeder. The DSCP means that if the negative sequence
voltage and current is greater than the thresholds in short delay
duration, the breaker on the main feeder will trip. In this way,
the DSCP method can avoid the risk of the whole feeder being
Methods cut when the fault occurs in the branches with source or the
branches with load.
Fig. 6. Structure of the hierarchical protection system.
C. HESS Regulation

B. Relay Protection The hybrid energy storage system (HESS) that consists of
energy density unit (such as a battery) and the power density
Relay protection in PV microgrids can be classified into
unit (such as a super capacitor (SC» is widely used in a
three categories: system protection, feeder protection, and
microgrid. To make full use of the HESS, an HESS regulation
element protection. Among these, feeder protection is a re­
scheme is designed as shown in Fig. 7.
search priority for PV microgrid protection. In general, the
In Fig. 7, the battery is utilized as the main power that
microgrid feeders can be divided into three types where the
is a response to the power vacancy with low frequency; the
feeder contains only either the source or the load, or the
super capacitor is responsible for the power vacancy with
feeder contains both source and load. Different relay protection
high frequency. The cooperation of the HESS power output
schemes should be applied on different feeders due to their
regulation can effectively enhance the stability of the entire
different characteristics.
microgrid.
1) Feeder Only Contains Source: For this kind of feeder,
the power flows from the feeder to the bus. It could be D. Emergency Control
determined that the short circuit fault occurs in the feeder only
The emergency control is set as the last defender in a
when the bus voltage and feeder current meet the following
PV microgrid. It should start working when the HESS is

Uk
inequality [2 1]:

cos(arg-. )
unable to maintain the stability of the voltage and frequency
of the microgrid. The flow chart of the emergency control is
+ 0: < 0 (3)
h described as in Fig. 8.
40 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS. VOL. I. NO. I. MARCH 2015

IV. MICROGRID PROJECT AND FIELD TESTS

A. Description About the Project


A PV microgrid integrated with the proposed control and
protection systems is built under a research project with the
fund of the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC). The
topology of the project is shown in Fig. 9.

1 10kV bus

N ?�"'''' "''
pee contactor

�--�--�---�-- - , -- -- -,,- -- -- -- ,
AC bus

F � F + �

Fig. 7. The HESS scheme. �


iit;Cd.cr\ \ i
II I
-, II I
II Load I Load 2 Load 21
II 40kW 40kW 40kWI
II I
II I
I
30kW 30kW 30kW 10kW 50kWh 0 33kWH I Controllable loads I
I I
PV units (100kW) HESS
� ______ �L _________ _

Fig. 9. Topology of the PY microgrid.

The details of the PV microgrid configuration are depicted


as follows: 1) renewable sources: 60 kW PV shed and 40
kW PV roofs; 2) HESS: 50 kWh Li-batteries and 0.33 kWh
super capacitors; 3) loads: 120 kW controllable loads with
three different priority levels. It should be noted that different
types of inverters, including single-phase inverter, three-phase
inverter, and micro-inverter are installed in the PV microgrid.

B. Field Applications and Tests


To validate the proposed control strategies and protection
schemes, many tests have been undertaken on the PV micro­
grid.
1) Stand-alone Operation: In this test, to realize a smooth
start, the output voltage reference is raised from 0 to 220 V
(RMS) and the frequency is set as 50 Hz. The test result is
Fig. 8. The emergency control scheme. shown in Fig. 10.
In Fig. 10, it can be seen that the RMS of the microgrid
As shown in Fig. 8, the microgrid power vacancy (6.P) is voltage is about 223 V /50 Hz with little harmonic distortion,
calculated using the data obtained from the data center, and which can provide stable voltage and frequency for the loads
then the equivalent power to be cut off ( Pcud can be computed in islanded mode.
by (5).
2) Grid-connected Operation: Under this condition, the
expected output and input active power are both set as 10 kW.
Pcut = I6.P I - I Pmax - Pact I (5)
The voltage and current waveform of the tie line is shown in
Fig. II.
where Pact and Pmax represent the actual and the max­ Test results show that the power interaction between the
imum output power of the HESS, respectively. Moreover, microgrid and power grid is adjusted from 10 kW to - 10 kW,
the executing procedure of the emergency control can be which well meets the demands of the grid-connected mode.
comprehensively determined due to some influence factors, 3) Operation Modes Transition: In this case, the output
such as the state of charge (SOC) of the HESS, the quantities power of PV units is about 15 kW, the load is 5 kW, and the
of PV units that can be restored, and the priority level of the tie-line power flow is controlled at 10 kW when the microgrid
loads. operates on grid-connected mode.
CHEN el al.: AN INTEGRATED CONTROL AND PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MICROGRIDS 41

��
__
_ �/� :�t:::_ I--- --- --
......�
. ....--
the pee contactor opened. Meanwhile, the Li-battery and se
output power range are SO kW and the states of the microgrid

.AA
Voltage of
phase A ...... before the fault are shown in Table I.
ACvoltage
(200 Vldiv) A fault occurs at feeder 1 (in Fig. 9) and then 2S kW PV
DCvoltage vv is lost. The effectiveness of three different protection schemes
(200 Vldiv)

are compared in terms of load shedding under the same fault.


.. 2.00V � 100 10.0ktimess
Test results are shown in Table II.
D
G.oiv I
soo m\ 111\
]()kJ)OUts

Time 000 ms/div)

Fig. 10. The output voltage in stand-alone operation. TABLE I


POWER STATES OF PV MICROGRID (IN KW)

PVI PV2 PV3 Load 1 Load 2 Load 3 Battery SC


ACvoltage
� _._ -L�::� �:���.
(200 Vldiv)
25 25 20 40 40 37 +50 0
AC current
( 50 Aldiv)

DCvoltage
(100 Vldiv)

TABLE II
.. 500111\' _ 1.00V 20.0 illS SO. Ok tin'll:s/s J" EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION SCHEMES
•• O!l.OOO 1m I iris
Time (20 msldiv)
Fault Location Protection Scheme Load Lost (kW)
Fig. 11. The power flow in grid-connection operation.
117

Feeder 1 37
From Figs. 12 and 13, it can be seen that the transition be­ o
tween stand-alone mode and grid-connected mode is smooth.
Protection schemes: (1) Layer 1: relay protection; @ Layer 2: HESS regulation;
The transient state of the transition is within 4 ms, which @ Layer 3: emergency control.
means that the seamless transfer between those two modes is
achieved.
As shown in Table II, the proposed three-layered hierarchi­
cal protection system is the most effective and stable scheme
Voltage of
�A with the least load shedding.
��_� "1'� __ G: ll.rrJ�J!..t Qf. .••_•.-" �..�t"­
phase A Moreover, the bus voltage in the microgrid are compared
among the three protection schemes as shown in Table II.
AC Current
When fault occurs at feeder 1, Figs. 14, IS, and 16 give the
(50 Aldiv) . '"'''·-i:..�Irl-If+..*'q...:-:Jt:"-..:¥n�'f...--:,I(�* -"J!
H.......Ir-r-'\-+-+"""f'
D C Voltage results as shown.
(IOOV/div)

.. 2.00V _SOOmV J"


0.00V
'" FO"":%x ""'P"' ""- ,hom" System collapse

Fig. 12. Transition from stand-alone mode to grid-connected mode.


200

DC Voltag.,q,f �IOO
'/Voltage phase 1\ C-
. � � .� .... -� --- ... � .;..,..,.,. rur
-..-.."'\....... ent of
• ... 1- ...,.- ..--"'�·�
�o
4J.. __ .. "

pnaseA
ACvoltage "0
(200VId .. ) :> -100

A C Current
(SOA/div) ·200 Phase A
Phase B
DC Voltage
(IOOV/div) Phase C

Transfer 0.10 0.12


oint
.. 2.00V o SOOmY 20.0 m� SO.Ok t:iln!sls J
...... -I.ROOOO ms 10k oints 0.00V
Time (20 msldiv) Fig. 14. Bus voltage with protection (1).

Fig. 13. Transition from grid-connected mode to stand-alone mode.


From Fig. 14, it can be seen the system eventually collapses
4) Protection Tests: The proposed protection system has when only relay protection is utilized. When the rnicrogrid is
been integrated into the built microgrid, and the simulations applied with relay protection and load shedding, the system
are carried out to validate the effectiveness and feasibility of loses 37 kW load, shown in Fig. IS. In Fig. 16, the system
the protection schemes. finally is restored to stable state and loses no load when the
The PV microgrid is isolated from the power grid with hierarchical protection system is adopted.
42 CSEE JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS. VOL. I. NO. I. MARCH 2015

Fault clear Load shedding


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REFERENCES Laijun Chen (M'12) received the B.Eng. and Ph.D.


degree, both in electrical engineering, from Tsinghua
[1] N. Hatziargyriou, H. Asano, R. Iravani, and C. Marney, "Microgrids," University, Beijing, China in 2006 and 2011, respec­
IEEE Power Energy Magzine, vol. 5, pp. 78-94, 2007.
tively.
He is currently an associate professor in the De­
[2] M. Ding, Y. Xue, M. Mao, and L. Chang, "Research and development of
partment of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua Uni­
distributed generation in China," in Proc. 2009 IEEE Power & Energy
versity. His research concerns power system analysis
Society General Meeting, July 2009, pp. 1-5.
and control, renewable energy integration.
[3] C. Wang, Y. Li, K. Peng, B. Hong, Z. Wu, and C. Sun, "Coordinated
optimal design of inverter controllers in a micro-grid with multiple
distributed generation units," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,
vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 2679-2687, Aug. 2013.
[4] M. Ding, Y. Zhang, and M. Mao, "Key technologies for microgrids being
researched," Power System Technology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 6-11, 2009.
[5] J. Peas Lopes, C. Moreira, and A. Madureira, "Defining control strate­
gies for microgrids islanded operation," IEEE Transactions on Power
Systems, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 916-924, May 2006.
[6] S. Adhikari and F. Li, "Coordinated V -f and P-Q control of solar Shengwei Mei (SM'06-F'14) received the B.Sc. degree in mathematics from
photovoltaic generators with mppt and battery storage in microgrids," Xinjiang University, Urumqi, China, the M.Sc. degree in operations research
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1270-1281, May from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and the Ph.D. degree in automatic
2014. control from Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, in 1984, 1989,
[7] S. Mishra, D. Ramasubramanian, and P. Sekhar, "A seamless control and 1996, respectively.
methodology for a grid connected and isolated PV -diesel microgrid," He is currently a professor at Tsinghua University. His research interests
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 4393-4404, include power system analysis and control, and the application of game theory
Nov. 2013. in power systems.