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Levels of Organization of
Organisms (1)
A. atoms (elements of periodic table)
Anatomy & Physiology B. molecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates,
basic framework nucleic acid)
C. cells (epithelial, bone, muscle, nervous)
Achmad Rizal D. tissues (epithelial, connective, muscular)
BioSPIN E. organ (stomach, heart, brain, lung)
F. organ system (muscular, skeletal, digestive,
G. whole organism (each different species)
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1.Levels of Organization of 2. Anatomy - the study of the

Organisms (2) structures of an organism
A. Gross Anatomy - structures as seen by unaided eye
B. Developmental Anatomy - study of the anatomy of
the developing organism
1. Embryology - fertilization to third month of fetus
C. Histology ("tissues" "to study") - structures that can
be seen with the microscope such as cells and tissues
1. Cytology - study of cell structure/function
D. Systemic Anatomy - study of individual organ system
E. Regional Anatomy - study of structures in particular
F. Pathology ("disease" "to study") - study of changes in
structure due to disease/injury
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3. Structure - Function 4. Anatomical Terminology - The

Relationships Language of Anatomy (1)
A. Summary of Common prefixes and suffixes (other file)
A. Anatomy - study of structure B. Anatomical Position
1. subject stands erect
Physiology - study of function 2. upper limbs placed at sides with palms forward
3. feet flat on floor in natural forward direction
B. Structure determines Function C. Directional Terms (practice using them in the lab!)
– SUPERIOR and INFERIOR describe vertical positions of structures.
Function determines Structure – ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR. Fore and aft positioning of structures
are described with these two terms.
C. Charles Darwin - "Origin of the – CRANIAL and CAUDAL – both may be used instead of anterior and
Species" (1858) - Changes in – DORSAL and VENTRAL – also used in place of anterior and
structure affect function: basis of posterior.
– PROXIMAL and DISTAL describe the proximity of a structure to its
evolution of all organisms point of attachment on the body.
– MEDIAL and LATERAL – are used to describe surface relationships
respect to the median line of the body.
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4. Anatomical Terminology - The 4. Anatomical Terminology - The
Language of Anatomy (2a) Language of Anatomy (2b)
• D. Planes and Sections
1. sagittal - divides into right and left parts
a. midsagittal - right down the middle
b. parasagittal - away from the midline
2. frontal (coronal) - divides anterior &
3. horizontal (transverse) - divide superior
& inferior
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4. Anatomical Terminology - The 4. Anatomical Terminology - The

Language of Anatomy (3a) Language of Anatomy (3b)
E. Body Cavities
1. Dorsal Body Cavity Æ cranial cavity (brain) ,vertebral cavity
• Body Cavity
(spinal cord)
2. Ventral Body Cavity (viscera - organs found here)
a. thoracic cavity
i. pleural cavity (space separating the parietal pleura
and visceral pleura of lungs - like balloon pushed in with
ii. mediastinum - all contents of thoracic cavity except
the lungs (eg. heart)
b. abdominopelvic cavity

i. abdominal - stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder,

pancreas, small intestine
ii. pelvic - urinary bladder, cecum, appendix, sigmoid
colon, rectum, reproductive organs
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4. Anatomical Terminology - The

Language of Anatomy (4)
3.Other Body Cavities • Cell : simplest structural units into which a
a. oral cavity (mouth) complex multi-cellular organism can be divided
b. nasal cavity (sinuses for air passage) and still retain the functions characteristic of
c. orbital cavities (eyes)
d. middle ear cavities (in temporal bone) • Cell differentiation : process of transforming
an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell
e. synovial cavities (freely moveable joints)
• Differentiated cells with similar properties
aggregate to form tissue (nerve tissue, muscle
tissue, and so on)
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• Combination of some tissue’s type • Muscle cell : specialized to generate the mechanical
form organ (the heart, lungs, kidneys, force that produce force and movement
and so on) • Nerve cell : specialized to initiate and conduct electric
• Some organs are linked together to signals, often over long distance
form organ systems. • Epithelial cell : specialized or selective secretion and
• Cells are classified according broad absorption of ions and organic molecule
types of function they perform, four • Connective-tissue cell: connecting, anchoring, and
categories emerge : (1)muscle cell supporting the structure of body
(2)nerve cell (3)epithelial cell
(4)connective-tissue cell
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• Types of cell based on their shape : (1)muscle cell – System Major organ/tissue Primary function
(skeletal), (2)smooth cell (3) cardiac cell
Circulatory Heart, blood vessel, blood Transport of blood,
• Tissue : 1)muscle tissue (2)nerve tissue (3)epithelial (some classification also throughout the
tissue (4)connective-tissue include lymphatic vessel and body’s tissue
• Organs are composed of the four kinds of tissues lymph in this system)
arranged in various proportion & pattern Respiratory Nose, pharynx, larynx, Exchange of carbon
trachea, bronchi, lung dioxide and oxygen:
• Organ system : collection of organ that together regulation of
perform overall function hydrogen ion

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System Major organ/tissue Primary function
System Major organ/tissue Primary function
Digestive Mouth, pharynx, Digestion, and Musculoskelet Cartilage, bone, Support, protection,
esophagus, stomach, absorption of organic ligament, tendons, and movement of the
intestines, salivary glands, nutrients, salts, and joint, skeletal muscle body; production of
pancreas, liver, water blood cell
Immune White blood cell, Defense against
Urinary Kidney, ureter, bladder, Regulation of plasma lymph vessel and node, foreign invaders,
urethra through controlled spleen, thymus, and return of extra
excretion of salt, other lymphoid tissue cellular fluid to
water, and organic blood, formation of
waste blood cell
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System Major organ/tissue Primary function System Major organ/tissue Primary function
Nervous Brain, spinal cord, Regulation and Reproductiv Male : testes, penis and Male : production of sperm.
peripheral nerves and coordination of many e associated duct and gland Transfer of sperm to female
ganglia, special sense activities in the body, Female : ovaries, uterine tubes, Female : production of eggs,
organ detection of change in the uterus, vagina, mammary glands provision of nutritive
internal & external environment for the developing
environment, state of embryo & fetus, nutrition of the
consciousness, learning, infant
cognition All gland secreting hormones, Regulation & coordination
Integumentary Skin Protection again injury & pancreas, testes, ovaries, many activities in the body
dehydration, defense again hypothalamus, kidney, pituitary,
foreign invaders, regulation thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal
of temperature intestinal, thymus, heart, pineal
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7. THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT 8. Homeostatic Control

& HOMEOSTATIS Mechanisms
• Internal environment : environment • Nervous and Endocrine system
surrounding the cell Æ extracellular fluid
– Nervous system
• Homeostatis : concept that the • Electrical signals - impulses
composition of the internal environment
– Endocrine system
is maintained relatively constant
• Hormones transported in blood to target cells
• Homeostatic control system : collection
of body component that functions to • Receptor
maintain a physical or chemical property – Monitors the environment
of internal environment relatively – Detects changes
constant • Stimuli – changes in the environment
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9. Negative Feedback 10. Positive Feedback

Mechanisms Mechanisms
• The response enhances or exaggerates the
• Opposes (limits the intensity) or eliminates
original stimulus
the original stimulus
• Positive means that the change occurs in
• Negative means that the variable changes in a
the direction of the original stimulus
direction opposite to the initial change
• Rarely used to promote homeostasis
• Negative feedback maintains body functions
within a range • Examples
– Childbirth – pressure receptors; effector
• Most homeostatic mechanisms in the body
muscles of uterus; contraction to push baby
involved negative feedback through birth canal
• Mechanisms ignore minor variations but – Blood clotting – increase in number of
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maintain homeostasis within a range platelets sticking to the broken blood vessel

11. Homeostatic Imbalance COMPARTEMENT (1)
• Homeostatic imbalance • Body fluid are enclosed in compartment
– Sick • The extracellular fluid is composed of
– Disease blood plasma (higher protein, 20%) and
interstitial fluid (fluid between cellÆ
Exp : hypothermia, fever 80%)
• The composition of compartments
reflect the activities of barriers
separating intracellular fluid and
extracellular fluid
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• Control Center Fluid compartement of body, volume are for normal 70 kg man

– Integration center
– Determines the set point within the range
– Analyzes the information
– Determines the response
• Effector
– Provides the response
• Muscles contract or relax
• Glands secrete or stop secreting
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13. Medical Imaging Techniques (1) 13. Medical Imaging Techniques (2)
A. Classic X-ray : radiography (radiograph) D. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- good for dense structures (bones and tumors) - uses magnetic properties of molecules, not X-rays
B. Computed Tomography (CT) or Computerized Axial - presence of cancer cells, chemical disease of brain, spinal
Tomography (CAT) Scanning cord disorders, blood flow problems, injury after stroke,
- employs X-ray technology to create clearer image measure effects of drugs on tissues
- tumors, aneurysms, kidney stones, gallstones, etc. - used chiefly on soft tissues such as brain & heart
C. Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction (DSR)
- employs X-ray technology to see organ E. Ultrasound (US)
action/motion - uses high frequency sound waves
- measures physiology of heart, lungs, vessels; can - gall stones, pelvic organs, blood flow, fetal development
indicate abnormality/deformity in structure; tissue
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13. Medical Imaging Techniques (3)
F. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
- uses radioisotopes such as Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13
- effects of drugs, site of molecules, cancer cells
- very good at studying glucose absorption by neurons
in the brain during certain tasks

G. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)

- takes X-ray picture before and after administration
of contrast substance to the vessels
- used to study vessels of the brain and heart to help
prevent strokes and heart attacks

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