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# **FIRSTUNIT**

**QUESTIONSSTART**
A screw jack raises a load of 16 kN through a distance of 150 mm. The mean diameter and the pitch of
the screw are 56 mm and 10 mm respectively. Determine the work done and the efficiency of the screw
jack when the load rotates with the screw. Take coefficient of friction for the screw and the bearing
surface as 0.11.
**NEXTQUESTION**
A differential band brake has a drum with a diameter of 800 mm. The two ends of the band are fixed to
the pins in the opposite sides of the fulcrum of the lever at distances of 45 mm and 200 mm from the
fulcrum. The angle of contact is 2700 and the coefficient of friction is 0.23. Determine the brake torque
when a downward force of 500 N is applied to the lever at a distance of 800 mm from the fulcrum.
**NEXTQUESTION**
a) Derive an expression for frictional torque in a flat pivot bearing.
b) In a thrust bearing the external and internal radii of the contact surface are 210 mm and 160 mm
resp. The total axial load is 60 kN and coefficient of friction is 0.05. The shaft is rotating at 380 rpm.
Intensity of pressure is not to exceed 350 kN/m2. Calculate: (i) power lost in overcoming the friction.
(ii) Number of collars required for the thrust bearing.
**NEXTQUESTION**
The wheels of a bicycle are of diameter 800 mm. A rider on this bicycle is travelling at a speed of
16 km/hr on a level road. The total mass of rider and bicycle is 110 kg. A brake is applied to the rear
wheel. The pressure applied on the brake is 100 N and coefficient of friction is 0.056. Before the cycle
comes to rest, find: (i) Distance travelled by the bicycle. (ii) Number of turns of its wheel.
**NEXTQUESTION**
(a) Derive the expression for the torque required to lift the load by a screw jack.
(b) The pitch of 50 mm mean diameter threaded screw of screw jack is 12.5 mm. The coefficient of
friction between the screw and the nut is 0.13. Determine the torque required on the screw to raise a load
of 25kN, assuming the load to rotate with the screw. Determine the ratio of the torque required to raise
the load to the torque required to lower the load and also the efficiency of the machine
**NEXTQUESTION*
(a) Classify dynamometers and explain one absorption type dynamometer.
(b) Derive expression for total braking torque about fulcrum in differential band brake , when brake drum rotates
in clockwise direction.

**NEXTQUESTION**
a) Explain the terms: i. Limiting angle of friction and ii. Angle of repose.
(b) Derive from first principles an expression for the friction moment of a flat collar assuming
i) Uniform pressure & ii) Uniform wear.
**NEXTQUESTION**
A shaft carrying a load of 12 tones and running at 100rpm has a number of collars integral with its
shaft diameter is 240mm and the external diameter of the collars is 360mm. Intensity of uniform
pressure is 300KN/m2 and the coefficient of friction is 0.06. Determine the power absorbed in
overcoming the friction and the number of collars required.
**NEXTQUESTION**
(a) Derive the expression for the torque transmitting capacity of a single plate clutch by considering
uniform pressure.
(b) A friction clutch is required to transmitted 34.5kW at 2000rpm. It is to be single plate disk
type with both sides of the plate effective, the pressure is being applied axially by means of
springs and limited to 70kPa on the plate. If the outer diameter of the friction limit is 1.5 times the
internal diameter, find the required dimensions d1 and d2 of the clutch ring and the total force
exerted by the springs. Assume uniform wear condition (coefficient of friction=0.3)
**NEXTQUESTION**
(a) Differentiate between brake and dynamometer.
(b) A car moving on a level road at a speed 60Kmph has a wheel base 3m, distance of C.G. from
ground level 600mm and the distance of C from rear wheels 1.2m. Find the distance travelled by
the car before coming to rest when brakes are applied (i) to the rear wheels only (ii) to the front
wheels only and (iii) to all the four wheels. The coefficient of friction between the tyres and the
road may be taken as 0.6
**NEXTQUESTION**
A cone clutch with a semi-cone angle of 150 transmits 10 kW at 1200 rpm. The normal pressure
intensity between the surfaces in contact is not to exceed 100kN/m2. The width of the friction
surfaces is half of the mean diameter. Assume μ = 0.3 determine: (i) The outer and inner diameters
of the plate. (ii) Width of the cone face. (iii) The axial force to engage the clutch.

**ENDOFQUESTIONS**
**SECONDUNIT**
**QUESTIONSSTART**
Each wheel of a four-wheeled rear engine automobile has a moment of inertia of 2.5 kg.m2 and
an effective diameter of 650 mm. The rotating parts of the engine have a moment of inertia of 1.2 kg.m 2.
The gear ratio of engine to the back wheel is 3 to 1. The engine axis is parallel to the rear axle
and the crankshaft rotates in the same sense as the road wheels. The mass of the vehicle is 2100 kg and
thecentre of the mass is 560 mm above the road level. The track width of the vehicle is 1.5 m. Determine
the limiting speed of the vehicle around a curve with 80 m radius so that all the four wheels maintain
**NEXTQUESTION**
The turning moment diagram of a four-stroke engine is assumed to be represented by four triangles, the
areas of which from the line of zero pressure are suction stroke = 440 mm2
compression stroke = 1600 mm2; expansion stroke = 7200 mm2; exhaust stroke = 660 mm2.
Each mm2 of area represents 3 Nm of energy. If the resisting torque is uniform, determine the mass of
the rim of a flywheel to keep the speed between 218 and 222 r.p.m when the mean radius of the rim is to
be 1.25 m.
**NEXTQUESTION**
A rear car has a total weight of 39240 N there are two axels, each of which together with wheels has
moment of inertia of 30 kgm2. The centre distance between the two wheels on an axle is 1.5 m and each
of wheel is of 37.5 cm radius. Each axle is driven by a motor and its speed is 3 times the speed of wheel.
Each motor has a moment of inertia of 15 kgm2 and runs opposite to that of axle. The centre of gravity is
105cm above rails. Determine the limiting speed when it is negotiating a curve of 240 m radius such that
no wheel leaves the rails.
**NEXTQUESTION**
Turning moment curve for one revolution of a multi cylinder engine above and below the line of mean
resisting torque are given by -0.5, +1.2, -0.95, +1.45, -0.85, +0.71, -1.06 cm2. The vertical and horizontal
scales are 1 cm = 7000 Nm and 1 cm = 300. The engine speed is 800 rpm and it is desired that the
fluctuation from minimum to maximum speed should not be more than 2% of average speed. Determine
the moment of inertia of the flywheel.
**NEXTQUESTION**
A trolley car of total weight 3000N runs on rails of 1.5m gauge and travels a curve 30m radius at 8.7
m/s. The rails are being at the same level. The car has four wheels of 72cm diameter and each of the two
axles is driven by a motor running in a opposite direction to the wheels at a speed of 5 times the speed of
rotation of vehicle. Each axle with gear and wheels has a Moment of inertia 147kg m2. Each motor with
the shaft and gear pinion has a Moment of inertia 10.5kg m2. Has centre of gravity 90 cm above the rail
level. Allowing the centrifugal and gyroscopic action, determine the vertical force exerted by each wheel
on the rails.
**NEXTQUESTION**
The turbine rotor of a ship has a mass of 20 tones and a radius of gyration of 0.75m.Its speed is 2000
rpm. The ship pitches 60 above and below the horizontal position. One complete oscillation takes 18
seconds and the motion is simple harmonic. Determine.
(a) The maximum angular acceleration of the ship during pitching and
(b) The direction in which the bow will tend to turn while rising, if the rotation of the rotor is clockwise
when looking from rear.
**NEXTQUESTION**
(a)Derive an expression for gyroscopic couple.
(b) An aero plane makes a complete half circle of 60m radius, to the left when flying at 200 Kmph.
The rotary engine and the propeller of the aero plane weigh 4000N with a radius of gyration 30 cm
the engine runs at 2500rpm CW, when viewed from rear. Find the gyroscopic couple on the
aircraft and state its effect on it. Show gyroscopic effect by a sketch.
**NEXTQUESTION**
Each road wheel of a motor cycle has a mass moment of inertia of 1.5 kg-m2. The rotation parts of
the engine of the motorcycle have a mass moment of inertia of 0.25 kg-m2.The speed of the engine
is 5 times the speed of the wheels and is in the same sense. The mass of the motor cycle is traveling
at 10 km/h and its center of gravity is 0.6 m above the ground level. Find the angle of heel if the
cycle with its rideris 250 kg and is taking a turn of 5m radius. The wheel diameter is 0.6m.
**NEXTQUESTION**
Two Isosceles Triangles represent the turning moment diagram of an engine, the base of the two
triangles being 0 to π and π to 2 π the maximum torque being 1000 N-m. The engine runs at
500rpm. The fluctuation of speed is not to exceed ±1.5%. Find the thickness of disc type flywheel
required if diameter is 0.5m and density of material is 7.5 gm/cm3.
**NEXTQUESTION**
A certain machine requires a torque of (14,000 + 2000 sin θ ) N-m to drive it, Where θ is the angle
of rotation of the shaft measure from some datum. The Machine is directly coupled to an engine
which produces a torque of (14,000 + 2500 sin θ )N-m. The flywheel and other rotating parts
attached to the shaft have a mass of 300 kg with radius of gyration of 50 cm. The mean speed is
60rpm Calculate:
(a) The percentage fluctuation of speed
(b) The maximum angular acceleration of the flywheel.
**NEXTQUESTION**
The turning moment diagram for a multi cylinder engine has been drawn to a scale of 1 mm =650
N-m vertically and 1 mm = 60 horizontally. The areas above and below the mean torque line
are -30, +382, -260, +310, -306,+248, -380, +265,and -229 mm2 when taken in order from one end.
The engine is running at a mean speed of 900 r.p.m. The total fluctuation of speed is not to exceed
±1.8% of the mean speed. If the radius of flywheel is 1.05 m, find the mass of the flywheel.
**ENDOFQUESTIONS**
**COMMONFIRSTSECOND**
**QUESTIONSSTART**
a) Explain the limiting friction, angle of friction.
b) write short notes on friction circle and frictional axis.
c) Briefly explain about types of dynamometers
d) Derive the expression for gyroscopic couple.
e) Define the terms coefficient of fluctuation of energy and coefficient of fluctuation of speed of a
flywheel.
**NEXTQUESTION**
a) State the laws of static and dynamic friction.
b) What is the functional difference between a clutch and a brake?.
c) Name the different types of mechanical brakes.
d) Draw the turning moment diagram for a four stroke I.C engine.
e) What is active and reactive gyroscopic torque?
**NEXTQUESTION**
a) Briefly explain about centrifugal clutch.
b) Distinguish between brakes and dynamometers.
c) Explain the effect of gyroscopic couple on an aeroplane?
d) Derive the expression for torque transmission of a collar bearing when uniform pressure
considering.
e) Draw the turning moment diagram of a multi cylinder engine.
**NEXTQUESTION**
a) What are the laws of the solid or dry friction?
b) Briefly explain about self locking and overhauling of a screw.
c) Discuss the gyroscopic effect on sea vessels during rolling.
d) Derive the expression for energy stored in a flywheel.
e) Derive the expression for efficiency of an inclined plane when the body moves upwards.
**ENDOFQUESTIONS**