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Stages of Development and Developmental Tasks

Discussant: Manalansan, Minjin lesner l. and Torrano, Jhade-Dy C.

Ever wondered why you weren't the same as when you were still a baby. We will find out
how it all happened by analyzing two different versions of the stages of development and
developmental tasks of the two famous Professor/Educator and Author Dr,Robert Havighurst
(1948-1953) and Dr,John Santrock(2002).

Development! It is the process of change or growth throughout one's life span. Let's take
a closer look at the stages of development and its developmental tasks.

In Dr, Havighurst's Stages of development he identified six major stages.

Read the description of each stage and its developmental tasks below.

1. Infancy and early childhood (0-5 years old) - Learning to coordinate motor skills like
walking. instead of drinking milk for the only source of food it is now capable of eating solid
foods, starts to talk(baby talk), capable of controlling when to eliminate body wastes, and able to
differentiate sex differences and develop sexual modesty.
2. Middle childhood (6-12 years old) - Learning: physical skills necessary for ordinary games,
to get along with other children with the same age, getting to know appropriate sex role.
Developing: fundamental skills in reading, writing and calculating, concepts necessary for every-
day living, conscience, morality, and values, building a wholesome attitude toward oneself and
achieving personal independence.

3. Adolescence (13-18 years old) Achieving: mature relations with both sexes, a masculine or
feminine social role, emotional independence of adults, preparing for: marriage and family life,
an economic career, accepting one’s physique, acquiring values and an ethical system to guide
behavior and desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior.

4. Early adulthood Late teens or early 20s to 30s. Time of establishing personal and economic
independence, career development, selecting a mate, and learning to live with someone in an
intimate way, starting a family and rearing children.
5. Middle adulthood (40 to 60 years old) Time of expanding personal and social involvement &
responsibility, assisting next generation in becoming competent and mature individuals, reaching
and maintaining satisfaction in a career
6. Late adulthood (60s and above) Time for adjustment to decreasing strength and health, life
review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles.

Graphic representation

Infancy and early childhood Late adulthood

Middle childhood Middle adulthood

The six stages of development

Adolescence Early adulthood

According to Dr. John Santrock’s Stages of Development and Developmental task, there
are eight stages. For every developmental stage, there is an expected developmental task.

1. Pre-natal Period – It is the progress before birth. There are three phases of pre-natal
 Germinal stage- first two weeks, conception, implantation formation of
 Embryonic stage- 2 weeks to 2 months, formation of vital organs and
 Fetal stage- 2 months to birth, bodily growth continues, movement
capability begins, braincells multiply age of viability.

2. Infancy- Birth- two years. Extreme dependence on adults, beginning psychological

activities: language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning,
language of newborn, usually eats every2-3 hours, uncoordinated movements, toothless,
poor vision (focusing range 8-12 inches), usually doubles weight by 9 months, respond to
human voice or touch.
 1 year old- change from plump baby to leaner more muscular toddlers, begins to
walk and talk, ability for passive language (better understanding of what’s being
said), tentative sense of independence, determined explorer.
 2 years old- begins to communicate verbally, can usually speak in 3-4 sentences,
famous for negative behavior, will play side by side other children but not
actively play with them, great imitators.

3. Early Childhood- 3 to 5 years.

 3 years old- wants to be just like parents, vocabulary and pronounciation continue
o expand, climbs stairs with alternating feet. Can briefly stand on one foot.
 4 years old- sentences are more complex, speaks well enough
for strangers to understand, imagination is vivid, line between
reality and imaginary is often indistinct, develops fear (common
 5 years old- can hop on one foot and skip, can accurately copy
figure, may begin to read, socialize to with other children their
4. Middle and Late Childhood- 6 to 12 years old, both large and small muscles are well
developed, develop complex motor skills, from independent activities to same sex group
activities, acceptance by peers, parental improval still important.
5. Adolescence- 13 to 18 years old, traumatic life stage for child and parent, puberty
occurs, extremely concerned with appearance, trying to establish self-identity,
comfrontations with authority.
6. Early Adulthood- 19 to 29 years old, physical development complete, emotional
maturation continue to develop, usually learned to accept responsibility, accept criticism,
usually knows how to profit from errors, socially related from age-related peer groups to
people with similar interests.
7. Middle Adulthood- 30-60 years old, physical changes begin to occur like hair begins to
thin gray, wrinkles appear, hearing and vision decrease. Muscles lose tone, your main
concerns are your children, health, job security, aging parents, and fear of aging, love and
acceptance still take a major role.
8. Late Adulthood- 61 years old and above, this is the fastest growing age of bracket of
society, physical deterioration, some memory problems, coping with retirement and
forms of entertainment, very concern with health and finances, become depressed and
suicide rate is high.


Pre-Natal Stage Infancy Early Childhood Middle & Late

Late Adulthood
Early Adulthood

Reference: Chinly Ruth Alberto (2018), Santrock and Havighurst's Developmental Stages,

tin072787 (2016), Module 2- The Stages of Development and

Developmental Tasks,

Lea Sandra Fijo Baizon (2014), Stages of Development and Developmental Tasks,