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It was a liberal constitution, since it established that sovereignty resided in the nation and not in the king.

Plus,
according to this constitution, the freedom of expression and the freedom of the press were separated. It also
established Spanish citizenship for all those born in American territories. Indirect universal suffrage was established
for men: unfortunately, women did not even have the right to citizenship.

t was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cortes of Cádiz, the first Spanish legislature.
With the notable exception of proclaiming Roman Catholicism as the official and sole legal
religion in Spain, the constitution was one of the most liberalof its time: it affirmed national
sovereignty, separation of powers, freedom of the press, free enterprise,
abolished feudalism, and established a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary
system. It was one of the first constitutions that allowed universal male suffrage, through a
complex indirect electoral system. It was repealed by King Ferdinand VII in 1814
[3]

in Valencia, who re-established absolute monarchy.


C

The Cádiz Cortes were seen then, and by historians today, as a major step towards liberalism and
democracy in the history of Spain. The liberal Cortes passed the Spanish Constitution of 1812,
which established a constitutional monarchy and eliminated many basic institutions that privileged
some groups over others.[4]
the Spanish Constitution of 1812 came to be the "sacred code" of liberalism; during the 19th
century, it served as a model for liberal constitutions of Latin nations. The national assembly created
a unitary state with equal laws across the Spanish Empire. The principal aim of the new constitution
was the prevention of arbitrary and corrupt royal rule; it provided for a limited monarchy that
governed through ministers subject to parliamentary control.
-signed by 184 delegates of spain.
VENTURA DE LOS REYES-isang pinoy
May 4,1814-abbolished this constitution.
March 3,1815- simon tomas led more that 1500 men in sarrat, ilocos norte in defense of the Spanish
cons. 1812
March 6, natapos ang labanan.

Spain, Constitution of 1812

The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, promulgated on


18 March 1812 by the Cortes of Cádiz, defined Spanish and
Spanish-American liberalism for the early nineteenth century. It was
a response to the constitutional crisis caused by the forced
abdication and exile of Spain's legitimate monarch, Ferdinand VII, in
1808. Spanish liberals hoped to regenerate Spain through the
adoption of a modern constitution influenced by Enlightenment
principles and concepts stemming from the French and American
revolutions. Although liberals dominated the Cortes, the resulting
constitution was a blend of modern and traditional elements. Its
controversial restriction of aristocratic and clerical privileges
encouraged and strengthened liberal political arguments and
emphasized the function and rights of local and provincial
governments in making decisions for themselves, opposing
traditional elites. The central idea behind the constitution was that
sovereignty resided in the nation, which alone had the right to
establish fundamental laws. Its makers hoped to correct the abuses
of absolute monarchy without rejecting traditional features of
Spanish law. Five American delegates sat on the committee in
charge of drafting the document for debate.

The Constitution of 1812 essentially established a constitutional


monarchy. Although it retained Roman Catholicism as the
established church, it abolished the Inquisition, aristocratic
privileges, feudal obligations, and seignorial levies. It provided for
elections of deputies to future Cortes, representation without class
distinctions, and the abolition of entailed estates. The Cortes were
to convene on 1 March each year, for three months. Deputies were
chosen every two years and sat for two consecutive sessions.
Although not rejecting the monarchy, the constitution did moderate
the power of the crown to ensure constitutional government. The
crown retained only those functions that the Cortes could not exert,
royal control over the administration was subjugated to an elected,
unicameral assembly that met annually. A council of state watched
over the crown's actions, although its members were chosen by the
crown from a list compiled by the Cortes. Such restrictions on the
monarch's powers, not surprisingly, caused great friction
when Ferdinand VII returned to the Spanish throne in 1814.
The Constitution of 1812 extended universal suffrage to all free
males under a deliberately indirect representative electoral system.
Colonial representation in the Cortes provided political definition and
substance to the demands of the creole liberal delegates. Although
the American colonies gained full political rights within a unified
Spanish empire, the Constitution did not allow the American
dominions full self-rule. On the issue of free trade, for which the
colonial delegates pressed, the constitution encouraged freer trade,
but not to the full extent the colonies wished.

The document also provided for elected city councils and for
representative provincial bodies (diputaciones provinciales). It
proclaimed freedom of the press and threatened traditional fueros
and monopolies. To encourage agrarian production, the constitution
established clear and absolute property rights. True to liberal
principles, individual property rights took precedence over corporate
or collective rights. The constitution assured the individual's right to
enclose, sell, or rent his land, paving the way for alienation of
indigenous communal lands in some areas of Spanish America.
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Spain, Constitution Of 1812


Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture
COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale

Spain, Constitution of 1812

The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, promulgated on


18 March 1812 by the Cortes of Cádiz, defined Spanish and
Spanish-American liberalism for the early nineteenth century. It was
a response to the constitutional crisis caused by the forced
abdication and exile of Spain's legitimate monarch, Ferdinand VII, in
1808. Spanish liberals hoped to regenerate Spain through the
adoption of a modern constitution influenced by Enlightenment
principles and concepts stemming from the French and American
revolutions. Although liberals dominated the Cortes, the resulting
constitution was a blend of modern and traditional elements. Its
controversial restriction of aristocratic and clerical privileges
encouraged and strengthened liberal political arguments and
emphasized the function and rights of local and provincial
governments in making decisions for themselves, opposing
traditional elites. The central idea behind the constitution was that
sovereignty resided in the nation, which alone had the right to
establish fundamental laws. Its makers hoped to correct the abuses
of absolute monarchy without rejecting traditional features of
Spanish law. Five American delegates sat on the committee in
charge of drafting the document for debate.

The Constitution of 1812 essentially established a constitutional


monarchy. Although it retained Roman Catholicism as the
established church, it abolished the Inquisition, aristocratic
privileges, feudal obligations, and seignorial levies. It provided for
elections of deputies to future Cortes, representation without class
distinctions, and the abolition of entailed estates. The Cortes were
to convene on 1 March each year, for three months. Deputies were
chosen every two years and sat for two consecutive sessions.
Although not rejecting the monarchy, the constitution did moderate
the power of the crown to ensure constitutional government. The
crown retained only those functions that the Cortes could not exert,
royal control over the administration was subjugated to an elected,
unicameral assembly that met annually. A council of state watched
over the crown's actions, although its members were chosen by the
crown from a list compiled by the Cortes. Such restrictions on the
monarch's powers, not surprisingly, caused great friction
when Ferdinand VII returned to the Spanish throne in 1814.
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The Constitution of 1812 extended universal suffrage to all free


males under a deliberately indirect representative electoral system.
Colonial representation in the Cortes provided political definition and
substance to the demands of the creole liberal delegates. Although
the American colonies gained full political rights within a unified
Spanish empire, the Constitution did not allow the American
dominions full self-rule. On the issue of free trade, for which the
colonial delegates pressed, the constitution encouraged freer trade,
but not to the full extent the colonies wished.

The document also provided for elected city councils and for
representative provincial bodies (diputaciones provinciales). It
proclaimed freedom of the press and threatened traditional fueros
and monopolies. To encourage agrarian production, the constitution
established clear and absolute property rights. True to liberal
principles, individual property rights took precedence over corporate
or collective rights. The constitution assured the individual's right to
enclose, sell, or rent his land, paving the way for alienation of
indigenous communal lands in some areas of Spanish America.

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Although the conservatives tried to present the constitution of 1812
as the work of a radical minority—"a criminal conspiracy of a
handful of facciosos [agitators]"—in reality the constitution had
widespread support. Even the most radical of the clauses passed
without effective opposition in the Cortes. What opposition to the
constitution did exist was presented by the ecclesiastical orders and
institutions whose petitions and privileges had been curtailed by the
liberal clauses. The attack on church privilege, however, excited
greater disapproval of the document outside the Cortes. In general,
the Constitution of 1812 provided for a division of governmental
powers, consolidated and updated the Spanish legal system,
ensured civil equality, and curtailed corporate privilege.

Its restriction of monarchical power, however, led to open conflict


upon Ferdinand VII's return to power. The king dissolved the Cortes
and abrogated the constitution on 4 May 1814, restoring the
unrestricted monarchy that had existed prior to 1808. Liberal
opposition to Ferdinand's repressive power and to the war in the
colonies led to the Riego Revolt of 1 January 1820, which
reestablished the Constitution of 1812. In 1823, however, with the
assistance of Bourbon troops from France, Ferdinand recovered his
full authority and once more suppressed the constitution. The
Constitution of 1812, however, both in Spain and in Spanish
America, served as the initial model for the early nineteenth-century
liberals. It is reflected strongly, for example, in the Mexican
constitutions of 1814 (Apatzingán) and 1824, the Central American
Constitution of 1824, and several early South American Republican
constitutions.
One of the least-known revolts in the country happened after the rescission of the 1812
Cadiz Constitution. As can be recalled, that particular constitution—promulgated during
a time when Spain was embroiled in a bloody guerrilla war known as the Peninsular
War with the French—granted a wide range of rights which was afforded to the different
Spanish colonies including the Philippines.
Among such rights included representation in the Spanish assembly and Spanish
citizenship to the natives. Unfortunately, with the withdrawal of the French and the
reinstatement of the Spanish King Ferdinand VII, the constitution was later abolished in
1814. Naturally, this resulted in widespread unrest in the Philippines.

Also Read: 12 Random Facts About Manila That Will Blow Your Mind

Many of the lower classes blamed the upper-class “principales” for the loss of their
newly-minted freedoms and suspected them of conspiring with the Spanish to maintain
the latter’s hegemony. Ilocandia became the hotbed of the insurgency, with local leader
Simon Tomas leading his townmates to ransack and pillage the homes and churches of
the Spanish and pro-Spanish Filipinos.

However, their revolt was short-lived as the Spanish quickly suppressed Tomas and his
followers.

“kaya nagkaaway dahil yung principle na yun ay napawalang bisa nung may 14,1814” kaya simula nun nagka-
violence na sa iba’t ibang bansa. Naging laganap ang pagpatay. At yung mga nabuhay na leader naparusahan ng
sobra.

Bayot brothers!

The revolt was headed by joaquin, manuel and jose. They were the sons of Colonel Francisco Bayos of the Spanish
army based in manila.

Feeling of peninsulares and creoles.


PENINSULARES- a Spanish born or mainland Spaniard residing in the new world (America) or the Spanish eat
indies. Can hold the highest office in America.

CREOLES- a person of full Spanish descent born in Americas or Philippines. Spanish


people who
were born in the New World. Along with the Peninsulares,
they controlled most of the wealth.
-they revolted because the insulares were nt treated as if they are not Spanish at all.

-sentenced to life improsenment

[-planned to overthrow the Spanish government and declare their father as a king.

The Constitution of Cádiz has been regarded as the founding document of liberalism in Spain, as well as
one of the first examples of classical liberalism worldwide, coming to be called the ‘sacred code’ of the
branch of liberalism that rejected the French Revolution. Moreover, during the early nineteenth century
it served as a model for liberal constitutions of several Mediterranean and Latin American nations, as
well as for the Norwengian Constitution of 1814, the Portuguese Constitution of 1822 and the Mexican
one of 1824.