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PROGRAM DIDIK CEMERLANG AKADEMIK

SPM

SCIENCE
MODULE 1
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

ANJURAN :

JAWATANKUASA PEMANDU
UNIT PENYERTAAN BUMIPUTERA PULAU PINANG

DENGAN KERJASAMA

LEMBAGA KEMAJUAN WILAYAH PULAU PINANG


( PERDA )

JABATAN PELAJARAN NEGERI PULAU PINANG

PUSAT URUS ZAKAT PULAU PINANG


MODULE 1

CHAPTER REVIEW
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

CONCEPT MAP

WHAT IS CONCEPT PHYSICAL


SCIENCE? OF MASS QUANTITIES

MEASURING
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
TOOLS
Identify the problem
Propose a hypothesis
Plan the experiment
SI UNITS
Control the variables
Mass – kg
Collect data
Weight – N
Analyse and interpret the
Length – m
data
Area - m²
Draw a conclusion
Volume - m³
Write a report
Time – s
Temperature – K
Electric current - A

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The Steps in the Scientific Method

Identify the problem

Form a hypothesis

Plan an investigation

Control the variables

Carry out the ivestigation

Analyse and intrepret data

Form a conclusion

Write a report

Conclusion does not Conclusion support


support hypothesis hypothesis

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1. Identifying the problem
- The problem is stated as a question and the aim is to find an answer.

2. Forming a hypothesis
- The hypothesis must be a suggestion to the answer of the question.
- Generally, it is a statement of a scientific concept or principle made as a
solution to the problem

3. Planning an investigation
In planning the investigation, the scientist must determine:
i. the apparatus and materials needed
ii. how the procedure is to be carried out
iii. the variables to be controlled
iv. the data to be collected and presented

4. Controlling the variables


Three types of variables:
i. the constant variables (factors which have to be kept the same)
ii. the manipulated variables ( factors which are being change for the
investigation)
iii. the responding variables ( factors which are the result of the changing
variable)

5. Analysing and interpreting data


The data may be presented in form of notes, tables, charts or graph, or a
combination of these.

6. Forming a conclusion
- A conclusion is formed based on the result of the experiment.
- It may be support the hypothesis and may be not.

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Example:

The following results are obtained in an experiment to investigate the effect of the length
of a pendulum on its time of swing.

Length of pendulum Time for 10 cmoplete Average time for 1


(cm) swings (seconds) swing (seconds)
i. 30 11.0
ii. 50 14.0
iii. 70 17.0
iv. 90 19.0

(a) Based on the above statement, write one suitable hypothesis.


(b) Complete the table above to show the average time taken for one complete
swing.
(c) Draw a graph on the graph paper provided to show the relation between the
length of the pendulum and the average time taken for one complete swing.
(d) From your graph, predict the average time taken for one complete swing of the
pendulum of length 100 cm.
(e) State the following variables in the experiment .
(i) Constant variables
(ii) Manipulated variables
(iii) Responding variables
(f) What conclusion can be make by the graph you have obtained?

Answer

(a) The longer the pendulum is, the longer time it takes to make one complete swing.

(b)
Length of pendulum Time for 10 complete Average time for 1
(cm) swings (seconds) swing (seconds)
i. 30 11.0 1.1
ii. 50 14.0 1.4
iii. 70 17.0 1.7
iv. 90 19.0 1.9

(c)

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(d) (i) Constant variables : the number of complete swings
(ii) Manipulated variables : length of the pendulum
(iii) Responding variables : time for 10 complete swings
(e) The longer the pendulum is, the longer time it takes to make one complete swing.

ACTIVITIES

1. Study the Aim of Experiment , then complete the graphic organizer below by
describing the experiment based on the sub headings given.

Aim of experiment : To study how the temperature solvent affects the dissolve of
solute

Problem statement:

Hypothesis:

Variables: Manipulated:

Responding:

Fixed:

Observation

Manipulated variables Responding variables

Conclusion :

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2. (a) What is a hypothesis?

(b) What is a conclusion?

(c) Data can be presented in various forms to facilitate data analysis. State
the various presenting data as shown below.

Weight Extension of
(kg) spring (cm)
100 2
200 4
300 6
400 8

(i) ___________________________
(iii) ____________________________

(ii) ___________________________
(iv) ____________________________

ASSESSMENT

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OBJECTIVES ITEMS

1. Why is the scientific investigation method important ?


I to acquired scientific knowledge
II to develop scientific and thinking skills
III to train a person to test and verify his hypothesis through experiment(s)
before accepting it
A I and II only C II and III only
B I and III only D I, II and III

2. U to Z show the steps involved in the scientific investigation method

U – Forming a hypothesis
V – Planning the investigation
W – Identifying the problem
X – Making conclusion
Y – Analysing data

Which of the following sequence shows the correct steps involve in the scientific
investigation method?
A U, V, X, Z, Y, W C Y, W, U, V, X, U
B W, U, V, X, Z, Y D V, X, Z, Y, W, U

3. Which of the following is a statement that identifies a problem?


A What are the densities of objects that float in water
B To determine the densities of object that float in water
C Objects that have densities less than the density of water will float in
water
D All objects that are light float in water.

4. Data obtained from an experiment has to be


A analysed and interpreted
B defined
C proven
D classified and categorized

5. The variables that have to be controlled in a n experiment include the


I Fixed variable(s) III responding variables(s)
II manipulated variable(s )
A I and II only C I and III only
B II and III only D I, II and III

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6. Two objects, X and Y are placed in a measuring cylinder containing three
different liquids as shown in figure below.

Which of the following are the correct conclusion on the observation?


I corn oils is less dense than water
II Y is more tdense than water but is less dense than glycerine
III Y is less dense than corn oil
A I and II only C II and III only
B I dan III only D I, II and III

7. The graph in figure below shows the results of an experiment to study how the
solubility of salt Q varies with temperature.

What is the manipulated variable and responding variable in this experiment?

Manipulated variable Responding variables


A Temperature Solubility
B Solubility Temperature
C Temperature Gradient of graph
D Solubility Gradient of graph

8. Table below shows the results of an experiment to study the rusting of iron

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What conclusion can you draw from this experiment?
A Iron does not rust in boiled water
B Iron rusts when both water and oxygen is present
C Iron rust wherever oxygen is present
D Iron rusts at room temperature

9. Figure below shows an experiment to study how the rate of dissolution o copper
sulphate is affected by temperature .

What are fixed variables in this experiment?


I The size of the copper sulphate crystals
II The mass of the copper sulphate crystals
III The volume of water used
A I and II only C II and III only
B I and III only D I, II and III

Questions No 10 to 12 are based on figure below


Figure below shows an experiment to determine the relationship between the
densities of substances and their ability to float in water.

10. In the experiment shown in figure , what is the fixed variables?


A Volume of glass C Volume of water
B Volume of ice D Volume of cork

11. In the experiment shown in figure what is the manipulated variable?


A Type of beaker C Type of liquid
B Type of objects D Temperature

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12. What is the suitable hypothesis for the experiment shown in figure?
A All light objects will float in water
B All heavy objects will sink in water
C Objects that have a density lower than the density of water will float
D Objects that have a density greater than the density of water will float.

13. “Object with densities less than the density of water will float in water .” The
statement above is
A a scientific data
B an observation
C the aim of the investigation
D a hypothesis

14. Figure shows the set up of an experiment to study the floatation of objects.

What hypothesis that can be made for this experiment?


A The larger the number of lead shots in the test tube, the lesser its ability to
float (the deeper it will sink)
B The larger the volume of water in the glass trough, the deeper will the
containers sink.
C Heavy objects sink
D Light object float.

15. How does presenting data in the form of table, bar charts and pie charts help ini
analyzing data?
I Tables and graphs enable us to see the relationship between manipulated
variable(s) and responding variable(s)
II Bar graphs make it easier to compare data
III Pie charts are an effective way to present data as percentage or fractions.
A I and II only
B I and III only
C II and III only
D I, II and III
STRUCTURED ITEMS

1 Figure 1 shows an experiment to study the effect of impurities on the melting point
of pure ice

Figure 1

The result of the experiment are recorded in Table 1.

Substances Melting point


Pure ice 0°C
Ice + common salt

Table 1

(a) Complete Table 1 by writing down the melting point of impure ice as shown
in Figure 1.

(b) Write down one inference based on the results of this experiment.

(c) State the variables in this experiment.


(ii) Manipulated variable:

(iii) Responding variable:


(d) How can we determine if a sample of ice from Alpine mountains is pure
ice?

2 Figure 2 shows an experiment to investigate the effect of acids on litmus paper.

Figure 2

(a) Write down one observation for the experiment in Figure 2.

(b) Write down one inference that can be made based on the observation in (a)

(c) What is the operational definition of an asid.

(d) (i) Predict what happens when a red and a blue litmus are
dipped in vinegar solution?

(ii) What inference can you make regarding vinegar solution.

3 Figure 3 shows an experiment to investigate the factors that affect the germination of
seeds.
Figure 3

(a) State one hypothesis for this experiment.

(b) State the variables in this experiment


(i) Manipulated variables

(ii) Responding variables

(iii) Fixed variables

(c) Predict if the seeds in test tube C will germinate? Explain.

4 The weight of students in class 4 A are divided in to 6 groups as shown in Table 2.

Weigth (kg) 41 - 45 46 - 50 51 – 55 56 – 60 61 – 65 66 – 70
Number of student 2 6 12 8 5 2

(a) Draw a bar chart shows the distribution of weigth of the student in class A.

(b) (i) How many students are in the class 4A?


(ii) What is the weight of the most of the student in class A?

(iii) What is the percentage of student weighing 61 kg and above?

ANSWER

ACTIVITIES

1.
Aim of experiment : To study how the temperature water affects the solubility of
salt

Problem statement: How does the temperature of water affect the solubility of salt.

Hypothesis: The higher temperature of water,the faster salt dissolve in water.

Variables: Manipulated: Temperature of water

Responding: solubility of salt

Fixed: The volume of water

Observation

Manipulated variables Responding variables

28 °C

60º C

Conclusion : The higher temperature of water, the faster salt will dissolve in

2. (a) A general statement on the relationship between the manipulated variable


and responding variable. An explaination of a certain event which needs to
be tested before it is known to be tested.
(b) A logical reasoning for explaination or conclusion based on observation.
(c) (i) Table
(ii) Bar chart
(iii) Pie chart
(iv) Graph

OBJECTIVE ITEMS

1. D 6. A 11. B
2. B 7. B 12. C
3. A 8. B 13. D
4. A 9. D 14. A
5. D 10. C 15. D

SUBJECTIVE ITEM

1. (a) -2°C
(b) Impurities lower the melting point of ice
(c) (i) Quantity of common salt
(ii) Melting point of ice
(d) By determining the melting point of the sample of ice. If the sample of ice
has a melting point of 0°C then it is pure ice

2. (a) The blue litmus paper turns to red when dipped in acids
(b) Acids turn blue litmus paper red.
(c) An acid is a solution that turns blue litmus paper into red
(d) (i) The blue litmus paper turns red, while the red litmus remains red
(ii) Vinegar solution is an acid.

3. (a) Seeds require oxygen, water and suitable temperature for germination.
(b) (i) Different factors such as presence or absence of water , oxygen and
suitable temperature.
(ii) Germination of seeds
(iii) type and size
(c) The seeds will not germinate because there is no oxygen.

4. (a)
(b) (i) 35

BIL NAMA SEKOLAH


1 OSMAWI BIN YUSUF SEK. MEN. KEB. SAMA GAGAH
2 AZLINA BT OTHMAN SEK. MEN. KEB. PTG TOK JAYA
3 NORAINI BT ISMAIL SEK. MEN. KEB. PAYA KELADI
4 BADARIAH BT ABDULLAH SEK. MEN. KEB. DATUK HJ AHMAD BADAWI
5 NOR ASIAH BT SAAD@ SALLEH SEK. MEN. KEB. (A) AL-MASHOOR (L)
6 MILAH BINTI MANSOR SEK. MEN. KEB. SG. ACHEH
7 MOKHTAR BIN DARUS SEK. MEN. KEB. PERMATANG RAWA
8 SHAMSIDDA BT MOHAMAD NOOR SEK. MEN. KEB. MUTIARA IMPIAN
9 ZILFAHALILA BT YAHYA SEK. MEN. KEB. SEBERANG JAYA
10 ANIZULHANA BT AZIZAN SEK. MEN. KEB. SEBERANG JAYA
11 NOOR ZAKIAH BT ISHAK SEK. MEN. KEB. TUN HUSSEIN ONN
12 AZLAILY BT ABIDIN SEK. MEN. KEB. PENANTI
(ii) 51-55
(iii) 7 x 100 = 20%
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PANEL PENGGUBAL