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# Design B1, C1, F1 f c  25 N mm 2 f y  420 N mm2

## Design one way Ribbed slab

4.50
F2 F2
C2 C2
4.50

F1 F1
B1 C1 C1
2.00
Minimum thickness of Beams & one-way ribbed slabs
Element Simply One end Both ends Cantilever
supported continuous continuous
One-way l/16 l/18.5 l/21 l/8
ribbed slabs

hmin  450 / 16  28 cm
hmin  450 / 18  25 cm
hmin  200 / 8  25 cm
• Total volume (hatched) = 0.52 x 0.25 x
0.28 = 0.035 m3
• Volume of one hollow block = 0.4 x 0.20
x 0.25 = 0.02 m3
• Net concrete volume = 0.035 - 0.02 =
0.015 m3
• Weight of concrete = 0.015 x 2.5 (10)=
0.375 kN
• Weight of concrete /m2 =
0.375/(0.52)(0.25) = 2.88 kN/ m2
• Weight of hollow locks /m2 =
20(10)/(0.52)(0.25)(1000) = 1.54 kN/ m2
• Covering Materials = 2.5 kN/m2

7 kN/ m2

## • Live Load = 2.5 kN/m2

Beam Analysis & design

## wu  1.20 7  4.5  9 wall   1.60 2.5  4.5  66 .6 ton / m 2

66 .6  4.52
Mu  168 .6 kN.m
8
66.6  4.5
Vu max 150 kN
2
Flexural Design
M u  168.6 kN.m
b  80cm  800mm
h  28cm  280mm
d  28  2.5cover  0.8  1.4 14 / 2  24cm  240mm

0.85 f c   2 106 M u  
 1  1    
fy 
  0.85  f c bw d  

M u  kN.m
f c' , f y  N / mm or Mpa
d , bw  mm
assume     lim    0.9

## 0.8525   2 106 168.6 

 1  1      0.0108
2 
420 
  0.85 0.9 25 800  240  
3  f c  3  25 
 max  (0.851 )   (0.85)(0.85)   0.0184
7 f
 y 7  420 

3  f c  3  25 
 lim  (0.851 )   (0.85)(0.85)   0.0161
8 f  8  420 
 y
 f c 1.4   25 1.4 
 m in  max ,   max ,   0.0033
 4 f y f y   4420 420 
   lim  ok
As  bw d  0.0108 800  240  2073.6mm 2  20.73cm 2
use
1414
1116
General Note

if   m ax     lim
   0. 9
2
  1 

 600  f y 
1  0.65  0.25   0.65  0.25 600  420   0.21

 1000  f y   1000  420 
 f c  600 
2  0.25(0.851 )    0.25(0.85)(0.85) 25  600 
  0.011

 f y  1000  f y   420  1000  420 

0.011
  0.21 
 old
You can check  using  new
0.85 f c   2 106 M u   If there is no clear difference your
 new  1  1    
fy 
  0.85  f c bw d   solve is OK
Shear Design
25
VCd   VC  0.75   240  800 / 1000  120kN
6
0.5 VC  60kN Vu  150 kN

## Shear R. minimum Vu  0.5Vcd

No shear reinforcement

Vcd  Vu  0.5Vcd
 3 Av f y d   3  200  420 240 
sm ax  min  , ,600  min  , ,600  min315,120,600
 bw 2   800 2 
Vu  Vcd

s   504 mm
Vsd 30  1000
use
 8 @ 12cm
at the two ends
Checks

## the section is adequat if

2  
Vsd    f c  bw d
3 
2 
30  0.75  25c  800 * 240 / 1000  480
3 

 f c   3 Av f y d 
Vsd     bw d  s  min  , , 300 mm
 3   bw 4 
 25 
30  0.75  800  240 / 1000  240
 3 
Column Design
• For 5 stories
C1 Factored Load is 150kN for 1 floor
For 5 floors P for C1 = 750kN

## 750,000  0.65  0.8 Ag 0.85 30  0.01 420  0.85  30

Ag  48983.1 mm 2
use 500mm 200mm  50cm 20cm
As  0.0150  20  10cm 2
use 814
‫سأوضح لك تصميم القواعد بالتفصيل‬ Footing design
F1 Isolated Footing
Ps = 580 kN
Pu = 750kN
qall =200kpa

Area required
qall ( net)  20t / m 2  200kPa
Ps 580 103
Ag    2.9 m 2
 1.8 *1.8
qall ( net) 200 10 3

Pu 750 103
qu    230 103 Pa  230kPa
A 1.8 *1.8
Check for punching Shear
d = 43.5 cm

## bo  2(435  500)  (435  200)  3140cm

 2  fc '  2 
 VC   1   
bo d  0.75 1  
25
 435  3140 / 1000  1536.6kN
  50  6
 c  3
 20 
fc ' 25
 VC   bo d  0.75   435  3140 / 1000  1707.4kN
3 3
 sd  fc '  40  435  25
 VC    2   bo d  0.75 2    435  3140 / 1000  3219kN
 b  12  3140  12

 
VU  230 * 1.82  0.635 * 0.935  608.6kN

VU  VC O.K
Check for beam shear
b = 1800mm, d = 435mm

25
 VC  0.75   435 1800 / 1000  489.5kN
6

## VC at d from column face 

 1. 8  0. 2 
VU  230 *   0.435  *1.8  151.11kN
 2 
VU  VC

O.K
Bending moment & Area of steel

 1.8  0.2 
2

## M U  230.0 *   * 0.5  73.6kN

 2 
b  1000mm, d  435mm
25  2 106 * 73.6 
  0.85 * 1 - 1 -   0.001  min
420  0.90.8525 * 435 *1000 
2

## AS  0.0018 500 1000  900mm2  9cm 2 use 812 / m two direction

‫سأوضح لك ذلك الحقا بالتفصيل‬ ‫‪Slab design‬‬
‫‪Wall‬‬
‫‪wu‬‬
‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬
‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬

Wall

L L
D D

L
D D
Wall
L
D D
Two way slab
Two way slabs Types
When the ratio (L/S ) is less than 2.0, it is called two - way slab

Flat Plates
A flat plate floor is a two-way slab with no supporting beams, only columns.
Flat Plate suitable span 7.5 m with LL= 500 kg/m2

Low cost formwork
Exposed flat ceilings
Fast
Low shear capacity
Low Stiffness (notable deflection)
Flat Slabs
A two-way slab with column capitals or drop panels, or both.
Flat Slab Max. suitable span 10m with LL= 700kg\m2

Low cost formwork
Exposed flat ceilings
Fast
Need more formwork for
capital and panels
Edge supported solid Slabs

## The system can be used economically for spans up to 7.0 meters.

Waffle Slab
• The waffle slab is capable of providing the largest spans of the conventional
concrete floor systems, and can be economically used for spans up to 14.0
meters.
• The ribs are formed with fiberglass or metal dome forms. The ribs are usually
0.60 to 0.90 meter on center. Shear is transferred to the columns by using beams

Attractive exposed ceilings
Fast
Formwork with panels is
expensive
Edge supported Ribbed Slabs
This system can be economically used for spans up to 7.0 meters. It is similar to the
waffle slab, but the voids between ribs are filled with hollow blocks
Design Methods
Simplified Design Methods
Empirical formulae and approximate theories have been
formulated which give bending moments in slabs supported on
all four edges
Grashoff Method

w  ws  wl
The central defection of the strip in L direction
5 wl L4
l 
384 EI
The central defection of the strip in S direction
5 ws S 4
s 
384 EI

5 wl L4 5 ws S 4 ws L4
  4
384 EI 384 EI wl S

ws L4
 4
ws  wl L  S 4

Since

w  ws  wl
 L4 
ws  w  4 
 let r = L/S
L S
4

 r4 
ws  w    w

 1  r 4

 1 
wl  w   w

1  r
4

r=L/S 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0

 0.500 0.594 0.675 0.741 0.793 0.835 0.868 0.893 0.913 0.929 0.941

 0.500 0.406 0.325 0.259 0.207 0.165 0.132 0.107 0.087 0.071 0.059
Marcus Method
Marcus has given an approximate method for determining bending
moments in slabs simply supported on four edges with corners
prevented from being lifted, and considering torsion in the slab.

r=L/S 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0

0.292 0.355 0.411 0.470 0.526 0.577 0.623 0.663 0.699 0.730 0.757

0.292 0.240 0.198 0.165 0.137 0.114 0.095 0.079 0.067 0.056 0.047

Egyptian Code Method
The Egyptian code method has extended the last methods for
analysis of continuous slabs, where individual panels have different
supporting conditions.
To account for the various supporting conditions, the rectangularity
ratio r =L/S is modified to be
L ml
r 
S ms

## For simply supported spans, m = 1.0, for spans continuous from

one side, m = 0.87, and for spans continuous from both sides, m =
0.76.
r' 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85

0.35 0.29 0.25 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.08

Beams for Two-way Slabs Designed by
Approximate Methods

S
r =L/S 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
0.500 0.545 0.583 0.615 0.643 0.667 0.688 0.706 0.722 0.737 0.750
Cs
0.667 0.725 0.769 0.803 0.830 0.852 0.870 0.885 0.897 0.908 0.917
Cb
Minimum Slab Thickness of Two-way
Edge-supported Slabs
The following values give some indication for the minimum thickness of
two way slab (solid or ribbed slab)

## Suitable for Gaza

Example 1
Using the Grashoff coefficients design the simply supported solid slab shown in
Figure . Assume that the beam webs are 25 cm wide. Weight of flooring materials is
2 kN/m2, and the live load is 4 kN/m2. use h=140mm

f y  420 Mpa
f c  25 Mpa
Solution

Minimum Slab Thickness for two-way
construction (ACI code)
The ACI Code 9.5.3 specifies a minimum slab thickness to
control deflection. There are three empirical limitations
for calculating the slab thickness (h), which are based on
experimental research. If these limitations are not met, it
will be necessary to compute deflection.
 fy 
(a) For 0.2   m  2 ln  0.8  
h  1400 
36  5  m  0.2 
4E cb I b / l E cb I b 2
 
4E cs I s / l E cs I s 3 1
E cb  Modulus of elasticity of beam concrete
E sb  Modulus of elasticity of slab concrete 4
I b  Moment of inertia of uncrackedbeam
 m   
1 2  3 4

## I s  Moment of inertia of uncrackedslab 4

fy in N/mm2.
(b) For m  2
 fy 
ln  0.8  
h  1400 
 for f y  420 N / mm 2

36  9 
1.1ln 
h
36  9 
(c) For  m  0.2
Use the following table
The definitions of the terms are:

## h = Minimum slab thickness without interior beams

ln = Clear span in the long direction measured face to
face of column
  the ratio of the long to short clear span
m= The average value of a for all beams on the sides
of the panel.
Example 1 Ref 2
Design Sec. A-A & B-B in the two-way solid slab. The covering materials
weigh is 2kN/m2, and the live load is 3kN/m2. Also,
A All beams are 25 cm wide.

f y  420 Mpa
f c  25 Mpa
B B

A
3 - Evaluate load distribution in both directions:
A

B B

A
Sec. A-A

Sec. B-B
Example 2 Ref 2

## Design the two-way ribbed slab

The covering materials weigh 2.00 N/mm2, live load is 3.00
N/mm2.

f y  420 Mpa
f c  25 Mpa
(assumption)

ln
hm in 
33
770
  23 .33 cm  25 cm
33
wu  1.20 3.64  1.05  2 1.60 3
12.8 kN / m2
Analysis
use
114  straight
116  bent
Two way slab
Direct Design Method
DDM
Direct Design Method for Two-way Slab
Method of dividing total static moment Mo into
positive and negative moments.

## Limitations on use of Direct Design method

1 - Minimum of 3 continuous spans in each
direction. (3 x 3 panel)
2 - Rectangular panels with long span/short span
2
Limitations on use of Direct Design method

## 3- Successive span in each direction shall not differ by

more than 1/3 the longer span.

## 4 - Columns may be offset

from the basic rectangular
grid of the building by up to
0.1 times the span parallel to
the offset.
5- All loads must be due to gravity only (N/A to
unbraced laterally loaded frames, from mats or pre-
stressed slabs)
7- For panels with beams between supports on all sides,
relative stiffness of the beams in the 2 perpendicular
directions.
1l22
 2l12
Shall not be less than 0.2 nor greater than 5.0
Definition of Beam-to-Slab Stiffness Ratio, 

## Accounts for stiffness effect of beams located along

slab edge reduces deflections of panel

## flexural stiffnessof beam


flexural stiffnessof slab
4 Ecb I b /l 4 Ecb I b
α 
4 Ecs I s /l 4 Ecs I s

## E cb  Modulus of elasticity of beam concrete

E sb  Modulus of elasticity of slab concrete
I b  Moment of inertia of uncrackedbeam
I s  Moment of inertia of uncrackedslab

## With width bounded laterally by centerline of adjacent

panels on each side of the beam.
Basic Steps in Two-way Slab Design DDM

## 1- Choose slab thickness to control deflection. Also,

check if thickness is adequate for shear.
2- Calculate positive and negative moments in the slab.
3- Determine distribution of moments across the width of
the slab. - Based on geometry and beam stiffness.
4- Assign a portion of moment to beams
Minimum slab thickness (see lecture 6)

## Maximum Spacing of Reinforcement

At points of max. +/- M:
s  2t ACI 13.3.2
and s  18 in. ACI 7.12.3

## As min   AsT&S from ACI 7.12  ACI 13.3.1

Distribution of Moments

## Slab is considered to be a series of frames in two

directions:
Total static Moment, Mo

2
M0 
wll
u 2 n
ACI 13 - 3
8
where
wu  factoredload per unit area
l2  transverse width of the strip
ln  clear span between columns
for circular columns,calc.ln using h  0.886dc 
Column Strips and Middle Strips
Moments vary across width of slab panel

##  Design moments are averaged over the

width of column strips over the
columns & middle strips between
column strips.
Column Strips and Middle Strips
Column strips Design
w/width on either side of
a column centerline equal
to smaller of 0.25 l
2

 0.25 l1
l1= length of span in
direction moments are
being determined.
l2= length of span
transverse to l1
Column Strips and Middle Strips
Middle strips: Design
strip bounded by two
column strips.
Positive and Negative Moments in Panels
M0 is divided into + M and -M Rules given in ACI sec.
13.6.3
Longitudinal Distribution of Moments in
Slabs
For a typical interior panel, the total static moment is
divided into positive moment 0.35 Mo and negative
moment of 0.65 Mo.
For an exterior panel, the total static moment is
dependent on the type of reinforcement at the outside
edge.
Distribution of M0
The factored
components of
the moment for
the beam.
Transverse Distribution of Moments
Transverse distribution of the
longitudinal moments to middle and
column strips is a function of the ratio
of length l2/l1,1, and t.

Ecb I b EcbC C
1  t  
Ecs I s 2 Ecs I s 2 I s
 0.63x  x 3 y 
C   1    torsional constant
 y  3 
 0.63x  x 3 y 
C   1   
 y  3 

## Take largest value of C from the following

Factored Moment in Column Strip
Factored Moment in an Exterior Panel
Minimum extension for reinforcement in
slabs without beams(Fig. 13.3.8)
Example 1
Design the long direction of an interior panel
of the two-way slab for the floor system.The
floor consists of six panels at each direction,
with a panel size 7.5 m x 6 m. All panels are
supported by 40 cm square columns. The
slabs are supported by beams along the
column line with cross sections. The service
live load is to be taken as 4kN/m2 and the
floor finishing in addition to the self-weight.
h=18cm
The cross-sections are:
h = 18cm
The weight of the slab is given as.
wu  1.26.5  1.6(4)  14.2kN / m2
d  18  2  1.6  14.4cm  use _ 16
Example 1 – Strip Size
Calculate the strip sizes

4.5m
Example 1, Static Moment Computation
Moment Mo for the two directions.
long direction
Ln  750  40  710cm

M ol 
wl2 ln
2

14.2  67.12
 537kN.m
8 8

short direction
Ln  600  40  560cm

M ol 
wl2 ln
2

14.2  7.55.62
 418kN.m
8 8
Example 1 – Moments (long)

## The factored components

of the moment for the
beam (long).

## Negative - Moment 0.65 537   349 kN.m

Positive + Moment 0.35 537   188 kN.m
Example 1- - Moment (long) Coefficients
The moments of inertia about beam, Ib = 0.01 m4 and Is
= 0.0027 m4 (long direction) are need to determine the
distribution of the moments between the column and
middle strip.

l2 6
   0 .8
l1 7.5
Ib 0.01
1    3 .7
I s 0.0027
l2
1  3.7(0.8)  2.96
l1
Example 1- Column Strip Factors (negative)

## col. strip factor Need to interpolate to

0.9 - 0.75 determine how the negative
0.9  (0.8  0.5)  0.81
0.5 - 1.0 moment is distributed.
Example 1 - Column Strip Factors (positive)

## col. strip factor Need to interpolate to

0.9 - 0.75 determine how the positive
0.9  (0.8  0.5)  0.81
0.5 - 1.0 moment is distributed
Example 1 - Moment (long) column/middle
strips
Components on the beam (long).
Column Strip
Negative – Moment 0.81(349 )  282 .7 kN.m
Positive + Moment 0.81(188 )  152 kN.m
Middle Strip
Negative – Moment 0.19 (349 )  66 kN.m
Positive + Moment 0.19 (188 )  36 kN.m
Example 1 - Moment (long)-beam/slab
distribution
When 1 (l2/l1) > 1.0, ACI Code Section 13.6.5 indicates that
85 % of the moment in the column strip is assigned to the beam
and balance of 15 % is assigned to the slab in the column strip.

## Column Strip - Negative Moment

Beam Moment 0.85 (282 .7)  240 .3kN.m
Slab Moment 0.15 (320 )  42 .4kN.m
Column Strip - Positive Moment
Beam Moment 0.85 (152 )  129 kN.m
Slab Moment 0.15 (152 )  23 kN.m
Results

## d  58  4  0.8  0.8  52cm  520mm

b  40cm  400mm
   As  check _ shear

d  14.4cm  144mm
b  3m  3000mm
   As  check _ shear