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# DATA AND RESULT

## TRIALS SV MV PB1(%) T11(S) TD(S) SETTLING

TIME (S)
First Trial 15 68.1 70 40 0 216
Second Trial 15 69.3 45 30 0 136.8
Third Trial 15 69.3 20 10 2 100.8
Table 1: Trial values for POD control of pressure in single capacity process

## First Trial Second Trial

𝑚𝑚
Chart speed= 500 . length is 1.9 cm,
ℎ𝑟
10 𝑚𝑚
length is 3.0 cm, 1.9 𝑐𝑚 × = 19 𝑚𝑚
1𝑐𝑚
10 𝑚𝑚
3.0 𝑐𝑚 × = 30 𝑚𝑚
1𝑐𝑚
1 ℎ𝑟 3600𝑠
19𝑚𝑚 × × = 𝟏𝟑𝟔. 𝟖 𝒔
500𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟
1 ℎ𝑟 3600𝑠
30𝑚𝑚 × × = 𝟐𝟏𝟔 𝒔
500𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟

Third Trial
length is 1.4 cm,
10 𝑚𝑚
1.4 𝑐𝑚 × = 14 𝑚𝑚
1𝑐𝑚

1 ℎ𝑟 3600𝑠
14𝑚𝑚 × × = 𝟏𝟎𝟎. 𝟖 𝒔
500𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟

Table 2: Calculation of settling time for PID control of pressure in single capacity process
(T91).
Results for PID control of pressure in two capacity process

## TRIALS SV MV PB1(%) T11(S) TD(S) SETTLING

TIME (S)
First Trial 18 40 70 40 0 244.8
Second Trial 18 95 45 30 0 108
Third Trial 18 95 20 10 2 72
Table 3: Trial values for PID control of pressure in two capacity process

## First Trial Second Trial

𝑚𝑚
Chart speed= 500 . length is 1.5 cm,
ℎ𝑟
10 𝑚𝑚
length is 3.4 cm, 1.5 𝑐𝑚 × = 15 𝑚𝑚
1𝑐𝑚
10 𝑚𝑚
3.4 𝑐𝑚 × = 34 𝑚𝑚
1𝑐𝑚
1 ℎ𝑟 3600𝑠
15𝑚𝑚 × × = 𝟏𝟎𝟖 𝒔
500𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟
1 ℎ𝑟 3600𝑠
34𝑚𝑚 × × = 𝟐𝟒𝟒. 𝟖 𝒔
500𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟

Third Trial
length is 1.0 cm,
10 𝑚𝑚
1.0 𝑐𝑚 × = 10 𝑚𝑚
1𝑐𝑚

1 ℎ𝑟 3600𝑠
10𝑚𝑚 × × = 𝟕𝟐 𝒔
500𝑚𝑚 1ℎ𝑟

Table 4: Calculation of settling time for PID control of pressure in two capacity process (T91
and T92).
DISCUSSION

The objectives of this experiment are to identify the important components of the air pressure
control system and to mark them in the P&I diagram. Besides, the objective is can learn on
how to carry out the start-up procedures in a systematically way. Next, it is also important to
control the pressure in single capacity and two capacity processes using PID controller.

During start-up procedures, the panel controller PIC91 was in Manual (M) mode and the MV
was adjusted to -6.3% to ensure that the control valve PCV91 was open fully. After that, PLI
was fully opened and the manual by-pass B92 was opened and manual valve inlet MVI and
outlet MV92 were shut. MV91 was slowly open until the flow rate was 25 Nm 3 /hr at flow
meter FI92. Then, PCV91 was shut fully from PIC91 and MV was adjusted in Manual (M)
mode to 106.3%. The pressure was correctly set as the pressure was about 22 to 27 psig.
After that, PCV91 was fully open and MV again adjusted to -6.3%. The chart drive then start
recorded. The manual discharge globe valve MV92A was opened and gate valve MV92B was
shut. The graph shows that it oscillates smoothly without any changes detect.

## Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control is the most common control algorithm used in

industry and has been universally accepted in industrial control. The popularity of PID
controllers can be attributed partly to their robust performance in a wide range of operating
conditions and partly to their functional simplicity, which allows engineers to operate them in
a simple, straightforward manner (PID Theory Explained - National Instruments, 2011). The
proportional corrects instances of error, the integral corrects accumulation of error, and the
derivative corrects present error versus error the last time it was checked. The effect of the
derivative is to counteract the overshoot caused by P and I. When the error is large, the P and
the I will push the controller output. This controller response makes error change quickly,
which in turn causes the derivative to more aggressively counteract the P and the I (Hogensen,
2016).

The equipment that used in this experiment is the air pressure process control training system.
This model is AP 922, uses air to stimulate a gas phase pressure process. In this process
plant, it consists of two air vessels T91 and T92 with the associated piping, valves and fittings.
Each vessel generally has single/multiple air inlets and multiple outlets and is to be operated
with continuous air inflow and outflow. Each vessel has its own vent (V), bottom drain (D),
pressure relief valve (PRV) and pressure gauge (PG). Process air from an external
compressed air supply is manually regulated into vessel T91 via the pressure regulator (AR91)
and the manual valve MV91. This plant can either be operated as a single capacity system or
as a two-capacity system. For a single capacity system operation, tank T91 is used while the
tank T92 is by-passed. Air is discharged from process vent (VP) to the atmosphere (Micet,
2018).

First of all, this experiment consists of two parts which is single capacity and two capacity. For
the first part of the experiment, 3 trial values as shown in table 1 was done for testing the
system. The set point for the first part was set at 15 psig. For the first trial value the settling
time was 216s while for second trial value was 136.8s and the third trial was 100.8s. Based
on the graph, it shows that the first trial took a longer time to reach the steady state compare
to the second trial and third trial. This is because the first trial was less stable compared to the
other two trials. Based on the peak recorded on the graph, it shows that the third trial value
response was faster as the time integral (TI) which is the time reset was shorter therefore its
response faster. Because of the probability of offset can happen, the time integral is important
to ensure that the error eliminated by reset the time. The shorter the integral time, the stronger
the correction of the integral section (Skogestad, 2001). Therefore, the lower time integral
been introduced is to reduce the probability for the process response to offset because of the
faster response.

For the second part of the experiment was done for the PID control of pressure in two capacity.
In the second part T91 and T92 were used. The control valve PCV91 was opened 50% from
PIC91 by changing the MV=50%. The set point was set to 18 psig. This part of experiment
was testing by 3 trial values that shown on the table 3. Based on the table 3, for the first trial
value the settling time was 244.8s while for second trial value was 108s and the third trial was
72s. Based on the graph, the first trial shown high peak from the set point compared to second
trial and third trial. It also shows that the first trial is wavier than the other two trials. Based on
the settling point, it shows that the third trial have the fastest response and it was the most
stable compared the other two trials. The response for the process in third trial was most
stable, less oscillation occurred and once the disturbance, MV=60.3% been introduced it
shows faster response to go back to the offset. As the process become quite stable, it has a
probability to offsets so the time integral also need to reduce to prevent the offsets to occur in
the faster response process.

Based on the response which can be observed it shows that as the TI decreased, the
oscillation will decrease, and the response will be more stable. TI is the time reset. Ti is the
integral time constant and Td the derivative time constant. The proportional part acts on the
present value of the error, the integral represents an average of past errors and the derivative
can be interpreted as a prediction of future errors based (Honeywell, 2000). The proportional
term considers the current size of controller error only at the time of the controller calculation,
the integral term considers the history of the error, or how long and how far the measured
process variable has been from the set point over time.

There were few possible errors that can occur during the experiment which caused ideal result
could not be obtained. Firstly, failure in identifying which valve must be opened or closed.
Next, the air supply for the equipment must be correctly set. In addition, the disturbance
applied on the process was done for a very short time. Thus, the ideal expected results could
not be achieved due to these errors that occurred during the experiment.

REFERENCES

## Hogensen, J. (2016). PID for Dummies - Control Solutions. Retrieved from

https://www.csimn.com/CSI_pages/PIDforDummies.html
Honeywell, D. (2000). PID Control. CDS Caltech Edu.

## PID Theory Explained - National Instruments. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ni.com/white-

paper/3782/en/

Skogestad, S. (2001). Probably the best simple PID tuning rules in the world. Retrieved from
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/05b2/07a58365e1b19485ca82cac53bb8e9ea1025.pdf