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MPLS Concepts

Identifying MPLS Applications

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.2—1-1


Outline

• Overview
• What Applications Are Used with MPLS?
• What Is Unicast IP Routing?
• What Is Multicast IP Routing?
• What are MPLS VPNs?
• What Is MPLS TE
• What Is MPLS QoS?
• What is AToM?
• What Are the Interactions Between MPLS Applications?
• Summary

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-2


MPLS Applications

• MPLS is already used in many different


applications:
– Unicast IP routing
– Multicast IP routing
– MPLS TE
– QoS
– MPLS VPNs (course focus)
– AToM

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-3


MPLS Unicast IP Routing

• Basic MPLS service supports unicast IP routing.


• MPLS unicast IP routing provides enhancement over
traditional IP routing.
– The ability to use labels for packet forwarding:
• Label-based forwarding provides greater efficiency.
• The FEC corresponds to a destination address stored
in the IP routing table.
• Labels support connection-oriented services.
– The capability to carry a stack of labels assigned to a
packet:
• Label stacks allow implementation of enhanced
applications.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-4
MPLS Multicast IP Routing

• MPLS can also support multicast IP routing:


– A dedicated protocol is not needed to support multicast
traffic across an MPLS domain.
– Cisco Protocol Independent Multicast Version 2 with
extensions for MPLS is used to propagate routing
information and labels.
– The FEC is equal to a destination multicast address stored
in the multicast routing table.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-5


MPLS VPNs

• MPLS VPNs are highly scaleable and support IP services


such as:
– Multicast
– Quality of QoS
– Telephony support within a VPN
– Centralized services including content and web hosting to a VPN
• Networks are learned via an IGP from a customer or via BGP
from other MPLS backbone routers.
• Labels are propagated via MP-BGP. Two labels are used:
– The top label points to the egress router.
– The second label identifies the outgoing interface on
the egress router or a routing table where a routing lookup is
performed.
• FEC is equivalent to a VPN site descriptor or VPN routing table.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-6


MPLS TE

• MPLS TE supports constraints-based routing


• MPLS TE enables the network administrator to
– Control traffic flow in the network
– Reduce congestion in the network
– Make best use of network resources
• MPLS TE requires OSPF or ISIS with extensions to hold the
entire network topology in their databases.
• OSPF and IS-IS should also have some additional information
about network resources and constraints.
• RSVP is used to establish TE tunnels and to propagate labels.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-7


MPLS QoS

• MPLS QoS provides differentiated types of service


across an MPLS network.
• MPLS QoS offers:
– Packet classification
– Congestion avoidance
– Congestion management.
• MPLS QoS is an extension to unicast IP routing
that provides differentiated services.
• Extensions to LDP are used to propagate different
labels for different classes.
• The FEC is a combination of a destination network
and a class of service.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-8
Any Transport over MPLS

• AToM transports Layer 2 traffic over an IP or MPLS


backbone.
• AToM accommodates many types of Layer 2 frames,
including Ethernet, Frame Relay, ATM, PPP, and
HDLC.
• AToM enables connectivity between existing data link
layer (Layer 2) networks by using a single, integrated,
packet-based network infrastructure.
• AToM forwarding uses two-level labels.
• AToM also offers performance, scalability, and other
MPLS enhancements such as TE, fast reroute, and
QoS.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-9


Examples of AToM

• Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPS)


– Supports the transport of Ethernet frames across an MPLS
core for a particular Ethernet or virtual LAN (VLAN) segment
– Applications include TLS and VPLS
• ATM over MPLS
– Supports two types of transport mechanisms of ATM frames
across an MPLS core:
• AAL5-over-MPLS mode
• Cell-relay mode
• Frame Relay over MPLS
– Supports transport of Frame Relay packets over MPLS core
– Carries BECN, FECN, DE, and C/R in a control word header

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-10


Interactions Between MPLS Applications

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-11


Summary

• MPLS is used in many applications: unicast IP routing, multicast IP


routing, MPLS VPNs, MPLS TE, QoS, and AToM.
• Basic MPLS provides unicast IP routing using an IP routing
protocol and a label distribution protocol.
• MPLS multicast IP routing does not need a dedicated protocol to
support multicast traffic across an MPLS domain.
• MPLS VPNs provide highly scaleable VPNs providing IP services.
• MPLS TE supports constraints-based routing.
• MPLS QoS extends unicast IP routing and provides differentiated
services.
• AToM transports Layer 2 traffic over an IP or MPLS backbone.
• Some MPLS applications may use a different routing and label
exchange protocol; however, the applications all use the same
label-forwarding engine.

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-12


© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS v2.1—1-13