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j: 1. Symbol to indicate 公⫺1; i is also used. Multiplica- jitter: Erratic small movements of a display that produces
tion by j rotates a complex vector by 90°. 2. A unit a somewhat blurred image.
vector in the y-direction. job-control language „JCL…: A method of initiating and
J: 1. Joule, the SI unit of work or energy; one newton controlling a batch of computer jobs. Instructs the order
meter. 2. Electric current density. 3. Jn ⫽Bessel func- in which to do the jobs, the job requirements 共e.g., what
tion of order n. 4. Jacobian 共q.v.兲. 5. A seismic wave tapes to use兲, and what to do with the results.
that has traveled through the Earth’s inner core as an Johnson noise: Noise resulting from the random thermal
S-wave. energy of conduction electrons. Also called thermal
jack: The receptacle into which an electrical plug fits. noise. For an electrical element, the mean square volt-
Jacobian: For a set of transform equations y i ⫽ age caused by Johnson noise is proportional to the
y i (x 1 ,x 2 ,...,x n ), the Jacobian matrix J is: absolute temperature K, the bandwidth B 共in hertz兲, and
the resistance R 共in ohms兲:
J⫽ 储 J ik 储 ⫽ 储 ⳵y i /⳵x k 储 .
rms noise voltage⫽7.4⫻10 ⫺12 共 KBR 兲 1/2 .
The Jacobian is a measure of the change in the ith data
point as the kth parameter is changed; it is a measure of JOIDES: Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep
how strongly data depend on a parameter. In iterative Earth Sampling, a program to obtain borehole informa-
solutions, it can be used to indicate the degree of tion 共and cores兲 of the sediments in the deep oceans.
convergence. In inverting electromagnetic data, col- Holes drilled from the ship Glomar Challenger did
umns are generally ordered 共first兲 resistivities, 共second兲 much to prove plate tectonics and hence had tremen-
thicknesses, 共third兲 calibration factors 共in the case of dous impact on geology and geophysics.
joint inversions兲; see Raiche et al. 共1985兲. The Jaco- joint: A physical break in rocks across which there has
bian matrix transforms one vector into another, as in a been no relative movement.
coordinate transform. The inverse of the Jacobian is joint inversion: Simultaneous inversion 共q.v.兲 of two or
sometimes called the data influence matrix as it shows more types of independent measurements. The data and
how a small change in the data would influence the model are linked in one single matrix, compared to
inversion result. Vanishing of the determinant of the cooperative inversion, where two independent inver-
Jacobian shows that relations are not independent. For a sion processes are linked via a-priori or a-posteria
2⫻2 matrix, independence is shown by ad⫺bc⫽0. information.
Named for Karl Gustav Jacob Jacobi 共1804 –1851兲, joint probability: The probability of simultaneous occur-
German mathematician. rence of values of two or more quantities.
Jacobsen filter: A spectral-domain operation based on Josephson junction: 共iō’ s⳵f s⳵n兲 A thin insulator separat-
upward continuation. Also called a separation filter. ing two superconducting materials, through which elec-
See Cowan and Cowan 共1993兲, Jacobsen 共1987兲. tron pairs can tunnel. See Josephson 共1962, 419兲.
Jacob’s staff: A pointed stick about 5 ft long used to joule „J…: The SI unit of energy; a newton-meter or a
support a surveyor’s compass, usually calibrated to watt-second. Named for James Prescott Joule 共1818 –
measure the thickness of strata. 1889兲, English physicist.
Janus configuration: 共ja’ n⳵s兲 An arrangement of trans- joystick: An interactive control for moving a cursor on a
ducers aimed in opposite directions, as a forward-aft 共or video display so that something can be done to the
port-starboard兲 pair of Doppler-sonar transducers 共see video-display’s matrix element corresponding to the
Figure D-21兲. Named for Janus, the Roman god of cursor’s location.
doorways, who had two faces so he could watch in jug: Geophone 共q.v.兲. Name derives from an early oil-
opposite directions. damped geophone 共oil jug兲.
Java: An object-oriented programming language based on jug hustler: One who lays out and picks up the seismic
C⫹⫹ but optimized for the distribution of program spread and geophones.
objects in a network such as the Internet. jug line: 1. Cable connecting geophones to instruments. 2.
JCL: Job-Control Language 共q.v.兲. The spread 共q.v.兲.
Jeffreys-Bullen curves: 共jef’ rēys bul’ ⳵n兲 Relationships jug planter: Geophone planter 共q.v.兲.
between the arrival times of various modes of seismic Julian day: 共jool’ y⳵n兲 1. The day number since noon,
waves and the distance 共angular distance兲 from the January 1, 4713 BC, the beginning of the Julian period.
epicenter of the earthquake that generated them. See 2. The Julian date is a 4-digit way of expressing the
Figure J-1. Named for Sir Harold Jeffreys 共–1989兲, date. Thus, the 33rd day of the year 1999 共Feb. 2兲 is
British geophysicist, and Keith Edward Bullen 共1906 – expressed as 3399.
1976兲, Australian geophysicist. jump: An instruction that can cause the computer to fetch
jet: To drill a hole by pumping water 共or mud兲 down the the next instruction from a location other than the next
drill stem or drill casing, where the water flow rather sequential location. Synonym: branch.
than the grinding action of a bit is the main force for jump a leg: To miscorrelate one or more cycles. See also
removal of the material. leg.

jump correlation 198 juvenile water

jump correlation: See correlation. it is otherwise difficult to reach because of access

jumper: 1. A relatively short electrical connection. 2. A problems.
connection different from the ordinary. 3. A temporary junk: Metal debris contaminating a borehole.
electrical connection used to bypass part of a circuit. 4. junk basket: A device to remove metal debris from a
A seismic cable without takeouts for geophone connec- borehole.
tions, used to connect with the main spread cable when juvenile water: Water derived from magma thought to
reach the Earth’s surface for the first time.

FIG. J-1. Jeffreys-Bullen traveltime curves for some waves from a shallow earthquake. See Figure E-2 and wave
notation regarding the labeling of the curves. (From Seismological tables, 1940.)