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-Part 9-

Magnetic Potential

1. Magnetic Induction

2. Gauss's Law for Magnetic Fields

3. The Vector and Scalar Potentials

4. Dipole Moment and Potential

5. Dipole Field
(1) Magnetic Induction
(Induksi Magnetik)

Two loops of electric current Ia and Ib separated by

a distance r. Unit vector is directed from an
element dlb of loop b to element dla of loop a.
Consider the two loops of current shown in the Figure with
currents Ia and Ib, respectively.

The force acting on a small element dla of loop a caused

by electric current in element dlb of the second loop is given
by the Lorentz force:

The factor Cm is a proportionality constant,

analogous to Newton's gravitational constant ; it is
used to adjust units and will be discussed
In discussing Newtonian potential, we considered one mass to be a
test particle with unit magnitude. Likewise, we now let loop a act as a
"test loop" and define a vector B such that


This is simply a derivative form of the Lorentz equation that

describes the force acting on a charge Q moving with velocity v
through a magnetic field:
Integration of equation :

around the loop of wire yields the Biot-Savart law:

Vector B in this equation is called the magnetic

induction, magnetic flux density, or simply the
magnetic field of a loop of current.

Magnetic induction is defined as follows:

Electric current induces a force on a moving charge; the force is the vector
product of the magnetic induction field and the velocity of the charge.
Note that, as in gravitational sources, is directed from the source (loop
b in this case) to the point of observation
Term Symbol SI units c.g.s unit
Magnetic field strength 1 Tesla =104 gauss
Magnetic intensity
Magnetic induction =1 weber/m2 =109 gamma
Magnetic flux density =1 newton/amp-m =104 maxwell/cm2

=4π10-3 oersted
Magnetizing force 1 ampere turn/m
=4π10-3 gilbert/cm

Magnetic dipole moment per unit volume
Magnetic polarization ampere/m
Magnetization intensity

the proportionality constant Cm differs both in magnitude and dimensions

between the two systems:
• In emu (electric multiple unit ), Cm = 1 and is dimensionless, whereas
• in SI units, Cm = o /= 10-7 henry-meter-1, where o is called the
magnetic permeability of free space.
• Gaya Tarik Antara 2 Kutub
Magnet (Hukum Coulomb)

• Kuat medan magnet di m2

• Jika benda berada dalam kuat

medan , maka benda
tersebut mengalami polarisasi

-(Roy, 2007) & (Lowrie, 2007)-

• dgn asumsi medan magnet
remanen dan luar bumi
diabaikan, maka induksi
magnetik adalah
• Tiga kelompok sifat kemagnetan berdasar susceptibilitas
• Diamagnetism
pada material diamagnetik, susceptibilitas rendah dan negatif
• Paramagnetism
pada material paramagnetik, susceptibilitas rendah dan positif
• Ferromagnetism
pada material ferromagnetik, susceptibilitas tinggi dan positif (strong magnetic
1. Ferromagnetism
2. Antiferromagnetism
3. Ferrimagnetism
(HYSTERESIS LOOP of ferroMagnetic material)

Kondisi pada suatu material

ferromagnetik yang berada dalam
suatu medan H

Ketika H dinaikkan mencapai

saturation magnetization, kemudian
H mengalami penurunan mencapai 0,
maka pada material ferromagnetik
akan mempertahankan sebagian
induksi magnetisasi dan dikenal
residual magnetization (remanence)
(2) Gauss's Law for Magnetic Fields
(Hukum Gauss untuk Medan Magnetik)

One of Maxwell's equations states that magnetic induction has no

divergence, that is,

and B is solenoidal. This statement holds for all points, even within
magnetic media.

Integration of this equation over a region R and application of the

divergence theorem provide a useful relationship:

for any R.
Gauss's law for magnetic fields

This equation shows that the

normal component of all flux
entering any region equals the
normal component of flux
leaving the region (see the
The normal component of B integrates to zero
This implies that no net sources over any closed surface. Hence, the net normal
(or sinks) exist anywhere in magnetic flux through any region is zero.
space; or put another way,
magnetic monopoles do not exist,
at least macroscopically.
Gauss's law for magnetic fields
provides a useful constraint for many

For example,
suppose that the field of a localized
magnetic source is measured over a
horizontal surface S1 as in the Figure. The
net flux entering the region defined by S1
and the hemisphere S2 must be zero
according to Gauss's law, that is,

A region R is bounded by planar

surface S1 and the hemispheric
surface S2. Magnetic sources are
localized and lie beneath S1.
As the limits of the survey are extended
in the horizontal directions, surface
S2 moves arbitrarily far from the
localized source, and it is easily shown
that the integral over S2 vanishes.

Hence, a horizontal survey of the vertical component of B should

average to zero if the lateral extent of the survey is large compared
to the size of the magnetic sources.

Put into geophysical terms, if regional-scale anomalies have been

subtracted properly from a large aeromagnetic survey, then the survey
should contain about as many positive anomalies as negative anomalies. If
it does not, then anomalies of regional extent remain in the data.
(3) The Vector and Scalar Potentials
(Potensial Skalar dan Vektor)

According to equation

and the Helmholtz theorem (Chapter 2), a vector potential A

exists such that

The vector potential for B always exists, but a scalar potential also
exists under certain circumstances. The scalar potential is of
particular interest here because it has obvious parallels with the
gravitational potential.

We now investigate the conditions under which the magnetic

scalar potential is valid.
A second of Maxwell's equations states that the curl of B is
equal to the vector sum of the various forms of charge
moving in the region:

where It is the sum of all currents in the region, including

macroscopic currents Im, currents related to magnetization
M (to be defined shortly), and total displacement currents

The quantities Im and It are current densities measured in

units of current per unit area (e.g., A.m-2 in SI units).
Now consider the relationship between B and It when averaged
over a surface S. Integrating the equation over the surface gives:

and applying Stokes's theorem provides:

where It is the total of all electric currents, expressed as a current
density, passing through surface S.

Hence, the magnetic induction integrated around any closed loop

is proportional to the normal component of all currents passing
through the loop (see Figure).

The normal component of all

currents It passing through
a surface S is proportional to
B • dl integrated around the
loop that bounds S.
If no currents exist in the region of investigation, then

and B is irrotational.

According to the Helmholtz theorem, B then has a scalar

potential V such that

and B is a potential field in the absence of currents.

In many geophysical situations, electrical currents are
negligible in regions where the magnetic field is actually

Hence, equation is often a suitable approximation outside

of magnetic materials. This is a fortunate happenstance. For
example, derivations of the magnetic fields caused by bodies of
specified shape are generally more easily done by first deriving V
and then applying equation .

Moreover, under onditions where the equation holds, the

potential of magnetic induction has obvious similarities to
gravitational potential, and many of the statements made in
earlier chapters apply immediately to magnetostatic theory.
However, it should always be remembered that the equation is
valid only outside of magnetic media and where line integrals
encircle no currents.
(4) Dipole Moment and Potential
(Moment Dipol dan Potensial)

The following pair of derivations result in some important expressions,

namely the magnetic induction and scalar potential of a dipole.

First Derivation: Two Current Loops

(Turunan Pertama: Dua Loop Arus)

the change in potential caused by

moving a test particle from P along a
line element dl' is

Point P in the vicinity of a current

loop. Moving P along dl' is
equivalent to moving the loop along
Now consider B to be the magnetic induction generated by a
loop of current and substitute the equation into the previous

The vector dl’ is a constant, so placing it inside the integral is a

legitimate maneuver. A vector identity (Appendix A) allows
rearrangement of equation 4.11:
This figure provides a geometric
interpretation for the integrand of the

Moving P along dl' has precisely the same effect on the potential at P as
holding P stationary and moving the loop along —dl'. Choosing the latter
interpretation, we see that dl x (—dl’) in the equation is a vector perpendicular
to the shaded parallelogram in the Figure with magnitude equal to the area of
the parallelogram.
Therefore, the integrand of equation is the solid angle of the shaded
parallelogram as viewed from point P, and the integral is the elemental
solid angle subtended at P by the entire ribbon:

Clearly, d is the increase in the solid angle caused by moving the loop
along —dl’, or moving P along dl’.

Because the solid angle of the loop is zero at infinity, the potential is
given by

where s is the area of the loop and

is a unit normal vector
Now let the current loop
become small in diameter with
respect to r and define

as the dipole moment. Then

Current loop observed at point P. Vector m

has direction and magnitude equal to
the current I times the area of the loop.

This equation describes the potential of an elemental


The dipole moment has units of gauss.cm3 in emu and

ampere.m2 in SI units, where 1 A.m2 = 103 gauss.cm3.
Second Derivation: Two Monopoles
(Turunan Kedua: Dua Monopol)

Now that we've been

through the previous tedious
derivation, let's try an easier
way to find the potential of a
dipole. A second physical
model for a dipole (as
implied by its name) is two
point masses
(monopoles) of opposite
sign in close proximity to
each other (see the Figure ).
For now, let monopole 1 be at the
origin and monopole 2 be at a
distance -z away on the z axis.

The potential at P due to both

monopoles is simply the sum of the
potentials caused by each monopole,

The potential at P due to monopole 2

is simply the negative of the potential
due to monopole 1 viewed a short
distance away from P, namely, at P +
 z. Accordingly, Two monopoles of opposite sign, one at the
origin and the other at z = -z observed at
point P.
As z becomes small, this equation becomes the definition of the
first derivative of V1(P):

Because the gravitational potential of a point mass is given by U = m/r,

it stands to reason that the magnetic potential at P due to a single
monopole is simply

where q is pole strength, dimensionally equivalent to dipole moment

per unit length.

Rearranging the last two equations provides

In the general case, the monopoles are not aligned along any
particular axis, and we should rewrite the previous equation as

where ds points from monopole 1 to monopole 2.

Finally, we define the dipole moment as m = qds, so that

which is identical to this


This equation describes

the potential of an
elemental dipole.
(5) Dipole Field
(Medan Dipol)

Substitution of equation

into equation

provides the magnetic induction of a dipole at points other

than the dipole itself:
The equation of

describes the familiar vector field of a

small bar magnet (see Figure). The
magnitude of B is proportional to the
dipole moment and inversely
proportional to the cube of the distance
to the dipole. The direction of B
depends on the directions of both
and m. All flux lines of B emanate from
the positive end of m and ultimately Magnetic field of a dipole. Dipole m is oriented
return to the negative end. toward top of page. Vectors indicate the direction
of B that would be observed at the center of each
vector. Dashed contours indicate constant values of
|B|, the value decreasing by a factor of 10 at each
succeeding contour from the dipole; that is, if the
closest contour to the dipole has the value |B|= 1,
succeeding contours have the values 0.1, 0.01,
and 0.001, respectively.
Vertical component of B Horizontal component of B
due to vertical dipole due to horizontal dipole

The horizontal and

vertical components
of magnetic induction
measured on a
horizontal surface
above horizontal and Horizontal component of B Vertical component of B
vertical dipoles. due to vertical dipole due to horizontal dipole

Contour interval is
arbitrary. Gray regions
indicate positive values
of magnetic induction.
The Figure shows the profil of
four limiting examples of the
magnetic induction that
would be measured on a
horizontal surface above
single dipoles:

a) the vertical component

of B due to a vertical
b) horizontal component
of B due to a
horizontal dipole.
c) horizontal component
of B due a vertical
d) vertical component of
B due to a horizontal

The horizontal and vertical components of

magnetic induction due to horizontal and vertical
dipoles. Profiles are directly over dipole and
parallel to the horizontal dipole.
Note how the "broadness" of the contours and profiles in these
Figures depends on the depth z of the dipole.

In particular, the horizontal distance between zero-crossings is:

1. for the horizontal component of B over a horizontal dipole,

2. for the vertical component of a vertical dipole.

We will exploit this general property of magnetic (and gravity) fields in a

later chapter in order to estimate depth of sources from the
broadness of magnetic and gravity anomalies.

Also notice that the horizontal component of B due to a vertical

dipole equals the vertical component of B due to a horizontal
The symmetry of dipolar magnetic fields is apparent in the Figures,
and it is worthwhile to note the various components and magnitude of
B in cylindrical coordinates.


can be written as

where  is the angle between and .

These equations show that the magnitude |B| of the dipole field
along any ray extending from the dipole decreases at a rate
inversely proportional to the cube of the distance to the

The magnitude also depends on ; for example, |B| is twice as

great at a point along the axis of the dipole ( = 0 or  = ) as at
an equivalent distance perpendicular to the dipole ( =  /2).
Although the derivations for the dipole moment are rather
conceptual, many magnetic bodies exist in nature that are
dipolar to first approximation.

It's simply a matter of scale.

 To the nuclear physicist, the Bohr magneton, the
fundamental magnetic moment caused by spinning and
orbiting charged particles, is dipolar in nature.
 To an exploration geophysicist, a ground-based
magnetic survey over a buried pluton may show a
complex array of magnetic anomalies, but at the altitude
of an aeromagnetic survey, the inhomogeneities of the
pluton may average out so that the pluton appears similar
to a dipole source.
 Indeed, the entire field of the earth appears nearly
dipolar from the perspective of the other planets.
Tugas 7
(dikumpulkan 2 April 2019)

 Pelajari materi dan buat resume: Magnetic Potential

Sumber rujukan:
1. Blakely, R.J., 1996, Potential Theory in Gravity &
Magnetic Application, Cambridge University Press
2. Ditambah sumber lain