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POLITEIA = Greek word, origin of the word “POLICE”.

= The Romans changed it to POLITIA and the French to POLICE and applied it to those persons who
actually enforce the law.

PATROUILLER = origin of the word “PATROL”, meaning rough by, to travel on foot.


1. Patrol is the only unit working round the clock.
2. Patrol is the working horse of the Police Department.
3. Patrol is the Backbone of Police Department.
4. Patrol is the Operational Heart of Police Organization in crime prevention.
5. Patrol is the Show Window of Police Department
6. Patrol is the center or focal point of all police activities.
7. Patrol is very vital to police organization because society cannot exist without people who will help maintain
law and order.


The history of patrol is as old as organized society. Men have always needed protection, first from
animals, and then his own kind. His first attempt is to protect himself and his family which involves barricading
the entrance to his cave.

 Boston = in 1636 formed the first Night Watch
 New York = after 20 years, formed a Ratelwatch
 Philadelphia = 20th century, formed a Watchman, a system of obligated duty for citizens
The American Watchman was called “Leatherheads” because they wore varnished leather
 1833 = Philadelphia instituted the first daytime paid police service.
 1844 = New York organized the First Modern American Police Force based on English Metropolitan
Police System.
 Pendleton Act of 1883 = an act that established the Civil Service for federal employees
 1920’s = modern period in patrol began with the use of automobile patrol and voice radio

 Section 2275, Book III, Title IX, Art. XI of the Revised Administrative Code of the Philippines =
authorizes a mayor upon approval of the governor to require all able-bodied male residents between
the ages of 18 and 30 year old, to assist for a period of five days in any one month in apprehending
outlaws or other law breakers and act as PATROLS for the protection of municipality, not exceeding
one day in each week.
 Metropolitan Police Force (MPF) = established as the police force in Manila on January 9, 1901
 Gen. Arthur McArthur (Father of Douglas MacArthur) = first District Director of MPF
 July 31, 1901 = MPF evolved into Manila Police Department (MPD)
 Goldenberg Mansion = initial headquarters of MPD located along Gen. Solano St., San Miguel,
Manila and then moved to Manila City Hall where it stayed until 1945 and after WWII in United Nations
where it stands today.
 1978 = MPD underwent another transformations with its integration into the Integrated National Police
 1986 = MPD further evolved into the Western Police District (WPD) Command.
 July 20, 2005 = WPD was renamed Manila Police District pursuant to General Order 05-10
 Captain George Curry = first chief of Police of Manila
 Col. Antonio C. Torres = first Filipino Police Chief
 December 8, 1941 = Col. Torres declared Manila as an open city
 Col. Lamberto T. Javalera = first Filipino Chief of Police of Manila, appointed by Pres. Manuel Roxas
 1939 – the Manila Police District introduced the bicycle patrol.
 March 17, 1954 – Automobile Patrol was introduced in Metro Manila.
 Isaias Alma Jose – first chief of Mobile Patrol of MPD


1. Crime Prevention – it includes crime suppression
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2. Crime Solution – covers investigation of crimes
3. Traffic Management – covers direction and control, traffic accident investigation


I. Patrol as the Backbone of Police Organization
Patrol is the single largest element in the police organization. The actions taken by the officers have direct
impact on the citizens.
Patrol provides the “ears and eyes” of the department.

II. Patrol as the Essence of Police Function

Patrol is the only police service that directly attempts to eliminate the desire and opportunity to commit

III. Patrol as the Operational Heart of Police Organization

The patrol force incorporates all objectives inherent in the police organization.


1. Crime Prevention and Suppression
2. Crime Investigation
a. Preliminary Investigation
3 Purposes
a.1. To determine what, if any, crime has been committed.
a.2. To determine who has jurisdiction.
a.3. To attempt the immediate apprehension of the suspect.

 P = Proceed to the scene with safety and dispatch

 R = Render assistance to the injured
 E = Effect arrest of the perpetrator
 L = Locate and identify the perpetrator
 I = Interview complainants and witnesses
 M = Maintain scene and protect evidence
 I = Interrogate suspects
 N = Note all conditions, events
 A = Arrange for collection of evidence
 R = Report incident fully and accurately
 Y = Yield Responsibility to investigators
b. Follow-up Investigation
c. Collection of Evidence
d. Crime Reporting

3. Law Enforcement = primary function of the police the greatest responsibility is on patrol officers because
of the nature of their duties.
4. Maintenance of Social Order = fundamental and primary obligation of the police department which
includes the element of “Peace Keeping”.
= considered as the most important function performed by the patrol officers.
5. Police Service = it is one that creates confusion and discord among police authorities in which police
officers should provide public service or social service which is an important part of police patrol.




1.Protection of Life and Property
2. Preservation of Peace and Order
3. Prevention of Crime
4. Suppression of Criminal Activities
5. Apprehension of Criminals
6. Enforcement of Laws and Ordinances
7. Regulation of Non-Criminal Conduct
8. Performing Necessary Services and Inspection

1. To prevent the commission of crime.
2. To safeguard life and property.
3. To maintain peace and order.
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The duties and objectives of police patrol are many, but the basic duties could probably be summed up in
two words, protection, and service.


1. Preventive Enforcement
Preventive enforcement falls under the heading of protection, and involves the prevention of crime
through the noticeable presence of police vehicles and personnel.
Sir Robert Peel first presented preventive enforcement as a criminological philosophy. And this had
been regarded as the soundest of all criminological theories. “It is much easier to patch a crack in the dike
than to repair the wall after it has broken. An ounce of prevention being worth a pound of cure.”
2. Selective Enforcement
This involves going either where the trouble is, or where the trouble likely to occur.
If a certain area is subject to a high crime rate, the patrol cars spend a greater part of their patrolling
time in that area.
3. Traffic Enforcement
Large police departments have traffic divisions, but the majorities of the departments are small, and
have only patrol division to handle traffic enforcement.
Traffic enforcement is strongly dependent upon personal contact between the patrol officers and the
violators. The important thing is that the violator is stopped and the violation is brought to his attention.

4. Emergency Call for Service

One of the duties and purposes of patrol is the handling of emergency calls for service. Since the
handling of emergency calls for service is one of the basic duties of the patrol officer, he should be trained in
first aid and water life-saving emergencies.
5. Routine Call for Service
Routine call account for the majority of services provided by the patrol division. Because of this,
officers have to guard against becoming callused and indifferent to calls of this nature.


1. Called for Service = incidents requiring immediate police action
2. Inspectional Service = patrol activity tends to reduce criminal opportunity and accidents
3. Routine Patrol = directed at less tangible hazards such as poor lighted areas, business section, etc…


1. Resident and transient populations in the business and tourist district, and University belt
2. Number and types of crimes and arrests
3. Location of crimes and arrests
4. Traffic collision statistics and patterns
5. Location of frequent incidents or hazard requiring concentrated police coverage
6. Disproportionate concentration of population
7. Socio-economic factors
8. Zoning plan of the city
9. Size and shape of Area of Responsibility (AOR)
10. Location, size and access to parks and recreational facilities
11. Age, gender and civil status ratio of population
12. Homogeneity of population
13. Modes of transportation and location of criminals
14. Number and qualification of officers available for field duties
15. Level of trust and confidence of the people to the police


Patrol force – an organization within an organization. It serves as the nucleus or focal point of the department.
Functions are distributed as follows:
1. Patrol Function = 50%
2. Criminal Investigation = 15%
3. Traffic Functions = 10%
4. Vice and Juvenile Related Functions = 10%
5. Administrative Functions = 10%
6. Auxiliary Functions = 5%

Manning Level of Patrol Force

The patrol unit must have the most number of personnel.
Rule of the Thumb – regarding manning level of any police department must be observed.
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R.A. 6975 – standard manning level is 1:500, however, in extreme conditions, this may be stretched to
maximum of 1:1000.


1. Police Hazard = situations or conditions that may induce incidents calling for some kind of police action.
= includes any person, place, thing, situation, condition possessing a high potential for criminal attack
or for creation of any other type of problem necessitating a demand for immediate police service.


a. Persons = such as criminals, alcoholics, addicts, gamblers, prostitutes, drug peddlers, juvenile
delinquents, insane persons
b. Property = includes piers, warehouse, unoccupied dwellings, gambling joints, banks, pawnshops,
drug dens, gambling dens
c. Places = terminals, demonstrations, parks, bars, parades, conventions, political meetings, lodging
houses, schools, athletic events


a. Deficient Visibility = resulting from inadequate illumination or obstruction of views
b. Insecurity of Premises = created by the absence of suitable locks, bars and gratings
c. Presence of Conditions of Things = poorly designed roadways, defects or obstruction in public
spaces and presence of combustibles

d. Presence of People = crowd offers opportunities for theft, loss of persons or things, fights and
e. Lack of regulation

2. Chronological Distribution = involves consideration of the nature and causes of crimes. Patrol officers
should know how crimes are committed, when and who commits them.

Crime Clock = signifies what time crime is often or frequently committed

Crime Map = location or place or crime prone areas wherein crime is frequently or often committed.

3. Geographical Distribution = involves weighing categories of incidents and accounting the number of
identifiable hazards and street mileage.
4. Walking Beats = it involved determining man hours needed to cover the streets and alleys to inspect the
police hazards predominating the AOR.
5. Motor Patrol Distribution = involves determining the need to shift motor patrol units hour-by-hour at the
area according to where and when crime mostly likely to occur.

1. Regular Post = assigning members to regular/usual post which usually based on seniority.
2. Post Rotation = is the process of assigning members of patrol force from post to post


1. General Preparation = attitude is the first and foremost preparation of patrol officer since he will be
dealing with different persons in the society. His value system must be in harmony with the objective of
law enforcement and sense of fair play.
2. Pre-Patrol Preparation – the police officer should be armed with knowledge and equipment. This can
be done thru fall-in formation in the headquarters, precincts or police blocks devoted to giving of
3. Vehicle Inspection – involves inspection of patrol vehicle to be used before going out on patrol
4. In-Field Preparation – this is made by having debriefing conference with the officer who is being
relieved and who has just spent the previous tour of duty.
5. District Orientation Tour – this involves familiarization of assigned area for patrolling upon arrival in
the field.

This refers to thorough geographical knowledge of the patrol area or an understanding of the
character, fears, concerns, problems and attitudes of the local residents


1. Post – a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty
2. Route – a length of street or streets designated for patrol purposes
3. Beat – area assigned for foot patrol purposes
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4. Sector – area containing two or more beats, routes or posts
1. Foot Patrol – it is the most expensive type of patrol in terms of human resources and most departments
had reduced their foot patrols to a minimum because of this. However, it does have certain advantages that
warrant its continued use if even on a limited basis.
Usually, foot patrol is used to secure two types of geographical units:
a. Post
b. Beat

Types of Foot Patrol

1. Fixed Foot Patrol – usually used for traffic, surveillance, parades and special events.
2. Mobile Foot Patrol – used where there is considerable foot movement such as business and
shopping center, family dwellings and the like.
a. Line Beat Patrol – used in securing certain portion of the road.
b. Random Foot Patrol – used in checking residential buildings, business establishments,
dark alley, parking lots

Foot Patrol Procedures and Techniques

1. Don’t establish a set of patterns of patrol.
2. When checking doors for forced entry, use flashlight on or around the lock to see if there are noticeable
jimmy marks.
3. When an open door is found, NEVER ENTER ALONE.
4. At least once a night use the fire escapes to check the roof in the downtown area for possible ‘cut
through” burglaries as they are sometimes referred to.
5. Be alert for boxes that are being pilled up behind building, or ropes that are hanging down the sides of
building, or ladders that might have been used to gain access to a roof.
6. At nighttime, the foot patrol officer should occasionally step into alleys or store entrance, and get out of
the light as much as possible.
7. When patrolling at night, always approach each building with caution, always assume that a felon may
be lurking inside.
8. Know the personalities in the area, particularly wanted person, establishments which usually fall prey
to armed robbery and burglary.
9. Walk close to the curb during day time and close to the building during night time. The objective of
patrolling during night time is to be see by as few people as possible and to catch the criminals in the act.
10. Foot patrol must walk his best during all type of weather.
11. A foot patrol officer should never smoke while in uniform on the street, nor should chew gum.
12. The foot patrol officer should make a conscious effort to make friends on the beat.
13. Use all five senses while walking the beat.

Advantages of the Foot Patrol

1. The foot patrolman can provide immediate traffic control when it is needed.
2. More person-to-person contact can be made with the public.
3. The officer can actually get to know the physical layout of his beat better.
4. He can also get to know the people in his beat better, and can develop criminal informants easier.
5. A foot officer can sneak up on situation, where a patrol car is easily noticed when it approaches.
6. By the use of a two-way radio, the officer can maintain communications with the department and the
mobile unit.

Disadvantages of Foot Patrol

1. Low mobility resulting to limited coverage
2. Low response time to telephone complaints
3. It involves large numbers of personnel.

2. Automobile Patrol – is the most economical type of patrol and offers tactical ability when used in numbers.
It is considered as the most extensively used and most effective means of transportation for police patrol.

Features of State-of-the-Art Patrol Car

1. Vehicle-Mounted TV – high resolution video camera with wide angle lens
2. Mobile Data Terminal (MDT) – computer that allow officers in patrol cars to access files from NHQ and
other Law Enforcement agencies
3. High-Intensity Emergency Lighting Plan (HELP) – a heavy duty light that can provide 2 million candle
power of light.

Automobile Patrol Techniques and Procedures

1. Check the police car thoroughly before leaving the garage.
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2. Do not establish route patterns in patrolling.
3. Do not develop the habit of using the main roads, most criminal activity occurs at the back streets.
4. Do not spent too much time in drive-inns or coffee spots.
5. Always take note the plate number of suspicious vehicles.
6. Avoid driving too fast on general patrol except during emergencies in pursuing criminals. Maintain a
cruising speed of 20-25kph.
7. Make it a habit to never leave the keys in the police car, even if it is just for a minute.
8. Since we are creators of habits, a police officer must make a habit to use the seat belt at all times.
9. Frequently get out of the car to be visible and accessible to the public.
10. Minimize hiding behind hills, curves or signboard to trap traffic violators, this may erode community
11. Park the patrol car in legal manner unless, in case of emergency.
12. Patrol the district so that patrol car will be seen by the greatest number of people, frequently turning the
corners and covering the side streets as well as the main thoroughfares.
13. Whatever patrol pattern is used, do it in irregular and unpredictable manner.
14. When conducting solo patrol, frequent contact should be made with other units in the field.
15. When patrolling with a partner, divide the observation area inside the vehicle
a. Driving Officer – must cover 100% of his vision in front.
b. Passenger Officer – cover a field of view twice more than the driving officer. Take into consideration
the safe operation of patrol vehicle.
c. Driver and passenger officer must be alert for possible informants


1. Routine Call – a call where mobile car is required to observed the traffic laws and does not normally used
flashing lights and siren while on its way to the scene of the crime
2. Urgent Call – the responding patrol car has to observed the traffic laws without need of using flashing
lights and siren but proceed directly to its destination without stopping enroute unless incident of far more
serious occurs
3. Emergency Call – requires the use of flashing lights and siren except when there is an attempt to surprise
the criminals in the act.

Advantages of the Automobile Patrol

1. Where speed and mobility are needed such as in a large area that must be covered by few officers,
the speed of the automobile allow them to service the whole area and do so efficiently.
2. It is one of the best means of Preventive Enforcement.
3. It offers the officer protection.
4. It permits the officer to carry extra equipment.
5. The patrol car allows the police officer to have a partner when needed, and to transport one or
several prisoners.
6. In the case of station wagons, which are becoming popular as patrol vehicles, they can be used to
carry police dogs on patrol and emergency ambulance during disaster.
7. Patrol cars can be used as barricades in roadblocks, and they offer a high degree of safety during
high-speed pursuits.

Disadvantages of Automobile Patrol

1. It diminishes personal contact with the public and sources of information
2. It hampers apprehension and surveillance operations

One Man Versus the Two Man Automobile Patrol

One Man Patrol Car
1. Having twice as many police cars on the street doubles the preventive enforcement.
2. When the officer is alone he devotes full attention to his driving and the beat rather than to the
conversation with his partner.
3. A one man alone developed self-reliance.
4. Personality clashes are reduced.
Two Man Patrol Car
1. A two-man patrol car provides the officer with a greater safety factor by doubling the firepower and
the physical protection.
2. The mistakes that one-man make may be caught by his partner, and vice versa.
3. One officer does not have to drive a full eight hours, and he is therefore more rested and can do a
better job.
4. Two pair of eyes is better than one.
5. One man can operate the radio while the other drives.
6. On the quiet night, the driver can have someone to talk to and help keep him awake.

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3. Motorcycle Patrol – the two-wheeled motorcycle is quite adaptable to traffic enforcement, parades, escort
duty and congested areas because of its high mobility. Motorcycle Patrol is usually fielded in areas where
banks and pawnshops are concentrated.
It has the disadvantages of being used only in fair weather, of causing a greater number of accidents
which are usually quite serious, and in the long run costing the department almost as much as a patrol vehicle
despite the apparent low first cost.

4. Bicycle Patrol – it is considered as the simple and inexpensive means of silent transportation in patrol
operation. Its versatility makes it indispensable for covering crowded areas unreachable by automobile and

Advantages of Bicycle Patrol

1. It has the combine advantage of mobility and stealth
2. Inexpensive to operate
3. It can cover areas not accessible by motorcycle or patrol cars.
4. Effectively used by plainclothes officers on surveillance.
5. It is quiet in patrolling without alerting the criminal, thus the element of surprise is attained.
6. Found effective in combating theft, burglary, vandalism in residential areas, parks and shopping malls
which difficult to be covered by foot patrol.
7. Expedite the delivery of police assistance in congested areas.
8. Biking is a good form of exercise to maintain fine physique and good health.

Disadvantages of Bicycle Patrol

1. Transport of apprehended criminals is difficult.
2. There is limited chances of bringing equipment needed by patrol officers in patrolling.

5. Horse Patrol – Next to walking patrol, the horse patrol is one of the oldest types of patrol. It is useful in
areas wherein automobile or motorcycle is suitable for patrolling.
The following are some of the more common uses of the Horse patrol:
a. Park Patrol
b. Beach Patrol
c. Parade and Crowd Control

- Mounted officers can see three blocks away than on foot patrol

6. Marine or Boat Patrol – this is specialized type of patrol which is used in large bodies of water for the
purpose of controlling smuggling.
The recorded history of our earliest civilization indicates the use of tariffs. Where there are tariffs there
is smuggling, and the control of smuggling in any community near water necessitates the use of water patrol.

7. Air Patrol – a type of patrol using Helicopter or Fixed-Wing Aircraft. This is considered as the most
economical type of patrol in terms of human resources.
1925 – Los Angeles County Sheriff Department formed a volunteer Reserved Aero Squadron
Before 1929 – NYPD began using aircraft
1947 – New York Port Authority began using helicopters for surveillance, transportation and rescue
1986 – State of California developed an experimental program using helicopters for police patrolling
1959 – Public Safety Department in Dade County in Florida used aerial patrol concept.

Advantages of Fixed-Air Wing Aircraft Patrol

1. Patrolling of long stretches of highway of inaccessible land.
2. Excellent of traffic control in long stretches of highways, for search and surveillance and other special

Disadvantages of Fixed-Air Wing Aircraft Patrol

1. It has very little flexibility in congested areas.
2. Needs wide span of flat land for lift and landing.
3. Very expensive to procure and maintain.

Advantages of Helicopter Patrol

1. Improves response time to emergency calls foe service.
2. Increase apprehension of offenders.
3. Increase prevention of crime.
4. Improved efficiency of regular patrol units through air borne information.
5. Increase ability in conducting roof searches for suspected felons.
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6. Easier location of both lost and escaped persons.
7. More efficient rescue operations and emergency ambulance service.
8. A better system of floodlighting areas at night.
9. Information can be broadcast to large areas through airborne loudspeakers.
10. Able to travel at low speed, to hover if necessary, and to land in small patch of flat land.
11. Added security to patrol officers through “backup” offered by aerial patrol.
12.Possible use in fire fighting.

Disadvantages of helicopter Patrol

1. Bad weather will ground the helicopter.
2. Smog and light or intermittent clouds might affect vision.
3. This type of service requires special skills and training.
4. There is a danger from high wire, trees, and similar object.
5. There can be difficulty of landing in urban areas.
7. Special facilities are required for housing and repairs.
8. Refueling problems.

8. Plain Clothes Patrol – this is particularly effective for “saturation drive coverage” of high crime areas. This
allows police officers to infiltrate the crime areas without alarming the criminals following the element of

9. Canine (K-9) Patrol or Dog Patrol – dog was first used by Egyptians in patrolling.
“A single K-9 team can complete building searches seven times faster than four officers working
“Dog team can find hidden suspects 93 percent of the time, while human officers can only find hidden
suspects 53 percent.”
“Dog is capable of recognizing an odor 10 million times better than a human.”


1. German Shepherd – high scoring dog, most frequently used for police work.
2. Black Labrador Retrievers
3. Giant Schnauzers
4. Rootweilers
5. Doberman Pinschers
6. Bouvers
7. Newfoundlands
8. Airedale Terriers
9. Alaskan Malamutes

Bloodhounds – is a large dog formerly used for tracking. It has sagging jaw, dropping ears and keen sense
of smell.

Wireless Operational Link and Video Exploration System (WOLVES) – it is the system of attaching
miniature camera and transmitter to a search dog which makes the dog the eyes and ears of his handler.

10. Television Patrol – it is basically used for traffic control which originates in West Germany.
Television cameras are mounted in a weatherproof housing. They were equipped with Zoom lenses
and were remotely controlled by the operator at the control board who can adjust each camera to a
panoramic view of 270 degrees. It makes possible to pick up the license of fleeing automobiles.

The Traditional Foot Patrol Pattern

1. Clockwise Patrol Pattern
The officer walk from one beat to another making sure that he stays on the left side and at the center
or middle portion of any street between adjoining beats. For every beat, the officer calls the station until
the clockwise patter is completed. Ideal for rectangular of square beat.
Usually conducted during the first hour of duty.

2. Counter-clockwise Patrol Pattern

The reverse of clockwise pattern with the same characteristic of an area to be patrolled. Usually done
during the last hour of the tour of duty to ensure that nothing unusual happened in the AOR.

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3. Zigzag or Free Wheeling Pattern
Done by patrolling the streets within the perimeter of the beat not at random but with definite target
location where he knows his presence is necessary.
It starts at one corner of the patrol area and work your way diagonally across it to the opposite corner

4. Straightway and Criss-cross Patrol Pattern

It is considered as Hazard Oriented Patrol.
In straightway pattern, it involves patrolling the length of the street, therefore, movement of officer is
easy to observe. On the other hand, criss-cross is almost similar with zigzag.
“In any patrol pattern, the relieving patrol officer shall make his first hourly call before starting his patrol
5. Cloverleaf (Cloverleaf Pattern) – a highway intersection designed to route traffic without interference,
by means of a system of curving ramps from one level to another, in the form of a 4-leaf clover


I. The Psychology Of Omnipresence
Psychology of omnipresence as an initial police strategy is to establish the aura of police presence in
the community through uniformed foot patrol and mobile (marked and equipped) patrol cars.
Patrol officer cannot detect the thinking or desire of the criminal, yet he can destroy the opportunity to
commit a crime by his presence, thus, it best for crime prevention.

Strategic Objectives:
a. High visibility police presence
b. Feeling of security for law abiding
c. Feeling of fear for would be criminal
d. Feeling of confidence for the public that police are constantly available

II. Proactive and Reactive Patrol

1. Proactive Patrol – it is the deployment of patrol officers in their area with prescribe objectives and
verifiable task for the day.
- More economical alternative patrol system, it addresses crime at its very root before it can be developed
into felonious act.
2. Reactive Patrol – it involves going around the area of responsibility waiting for something to happen
and to react accordingly if something does happen

III. Crime Prevention and Crime Suppression

1. Crime Prevention – it involves recognition of crime risk and initiation of positive action to remove or
reduce risk
- its objective is to eliminate or reduce the desire to commit crime
2. Crime Suppression – is the actual prevention of the commission of crime

IV. High and Low Visibility

Police Visibility – not just presence of patrol officer but actual presence which involves: 1) Physical
Presence 2) Patrolling Scheme 3) Response Time – is the running time of the dispatched patrol car from
his position where the assignment was received and the arrival at the scene (the ideal time is 5minutes)

*Critical Time – it is the time between the call of concerned individual to the police regarding crime incident
and the arrival at the scene of patrol officer.

1. High Visibility – it is accomplished by deploying uniformed patrol officers and marked patrol cars in
the AOR with the objective of increasing the “aura of police omnipresence”.

2. Low Visibility – a strategy wherein patrol officers are in civilian clothes or in unmarked patrol cars with
the primary purpose of increasing the apprehension of criminal engage in street crimes and deterrence of
criminal activity as a result of greater probability of apprehension.

V. Directed, Interactive and Aggressive Patrol

1. Directed Patrol Strategy – patrol activities designed by patrol officers are based on analysis of specific
community problems. The emphasis is on participative decision making and sophisticated methods of crime
2. Interactive Patrol Strategy – the emphasis in on police-citizen interaction wherein the community input is
sought in resolving patrol problems
3. Aggressive Patrol Strategy – the emphasis is on positive, target oriented activities which includes physical
security inspection. This is effective if the information regarding identifiable crime trends is based on crime
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VI. Stop and Frisk
It involves stopping of person on the street whose behavior is suspicious, questioning them and
frisking them for concealed weapons. This heightens the effect of high visibility.

VII. Street Interview/Interrogation

It is an aspect of stop and frisk strategy where individuals of doubtful character are being questioned.

VIII. Decoy
Decoy means trap, bait or induce. This strategy involves disguise or deception which is specifically
used in high crimes areas by highly trained specialist rather that regular patrol officer.


All police intervention operations (arrest, raid, search and seizure, checkpoint, demolition, civil
disturbance management) shall be conducted:
a. with a marked police vehicle;
b. preferably led by a Police Commissioned Officer (PCO); and
c. with personnel in prescribed police uniform.


During actual police intervention operations, the TL shall use peaceful means including the use of
megaphones or any other similar instruments to influence/warn the offenders/suspects to stop and/or
peacefully give up.

The police shall not use warning shots during police interventions.

Issuance of Warning
The police officer must first issue a warning before he could use force against an offender. The warning
is issued for the police officer to identify himself and to give opportunity to the offender to surrender.
The duty to issue a warning is however not absolute. The directive to issue a warning is necessary
only in situations where several options are still available to the police officer but in cases where the threat to
the life of a police officer is already imminent, and there is no other option but to use force to subdue the
offender, the law enforcer’s failure to issue a warning is excusable.

Reasonable Force
During an armed confrontation, only such necessary and reasonable force should be applied as would
be sufficient to overcome resistance put up by the offender; subdue the clear and imminent danger posed by
him; or to justify the force/act under the principles of self defense, defense of relative, or defense of stranger.
The Officer-in-Charge of the operation shall, at all times, exercise control over his men in the area, and shall
exhaust all possible means so that no innocent civilian is caught in the crossfire.
The reasonableness of the force employed will depend upon the number of aggressor, nature and
characteristic of the weapon used, physical condition, size and other circumstances to include the place and
occasion of the assault. A police officer, however, is not required to afford a person attacking him the
opportunity for a fair or equal struggle. His duty requires him to overcome his opponent. In the lawful
performance of his duty, the police officer must stand his ground to accomplish his mandated task of enforcing
the law and maintenance of peace and order.

Use of Weapon
The excessive use of force is prohibited. The use of weapon is justified if the suspect poses imminent
danger of causing death or injury to the police officer or other persons.
The use of weapon is also justified under the Doctrines of Self-Defense, Defense of Relative, and
Defense of Stranger. However, one who resorts to self-defense must face a real threat on his life, and the
peril sought to be avoided must be actual, imminent and real.
Moreover, unlawful aggression should be present for self-defense to be considered as justifying

Unlawful Aggression – refers to an attack amounting to actual or eminent threat to the life, limb, or right of
the person claiming self-defense.

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Necessary and Legal means – as used in the definition shall include, but not limited to, the employment of
appropriate number of troops, armor assets and tactical or special units to effectively and permanently quell
the threat or present danger, or to swiftly restrain or arrest the suspect or suspects.

Imminent Danger –the danger is “imminent” if it is on the point of happening. It is not required that the attack
already begins, for it may be too late. (The Revised Penal Code, Book I, JBL Reyes). The elements of
imminent danger are the following:
1. Intent of the suspect to harm the policeman;
2. The capability of the suspect to harm the policeman or other persons; and,
3. Accessibility or the proximity of the suspect in harming the policeman and other persons.

Reportorial Requirements
Any police officer who used his firearm against a suspect must submit an after-encounter report
outlining the circumstances necessitating the use of weapon against the suspect.

A moving vehicle shall not be fired upon except when its occupants pose imminent danger of causing
death or injury to the police officer or any other person, and that the use of firearm does not create a danger
to the public and outweighs the likely benefits of its non-use.
In firing upon a moving vehicle, the following parameters should be considered:
a. the intent of the fleeing suspect/s to harm the police officer or other persons;
b. the capability of the fleeing suspect/s to harm in certainty the police officer or other persons;
c. accessibility or the proximity of the fleeing suspect/s with the police officer and other persons.


Immediately after an armed confrontation, the Officer-in-Charge shall:
a. Secure the site of confrontation;
b. Take photographs;
c. Check whether the situation still poses imminent danger;
d. Evacuate the wounded to the nearest hospital;
e. Ensure that all persons who died on the spot are not moved from their original position. Arrested
suspects, on the other hand, should be kept in isolation;
f. Conduct debriefing on all involved PNP operatives; and
g. Submit After-Operations Report.

Spot Check/Accosting
It is the brief stopping of an individual, whether on foot or in a vehicle, based on reasonable
suspicion/probable cause, for the purpose of determining the individual’s identity and resolving the officer’s
suspicion concerning criminal activity.

Reasonable Suspicion – acts that, within totality of the circumstances, lead an officer to reasonably suspect,
or to have probable cause to believe, that criminal activity has been, is being, or is about to be committed.

Grounds for Spot Check

a. The appearance or demeanor of the individual suggests that he is part of a criminal enterprise or is
engaged in a criminal act;
b. The actions of the individual suggest that he is engaged in a criminal activity;
c. Questionable presence of the individual in the area;
d. The subject is carrying a suspicious object;
e. The suspect’s clothing bulges in a manner that suggests he is carrying a weapon;
f. The suspect has been found in the time and place proximate to an alleged crime;
g. The police officer has knowledge of the suspect’s prior criminal record or involvement in criminal activity;
h. The individual flees at the sight of a police officer.


a. When approaching the individual, the police officer shall clearly identify himself as a police officer. If not
in uniform, by announcing his identity and displaying official identification card and/or badge.
b. Police officers shall be courteous at all times but maintain caution and vigilance for suspicious
movements like tending to retrieve weapon, conceal or discard contraband, or other similar actions.
c. Before approaching more than one individual, police officers should determine whether the
circumstances warrant a request for back-up and whether the spot check/ accosting can and should be
delayed until such back-up arrives.

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d. Police officers shall confine their questions as to suspect’s identity, place of residence, and other
inquiries necessary to resolve the police officer’s suspicion. However, in no instance shall a police officer
hold a suspect longer than the period reasonably necessary to be able to make these limited inquiries and
to resolve suspicions.
e. Police officers are not required to give the suspect Miranda Warning unless the person is placed under

Pat-down Search
It is a “frisk” or external feeling of the outer garments of an individual for weapons only.


a. The type of crime believed to be committed by the subject – particularly crimes of violence where the
threat of use or use of deadly weapon is involved;
b. Where the police officer handles several suspects;
c. The time of the day and the location where the pat-down search took place;
d. Prior knowledge by the police officer of the suspect’s use of force and/or propensity to carry deadly
e. The appearance and demeanor of the suspect;
f. Visual indications suggesting that the suspect is carrying a firearm or other deadly weapon; and
g. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be performed by police officers of the same gender.


a. Whenever possible, pat-down searches should be conducted by at least two (2) police officers, one to
perform the search while the other provides protective cover.
b. Because pat-down searches are cursory in nature, they should be performed with the suspect in a
standing position, or with hands placed against a stationary object, and feet spread apart. However,
should an officer visually observe a weapon, a more secure search position may be used like the prone
(lying face down) position.
c. In a pat-down search, officers are permitted only to feel the outer clothing of the suspect. Police officers
may not place their hands inside the pockets of the subject’s clothing unless they feel an object that could
probably be a weapon, such as a gun, knife, club, or the likes.
d. If the suspect is carrying an object such as handbag, suitcase, briefcase, sack, or other similar items
that may conceal a weapon, the police officer should not open the item but instead put it in a place out of
the suspect’s reach.
e. If the external patting of the suspect’s clothing fails to disclose evidence of a weapon, no further search
may be made. If a weapon is found and the possession of which amounts to a violation of the law, the
police officer shall arrest the suspect and conduct a complete search.

Reporting after the Spot Check/Accosting or Pat-Down Search

If after conducting a spot check/accosting or pat-down search, the police officer has no basis for
making an arrest, he should record the facts of such spot check/accosting or pat-down search and forward a
report to the appropriate authority.
If the spot check/accosting or pat-down search gives a justification for a valid warrantless arrest, then
an arrest shall be made.

Police Checkpoint
It is a location where the search, which is duly authorized by the PNP, is conducted to deter/prevent
the commission of crimes, enforce the law, and for other legitimate purposes.

a. Team Leader (TL) - shall lead and take responsibility in the conduct of checkpoint preferably an officer
with the rank of at least Police Inspector;
b. Spotter - PNP personnel who will point/profile suspected vehicle subject for checkpoint;
c. Spokesperson - TL or member who is solely in charge of communicating with the motorists subject for
d. Investigation Sub-team - in charge of investigation and documentation of possible incidents in the
checkpoint to include issuance of Traffic Citation Ticket (TCT) or Traffic Violation Report (TVR);
e. Search/Arresting Sub-Team - designated to conduct search, seizure and arrest, if necessary;
f. Security Sub-Team - tasked to provide security in the checkpoint area; and
g. Blocking/Pursuing Sub-Team - team tasked to block/pursue fleeing suspects/vehicle.

a. Mobile checkpoints are authorized only when established in conjunction with ongoing police operations.
Only officially marked vehicles shall be used in establishing mobile checkpoints.
b. Checkpoints may be established when there is a need to arrest a criminal or fugitive from justice.
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c. The composition of the personnel manning the checkpoint shall be left to the sound discretion of the
PNP unit commander.
d. Encourage the participation of, but not limited to, the Local Government Units (LGUs), Civil Society
Groups, Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs), business organizations, other civic groups, media
and other stakeholders during the conduct of Police Checkpoint.
e. The participation of the civilians and the presence of the media in the conduct of checkpoint must be
confined only as observers to give police additional eyes and promote transparency of activities in the
f. All civic groups or organizations to include the media, who are inclined to participate in police
checkpoints, must be duly registered and accredited by the PNP for such purpose. The accreditation of
the civilian groups to join in the conduct of checkpoint shall be administered by the Police Regional and
Provincial Offices.
g. PNP personnel manning the checkpoint must have a presentable appearance, wearing the prescribed
PNP uniform. Likewise, the civilian members must also be in their organization’s uniform with their names
conspicuously displayed for identification. In no case shall the civilian components be allowed to bear
firearms during the checkpoint.
h. In Metro Manila and other major cities, police officers manning the checkpoints should not wear Field
Service Uniforms (FSU) or black fatigues in lieu of the PNP General Office Attire unless the conduct of
checkpoint is a result of a Hot Pursuit Operation or a High Risk Checkpoint. The use of mixed uniforms
(GOA, FSU, black fatigue) in the conduct of checkpoint is strictly prohibited.
i. As much as possible, the area where the checkpoints shall be established must be properly lighted, with
a noticeable signage bearing the name of the PNP unit and the participating organization/s visibly
displayed in the checkpoint site, to prevent any apprehension from the public of the existence of the same.
j. Due courtesy must be accorded to the motorists, traders and the commuters during the conduct of
k. The spokesperson must greet the people subject for inspection, ask apology for the inconvenience,
appeal for understanding and state the reasons of the operation. Thank the person/s searched.
l. Except in the actual commission of crime during checkpoints or in a hot pursuit operation, the conduct
of inspection of vehicle during a routine checkpoint is limited to a visual search and therefore must be
done with due respect to innocent passersby, commuters, or bystanders and be conducted in a manner
that is least inconvenient to the public. Searches, seizures, and arrest made during checkpoints shall be
within the ambit of the law.
m. Violations/Infractions of the law discovered during the checkpoint operation shall be expeditiously
disposed of following legal procedures. Arrested persons must be apprised of their rights in reference to
the Miranda Doctrine.
n. The security of the PNP personnel, and most especially that of the civilians participating in the
checkpoint operation, must be given due consideration in the planning stage of the operation.
o. Only the security sub-team and blocking/pursuing sub-team members are allowed to display high-
powered firearms and are positioned where they can best provide security to the Checkpoint team
including themselves.
p. Checkpoint personnel must not limit their task in law enforcement and crime deterrence. They should
also be ready to provide police assistance in the vicinity e.g., giving directions to inquiring motorists or
q. The PNP operating units must provide their own logistical and financial requirements to avoid soliciting
support from the civilians for their personal or operational needs.
r. Police personnel assigned in the checkpoint shall not mulct, extort, or harass drivers, passengers, and
traders. Designated TL assigned at the checkpoint shall be responsible for the actuations and behavior of
his personnel and shall be accountable under the doctrine of Command Responsibility.
s. Voluntary offers of cash or in kind from the traders/motorists passing the checkpoint should be
absolutely refused because the offer might be misconstrued as a bribe.
t. The police and the civilian component must separately submit their After Checkpoint Operation Report
to their respective units or organization for proper evaluation of the efficacy of the operation.

Procedure in the Conduct of Regular Police Checkpoint

a. Unit Commanders should inform Higher Headquarters (HHQs) Tactical Operations Center (TOC) and
coordinate with adjacent units, such as Public Safety Management Forces and other friendly forces,
personally or through an official representative, before commencing with the checkpoint to avoid
misencounter and any untoward incident;
b. The TL shall brief the PNP personnel, as well as the civilian components present, including the media
regarding the proper conduct of the checkpoint and their assigned tasks prior to their deployment;
c. The TL shall initially account for the PNP personnel and check if they are in the prescribed uniform.
PNP personnel conducting the checkpoint shall display their nameplates at all times. If wearing a jacket,
the flap of the jacket bearing their names should also be displayed. Likewise, the equipment will include,
but not limited to, the following:
1) Marked Patrol vehicles;
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2) Firearms with basic load of ammunition;
3) Handheld and vehicle base radios;
4) Flashlights;
5) Megaphone; and
6) Signage
d. The Spotter of the team will be pre-positioned in a place where he can best point/profile suspected
vehicles prior to their approach to the checkpoint;
e. Search/Arresting Sub-Team shall flag down suspected vehicles and conduct search, seizure and arrest
if necessary;
f. Arrested persons and seized items shall be turned-over to the investigation sub-team for documentation
and proper disposition;
g. In the event that the checkpoint is ignored, and the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the personnel
manning the checkpoint, reasonable force to overcome the suspects’ aggression may be employed;
h. Inform Higher Headquarters before terminating the conduct of Checkpoint;
i. The TL shall conduct debriefing of personnel after termination of the Checkpoint; and
j. Unit Commander shall submit After Activity Report to Higher Headquarters.

Hasty Checkpoint
It is an immediate response to block the escape of lawless elements from a crime scene, and is also
established when nearby checkpoints are ignored or during hot pursuit operations. It is set up by police
personnel conducting mobile patrol on board a marked police vehicle, or those conducting ISO and foot patrol
operations within the vicinity/periphery of the national or provincial highways.

Hot Pursuit (Cross Jurisdictional Pursuit) - (also termed in the US as fresh pursuit) shall mean an
immediate, recent chase or follow-up without material interval for the purpose of taking into custody any
person wanted by virtue of a warrant, or one suspected to have committed a recent offense while fleeing from
one police jurisdictional boundary to another that will normally require prior official inter-unit coordination but
which the pursuing unit cannot, at that moment, comply due to the urgency of the situation.

Procedures in the Conduct of Hasty Checkpoints

a. PNP personnel conducting mobile patrols on board patrol vehicles will initially man the checkpoint, to
be complemented by additional personnel upon arrival of reinforcement. A collapsible signage with
markings: “Stop, Police Checkpoint”, indicating also the name of the concerned police office/unit
conducting the operations, will be used for the purpose;
b. In the case of PNP personnel conducting Internal Security Operation (ISO) or foot patrol, where a
vehicle and collapsible signage is not readily available, the checkpoint shall be manned initially by said
c. The team shall immediately inform Higher Headquarters of the exact location of the Hasty Checkpoint
to include personnel involved and available equipment;
d. In a hasty checkpoint, where there is a possibility of high risk stop and high risk arrest, and that there
is an urgency for troop deployment and that public safety might be at risk, the participation of the civilian
component and the presence of the media in the checkpoint operation shall not be allowed;
e. The Unit Commander of the personnel manning the hasty checkpoint shall immediately send additional
personnel, equipment and signage to the area in order to convert the Hasty Checkpoint into a Regular
Checkpoint; and
f. As soon as the Hasty Checkpoint is converted into a Regular Checkpoint, TL shall follow the procedures
in the Conduct of Regular Police Checkpoint paragraph c.

Procedures to be Followed When Checkpoints are Ignored

a. In the event that checkpoints/roadblocks are ignored and the motorists/suspects bumped the roadblock
in an attempt to elude arrest or avoid inspection, the TL shall immediately contact adjacent units to inform
them of the situation so that these units can conduct dragnet operation, while the members of the
blocking/pursuing team shall block or pursue the errant fleeing motorist;
b. Warning shots shall not be allowed due to the confusion it may create to the driver and passengers of
the vehicle. Megaphones or police sirens shall be used instead during the pursuit. The plate number of
the vehicle shall be noted and given to other units in adjacent areas to prevent the possibility that the
vehicle may elude the pursuit operation; and
c. In the event that the occupants of the vehicle open fire on the personnel manning the checkpoint,
reasonable force to overcome the suspects’ aggression may be employed.

Procedures in Flagging Down or Accosting Vehicles While in Mobile Car

a. Call Headquarters to inform of the make or type and plate number of the motor vehicle to be accosted
including the number and, if possible, identity of occupants;
b. State the reason(s) for the planned intervention of the suspected motor vehicle;
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c. Give mobile car’s location and its direction before making actual intervention;
d. Try to get alongside the suspects’ vehicle and check the occupants without alarming them of your
purpose. You can even overtake the vehicle and wait for it at an advantageous location before stopping
the suspects’ vehicle;
e. Determine whether the suspects are hostile or not;
f. Make known to the suspect that you are after them through the use of a siren or megaphone;
g. Instruct the driver to pull over or stop on the side of the road;
h. Park behind the suspect’s vehicle at an appropriate distance and cautiously approach the vehicle on
the driver’s side;
i. If the vehicle’s windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver to open
all windows to have a clear view of the interior of the vehicle;
j. Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition, if this was not done when the vehicle stopped;
k. The other members of the team must be on guard for any eventuality while the vehicle is being
l. Talk to the driver in a most courteous manner and inform him of the nature of his violation. Demand to
see the driver’s license, photocopies of the certificate of registration and the official receipt. Examine these
documents and counter-check the driver on the information reflected therein;
m. If it concerns traffic violations, immediately issue a Traffic Citation Ticket (TCT) or Traffic Violation
Report (TVR). Never indulge in prolonged, unnecessary conversation or argument with the driver or any
of the vehicle’s occupants;
n. In cases of other violations that require the impounding of the vehicle, inform the driver regarding this
situation and instruct him to follow you, after issuing the TCT/TVR; and,
o. Before moving out, inform Headquarters regarding the situation/ status and disposition of the person
and motor vehicle accosted.

Procedures to be Followed in Dealing with Hostile Drivers:

a. Stopping Vehicles
1) Follow the Procedure in Flagging Down or Accosting Vehicles While in Mobile Car stated in paragraphs
a to c;
2) Immediately request for back-up;
3) Follow the suspect and always keep him within visual range;
4) Expect that the suspect will notice your action at any time. Be prepared for a car chase or actual hostile
5) If the back-up is already in the vicinity, inform Headquarters that you are proceeding to accost the
6) Inform the suspects that you are after them through the use of siren or megaphone and instruct the
driver to pull over or stop on the side of the street;
7) Park at an appropriate distance behind the suspect’s vehicle;
8) While the vehicle is being approached, the other members of the crew and back-up must be on guard
for any eventuality. Overreactions should be avoided;
9) If the vehicle’s windows are heavily tinted and the occupants cannot be seen, instruct the driver to open
all windows for a clear view of the vehicle’s interior;
10) Direct the driver and other occupants of the vehicle not to make unnecessary movements and to show
their hands outside the car;
11) Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground. Demand to see the Driver’s
License and photocopies of the vehicle’s certificate of registration and the official receipt. Examine the
documents and counter-check the driver on the information reflected therein; and,
12) If there are other suspects aside from the driver, separate them from one another.

b. Fleeing Vehicles
1) In the event that the motor vehicle did not stop despite the warning given, inform Headquarters or
adjacent units so that roadblocks or hasty checkpoints can be set-up;
2) Call Headquarters to inform of the make or type, plate number and color of the motor vehicle to be
accosted including the number of occupants and, if possible, their identity;
3) State the reason(s) for flagging down the suspected motor vehicle;
4) Give mobile car’s location and its direction before making actual intervention;
5) When the vehicle of the suspect is cornered or stopped, instruct the driver and other occupants in a
clear and commanding voice to follow specifically what you will require of them. Failure on their part to
follow will be construed as a hostile act on their part. Execute instructions on the use of reasonable force;
6) Instruct the driver to turn off the ignition and toss the key to the ground, open the door and step out of
the vehicle, followed by his hands to be placed on top of the vehicle, or to move towards you with his
hands up;
7) Instruct other occupants of the vehicle, if any, to come out one by one, and follow what the driver has
been instructed to do earlier;
8) Arrest, handcuff and search the suspects and bring them to Headquarters for proper disposition; and
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9) Before moving out, inform Headquarters about the situation, status and disposition of the suspects and
motor vehicle accosted.

High Risk Stop – is the actual stopping or accosting of armed and dangerous person or persons, aboard a
vehicle or on foot, including the power to use all necessary and legal means to accomplish such end.

High Risk Arrest – is the actual restraint of armed persons following a high-risk stop.

Pre-Determined Area – is the specific or projected spot where the armed and dangerous person or persons
would pass or likely to pass and so tactically located as to gain calculated advantage against said person or

Stopping Zone - is the strategic predetermined area strongly sealed off, barricaded and occupied by tactical
forces in a lawful display of authority to maintain law and order or in defensive response to an event of criminal
nature or of such gravity that occurred or likely to occur calling for a high risk stop or arrest.

Dragnet Operation - is a police operation purposely to seal-off the probable exit points of fleeing suspects
from the crime scene to prevent their escape.

High Risk Stop and High Risk Arrest

a. Initial Stage
Upon receipt of information involving movement of armed person or persons, either singly or in group,
including unauthorized movement of government troops, or in immediate response to a reported commission
of crime perpetrated by armed persons, the PNP shall immediately:
1) Organize appropriate tactical security forces utilizing maximum firepower and armor assets;
2) Deploy the security forces to stopping zones in defensive position; and
3) Seal off the area and establish strong roadblocks/ barricades.

b. Effecting a High Risk Stop

When effecting high-risk stop, the police officer shall:
1) Exert utmost effort to persuade the suspects to halt or stop their movement.
2) Start with the procedural conduct of regular warrantless arrest where arrest is inevitable.
3) Ensure proper documentation of the process.
4) Respect the rights of all the persons involved.

c. During Violent Stage

The PNP shall strictly adhere to the PNP Operational Procedures (POP) particularly on the use of
reasonable force.

Public Assembly
It means any rally, demonstration, march, parade, procession or any other form of mass or concerted
action held in a public place for the purpose of presenting a lawful cause; or expressing an opinion to the
general public on any particular issue; or protesting or influencing any state of affairs whether political,
economic or social; or petitioning the government for redress of grievances.

Public Place – shall include any highway, boulevard, avenue, road, street, bridge or other thoroughfare, park,
plaza, square, and/or any open space of public ownership where the people are allowed access.
Freedom Park – shall mean the venue or place established or designated by local government units within
their respective jurisdictions where a public assembly could be held without securing any permit for such
purpose from the local government unit concerned.
Maximum Tolerance – means the highest degree of restraint that the police, military and other peace keeping
authorities shall observe during a public assembly or in the dispersal of the same.

Limitations on the Role of the PNP on Public Assembly

The PNP shall not interfere with the holding of a public assembly. However, to ensure public safety
and to maintain peace and order during the assembly, the police contingent under the command of a PCO
preferably with the rank of Police Senior Inspector may be detailed and stationed in a place at least one
hundred (100) meters away from the area of activity.

Guidelines for Civil Disturbance Management (CDM) Contingent During Rallies / Demonstrations
a. CDM contingent shall be in prescribed uniform and without firearm.
b. Tear gas, smoke grenades, water cannons, or any similar anti- riot device shall be used only when the
public assembly is attended by actual violence or serious threats of violence, or deliberate destruction of

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Dispersal of Public Assembly with Permit
All public assembly with a permit shall not be dispersed. However, when an assembly becomes
violent, the police may disperse such public assembly in the following manner:
a. At the first sign of impending violence, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall call the
attention of the leaders of the public assembly and ask the latter to prevent any possible disturbance;
b. If actual violence reaches a point where rocks or other harmful objects from the participants are thrown
at the police officers or at the non-participants, or at any property causing damage to it, the Ground
Commander of the PNP contingent shall audibly warn the participants that if the disturbance persists, the
public assembly will be dispersed;
c. If the violence or disturbance does not stop, the Ground Commander of the PNP contingent shall audibly
issue a warning to the participants of the public assembly, and after allowing a reasonable period of time
to lapse, he shall immediately order it to disperse; and
d. No arrest of any leader, organizer or participant shall be made unless he violates during the assembly
a law, statute, or ordinance.

Dispersal of Public Assembly Without Permit

When the public assembly is held without a permit where a permit is required, the said public assembly
may be peacefully dispersed. However, when the leaders or organizers of public assembly can show an
application for permit duly filed at the Office of the Mayor which has jurisdiction over the place where the rally
will be held, at least five (5) days prior to the intended activity and the Mayor did not act on the same, the
grant of the permit being then presumed under the law, and it will be the burden of the authorities to show
that there has been a denial of the application, in which case, the rally may be peacefully dispersed following
the procedure of maximum tolerance prescribed by law.

Police Responses During Public Assembly

a. During Planning Stage
1) Initiate dialogue with the leaders/organizers to ensure the peaceful holding of a public assembly,
including among others, the detail of police escorts.
2) Prepare appropriate security and CDM contingency plans.

b. During Initial and Peaceful Stage

1) With Permit or Held in Freedom Parks/ Private Properties
1.1 The PNP shall not interfere with the holding of a public assembly. However, to adequately ensure
public safety, a CDM contingent, under the control and supervision of a PCO shall be stationed at least one
hundred (100) meters away from the area where the public assembly is being held.
1.2 Monitor the activities at the public assembly area and respond to any request for police assistance.
2) Without Permit or Permit has been Revoked
2.1 As soon as it becomes apparent that an assembly is being held in a public place, the Ground
Commander shall immediately conduct an inquiry whether the assembly is covered with a permit or not.
If a permit could not be shown, verification should immediately be done with the Office of the Mayor
having jurisdiction over the place where the public assembly is being held. Should the Office of the Mayor
confirm that a permit has not been issued, the leaders/organizers shall be informed of the fact that they are
violating the law and will be asked to disperse peacefully.
2.2 The PNP shall exhaust all peaceful remedies to persuade the demonstrators to disperse. This may
include the involvement of Local Chief Executives / community leaders when available to intervene in the
situation so that dispersal operations could be avoided.
2.3. Should negotiation fail and the demonstrators refuse to disperse voluntarily and peacefully,
thereby causing public inconvenience, CDM contingents may commence dispersal operations.

c. During Breach of Peace/Confrontational Stage (With or without permit)

No public assembly with a permit shall be dispersed. However, when a public assembly becomes
violent, the CDM contingents may disperse such public assembly in the following manner:
1) At the first sign of impending violence, the Ground Commander shall call the attention of the
leaders/organizers of the public assembly and ask the latter to prevent any possible disturbance. CDM
contingents shall hold the line to prevent demonstrators from proceeding to other areas where the holding
of a public assembly is prohibited.
2) If actual violence reaches a point where rocks or other harmful objects from the participants are thrown
at the CDM contingents or the non-participants, or at any property causing damage to it, the Ground
Commander shall audibly warn the participants that if the disturbance persists, the public assembly will
be dispersed;
3) If the violence or disturbance does not stop, the Ground Commander shall audibly issue a warning to
the participants of the public assembly, and after allowing a reasonable period of time to lapse, shall
immediately order it to disperse. With the use of CDM formations, the rank of demonstrators shall be
disbanded, contained, and isolated from each other, and should be prevented from regrouping.

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4) Water cannons and riot sticks maybe used to repel aggression and to disperse demonstrators and
reserve CDM contingents may be employed when situation requires.
5) No arrest of any leader, organizer or participant shall be made unless he violates during the assembly
a law, statute, or ordinance.

d. During Violent Stage

1) Non-lethal weapons and equipment may be used to suppress violence, to protect lives and prevent
further damage to properties.
2) The PNP security elements shall be tactically deployed to provide immediate assistance to the CDM

e. Post-Operation Stage
1) CDM contingents shall be withdrawn after the area has been cleared of possible danger to public safety.
2) Sufficient police force shall be maintained to ensure peace and order in the area.

Guidelines in the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons

a. Shield and Truncheon
During the confrontational stage, truncheon may be utilized only to push back demonstrators and not
as an instrument to strike individuals. However, when demonstrators become aggressive, truncheon shall
be the principal non-lethal weapon for dispersal. In such situation, CDM contingents shall nonetheless,
use the same with caution and due diligence to avoid unnecessary injury.
b. Water Cannons
Water cannons may be utilized when demonstrators become unruly and aggressive forcing troops to
fall back to their secondary positions.
c. Tear Gas
Tear gas may be utilized to break up formations or groupings of demonstrations who continue to be
aggressive and refused to disperse despite earlier efforts.


- PNP’s answer to the requirement of police visibility.
- PATROL means – Policemen Assigned To Reinforce Order in the Locality
- best way of immersing policemen in various activities
- provides a symbiotic relationship between the police and the community which would eventually draw
active support and cooperation of the populace.


1. Fixed Components – these are different stations, precincts, police visibility points, traffic posts and
a. Station Desk – serves as the 3 C’s of police force: Communication; Coordinating; Center/Command
Situation/Locator Map – capable of providing visual IPS situation which shows the AOR, Real Time
Current Situation and Real Time Status of the IPS
b. PCP – headed by PCO with a rank of Chief Inspector or Superintendent with a minimum of 30
personnel including the Commander divided in 3 shifts of 8-hours duty.

2. Patrol Components – include line beat, mobile patrol, motorcycle, bicycle, air patrol and detective
repressive patrol
a. Police Beats – consist of identifiable boundaries within the AOR where an officer can conduct
patrol. Police Beats identification:
PBs for NCR
- Identifiable by a 5 digit number. 1st digit refers to the numerical assigned to the district
- 2nd refers to the number assigned to each of the city/municipality within the district
- 3rd digit refers to the number assigned to particular PCP
- 4th and 5th digits refer to the numbers assigned to particular beat

PBs for Regional Officers

- Identifiable by a 7 digit number
- First 2 digits refer to the number of the region
- 3rd digit refer to the number assigned to a particular province within the region
- 4th digit refers to the PCPs
- 5th and 6th refer to the beat

b. Mobile Patrol – similar with mobile patrol discussed

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c. Detective Beat System – contiguous area where a team of police investigators is assigned with a specific
task of conducting follow-up investigation to all complaints, reports, referrals and other requests with the end
in view of full compliance and/or filing of case

DETECTIVE BEAT SYSTEM (DBS) – one of the concrete responses of PNP in reinventing the field of
- it is concerned with crime solution and detectives are charged with total investigation responsibility

POLICE BEAT – is concerned with crime prevention

- the patrol officers usually respond to crime incidents for arrest, protection of crime scene until
detectives arrive to investigate.

Guidelines in the Conduct of Patrol

I. Pre-Deployment Phase – conducted by means of formation or assembly in police stations for at least
30minutes which will be allotted for:
a. inspection as to appearance and completeness of individual equipment.
b. dissemination of assignments, instructions and orders.

II. Deployment Phase – upon arrival at the patrol beat, officer shall report to the desk officer or dispatcher
- while on patrol, they shall adopt the “buddy-buddy system”
- upon reaching the end of the line beat, officer shall make a situation report before returning to their
point of origin
- any unusual incident must be reported and/or recorded in the patrol sheet report.

III. Post-Deployment Phase – after the tour of duty, officers shall return to police stations for the following:
a. surrender the equipment
b. accomplish the Daily Patrol Report
c. Turn-over to the Front-Desk Officer all items confiscated or recovered during the tour of
d. patrol commander shall conduct an accounting of patrol officers before being dismissed

3. Auxiliary Components – include security guards, traffic enforcers, barangay tanods, civilian volunteers
and non-governmental organizations

TEAM POLICING SYSTEM – is an attempt to integrate the police and the community interest into a working
relationship so as to produce the desired objective of peace keeping in the community.
- Originated in Aberdeen, Scotland
- Team of 5-10 men is assigned according to concentration of crimes and citizens-calls for police service.
- Effective police-community cooperation is critical to the success of a team policing system.

Characteristics of Team Policing

1. Geographic Stability of the Patrol Force – The application of permanent patrolling to foster greater
awareness and sensitivity to local police problems by team members.
2. Maximum Interaction between Team Members – Members must be given opportunity to work closely
together in solving problems.
- Members are encouraged to share information with one another through informal meetings or
3. Maximum Communication between Team Members and Community Residents – Team policing
is intended to develop a greater sense of understanding and increased cooperation between members of
the team and community residents.
- Encourage members of the community to attend informal sessions in which they discussed community
problems with the team.


In Japan, they have operationalized and even institutionalized it through the Koban or Police Box

In Singapore, they are wielding it through the Neighborhood Police Post.

In the United States about 60 % of the police departments are implementing it through Community
Oriented Policing/Problem Oriented Policing COP/POP.

In Canada and several countries in Europe and other parts of the world, they are into it also.

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In the Philippines, the implementation of National Anti-Crime Strategy (NACS) at the community
level started as mere initiative of some innovative police commanders.

In Bacolod City, the Negros Occidental Provincial Commander of the defunct PC/INP managed to
mobilize the community to support and team up with Bacolod City Police Station through the Bacolod
Citizens for Unity and Peace (BAC–UP) Foundation from June 7, 1986 to date.

On August 8, 1991, the Davao Del Norte Provincial PNP Commander instituted the KAUBAN, an
integrated undertaking of the police/barangay/citizenry to maintain peace and order.

It was also in 1991 when the PNP started implementing the “Koban Philippine style” dubbed as Pulis
Patrol Lingkod Bayan (PPLB).

On May 04, 1993, the PNP started establishing the KABABAYAN Center as Community Oriented
Policing Units.

Finally on August 15, 1994, the PNP adopted and started implementing the Community Oriented
Policing System (COPS).

Basic Principles / Foundation Of COPS

1. Democracy – Philippines is a democratic and republic state.
It is imperative for the people to participate in and support the processes, programs and activities of
the government to attain SUMMUM BONUM or the greatest good for the greatest number of our
2. Criminal Justice – a machinery used by a democratic government to protect the society against crime
and disorder.
3. Who are the Police – according to Robert Peel, “The police are the public and the public are the
4. People’s Power – the greatest source of power to wage war against crime and other threats to society
lies among the people.

“COPS is a philosophy of full service, personalized policing where the same patrol officers works in
the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with the
citizens to identify and solve problems.”

1. Philosophy – the present and future crime and other disorder requires the police to provide full service
policing and problem solving with the active participation and support of the community.
2. Personalized – officers should have person to person contact with the members of the community
3. Patrol – officers must work and patrol their defined beat or AOR as often as possible.
4. Permanent – officers should be assigned permanently for at least 18 months to defined beat.
5. Place – the AOR should be divided/sectorized into distinct neighborhoods in urban areas and clusters
of barangays in rural areas.
6. Proactive – shall have proactive focus of pre-empting, preventing, suppressing, and deterring crimes.
Anticipate or at least detect as early as possible the occurrence of crimes.
7. Policing – provide full service policing in the community
8. Problem Solving – includes those abets or serves as breeding grounds of crime
9. Partnership – establish community partnership


1. Communication – in general, it is the transfer of thought or idea from one person to another through
channel or medium. Technically, it refers to equipment used which can be electrical or electronic used to
exchange information.
2. Communications – refers to the technical field of study or science which involves exchange of
information through various channels.
3. Communications Medium – the language or code used in transferring information or idea.
4. Amplitude Modulation – modulation in which the amplitude of a wave is subject to variation of changes.
This is used in single side band, double side band, and independent side band.
5. Frequency Modulation – the amplitude is made constant in the carrier wave together with the signal.
6. Antenna – metallic wire or rod used for radiating and receiving waves to and from space. Also termed
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7. Coordinating Center – is a center base station of a police or law enforcement communications. Also
called Center.
8. Intercommunication (Inter-Com) – wires system used within a building or compound for direct exchange
of calls
9. Intra-Communication – a communication existing within a province, organization or communication that
exists between institutions of farthest distance.
10. Radio – a communication by means of electromagnetic waves transmitted through space.
11. Landline – is a wired form of communication
12. Television Broadcasting (Telecast) – a form of broadcasting through television
13. Subscriber – refers to person, residence or office connected to the Private Base Exchange (PBX)
14. Dispatcher – personnel in police communication center charged with receiving and transmitting of

POLICE COMMUNICATIONS – refers to the technical means used by the police which consists of interrelated
but relatively independent sub-systems such as telephone, telegraph, teletype, radio and television systems
and other electronic and automated processes.


1. Training – messages should be committed to standard handling procedures by trained personnel
2. Dependability – provides that communications must be reliable and available at all times in good
3. Security – provides that communications system must be secured from any criminal action toward
destruction of police organization’s functions.
4. Accessibility – provides that operational units must have convenient access to every communication
that is essential to its efficient operation.
5. Speed – provides that communications must be adequate considering that the quick response of
officers depend on the transfer of information.
6. Confidentiality/Secrecy – provides that informations in the organization must be private and should
not be held public as it relates to suspects or victims.


1. Administrative Communications Net – it involves the exchange of non-operational information
among police precincts, units, departments or headquarters.
2. Operational Communications Net – it pertains to exchange of police field informations involving
peace, law and orders as well as general public well being.

Police Radio Operator/Voice Radio Operator/ Dispatcher/ Coordinator – is a person charged with
receiving and transmitting information and is trained in his job.

Requisites of a Good Police Radio Operator

1. Alertness – gives an impression that the operator is awake and interested what the person is saying
on the other line
2. Pleasantness – creates a proverbial voice with smile
3. Naturalness – it involves the utilization of simple straightforward words and avoidance of repetition.
4. Expressiveness – use of normal tone of voice which should not be too fast or too slow. The tone of
voice will vary on meaning of sentence that the operator is saying
5. Distinctiveness – it involves speaking clearly and distinctly by moving the lips, tongue and jaw freely.

Radio – is a system of communication using electromagnetic waves propagated through space

A. Radio Waves
The radio or electromagnetic waves travel as fast as the speed of light at 186,000 miles per
second or 300,000 kilometers per second.


1. Ground Wave – is radiated energy that touches along the surface of the earth
2. Sky Wave – is a radiated energy that travels to the ionosphere and is reflected back to earth.

B. Radio Transmitters – generates electrical oscillations at a radio frequency called the carrier frequency
b.1. Oscillation Generator – converts electrical power into oscillations of a predetermined radio
b.2. Amplifiers – increases the intensity of oscillations while retaining the desired frequency

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b.3. Transducer – converts the information to be transmitted into varying electrical voltage proportional
to each successive instantaneous intensity.

C. Radio Receivers
c.1. Antenna – receives the electromagnetic waves and converts them into electrical oscillations
c.2. Amplifier – increases the intensity of oscillations
c.3. Demodulator – detection equipment for demodulating
c.4. Speaker – converts the impulses into sound waves audible by the human ear
c.5. Oscillators – to generate radio frequency that can be mixed with incoming waves.


 Above 30 MHz or within Very High Frequency (30–300MHz) – is the frequency needed by the
police departments.
 30–300 MHz – is intended for short distances transmission.


A. Accuracy – the correctness and truthfulness what is being communicated
B. Brevity – using of few words. No unnecessary words or repetitious words in the transmission
C. Courtesy – politeness of the words being used in the communication

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Associated Public Safety Communication 10-48 Traffic standards needed repairs
officers, Inc. 10-49 Traffic lights out
10-50 Accident
APCO TEN SIGNALS 10-51 Wrecker needed
10-52 Ambulance needed
10-0 Caution 10-53 Road Blocked
10-1 Unable to copy/Change Location 10-54 Firestock highway
10-2 Signal good 10-55 Intoxicated driver
10-3 Stop transmitting 10-56 Intixicated pedestrian
10-4 Acknowledgement/ Roger 10-57 Hit and Run
10-5 Relay 10-58 Direct traffic
10-6 Busy-standby unless urgent 10-59 Convoy or escort
10-7 Out of service 10-60 Squad in vicinity
10-8 In Service 10-61 Personnel in area
10-9 Repeat/ Say again 10-62 Reply to message
10-10 Fight in progress 10-63 Prepare to make written copy
10-11 Dog case 10-64 Message to local delivery
10-12 Stand-by 10-65 Next message assignment
10-13 Weather and road report 10-66 Message cancellation
10-14 Report of prowler 10-67 Clear to net message
10-15 Civil disturbance 10-68 Dispatch information
10-16 Domestic trouble 10-69 Message received
10-17 Meet complainant 10-70 Fire alarm
10-18 Complete the assignment quickly 10-71 Nature of fire
10-19 Return to______ 10-72 Report progress in fire
10-20 Location 10-73 Smoke report
10-21 Call______ by telephone 10-74 Negative
10-22 Disregard 10-75 In contact with
10-23 Arrived at scene 10-76 En route
10-24 Assignment complete 10-77 ETA (estimate time of arrival)
10-25 Report in person (meet) 10-78 Need assistance
10-26 Detaining subject, expedite 10-79 Notified
10-27 Drivers License Information 10-80 Kidnapping
10-28 Vehicle Registration Information 10-81 Stolen vehicle
10-29 Check record for wanted 10-82 Reserve lodging
10-30 Illegal use of radio 10-83 Found vehicle
10-31 Crime progress 10-84 If meeting advice ETA
10-32 Man with gun 10-85 Will be late
10-33 Emergency 10-86 Missing person
10-34 Riot 10-87 Pick-up checks for distribution
10-35 Major crime alert 10-88 Advice precent telephone number of
10-36 Correct time 10-89 Found person
10-37 Investigate suspicious vehicle 10-90 Bank alarm
10-38 Stopping suspicious vehicle 10-91 Unnecessary use of radio
10-39 Urgent use light and siren 10-92 Wanted person
10-40 Silent run- no light or siren 10-93 Blockade
10-41 Beginning of tour of duty 10-94 Drag racing
10-42 Ending tour of duty 10-95 Stole cattle
10-43 Information 10-96 Mental subject
10-44 Request permission to leave patrol 10-97 Secret
10-45 Animal carcass in lane at________ 10-98 Prison jail break
10-46 Assist motorist 10-99 Record indicate wanted or stolen
10-47 Emergency road repairs needed

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RA 7438 - A special law which defines certain rights of accused, detained or under custodial investigation as well as
the duties of the arresting, detailing and investigation officer.

Arrest - The taking of a person into custody in the manner authorized by law for the purpose of presenting that
person before the court to answer for the commission of a crime.

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