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CLASSIFICATION OF ACID
1. Classification based on the source:
2. Classification based on presence of oxygen:
3. Classification on the basis of basicity:
4. Classification on the basis of concentration:
Concentrated acid: aqueous solution that has high % of acid
Dilute acid: aqueous solution that has low % of acid
5. Classification on the basis Strong acid, weak acid and Strong base, weak base.
Strong Acid: Acid that ionise completely. e.g- HCl, HNO3, H2SO4
Weak Acid: Acid that ionise partially. e.g- CH3COOH, HCOOH, H2C2O4

Strong Base: Base that ionise completely. e.g- NaOH, KOH


Weak Base: Base that ionise partially. e.g- NH4OH
Acid:
Cation : H+
Anion: CO32-, SO42-,CO32-,NO3-, HCO3-, HSO4-,SO32-,HSO3-, CH3COO-, HCOO-, Cl-, Br-, I-
, F- , CN-, CrO42-, MnO42- etc.

pH scale
Strength of an acid or base can be measured on pH scale.
pH scale: A scale of numbers from 0 to 14 on which the strength of an acid or base
is measured is known as pH scale.
pH is defined as negative logarithm of [H+ ]or [H3O+ ]

i.e. pH= log[H+ ]or pH= log[H3O+ ]

e.g. if [H+ ]=101molL1 , then pH= log(10 1 ) = log10 = 1


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if [H+ ]=102molL1 , then pH= log(10 2 ) = 2log10 = 2

In other words, pH stands for power of hydrogen ions (p stands for power and H
stands for hydrogen)
Molarity: Number of moles of solute present in one ltr of solution.
moles of solute
molrity M 
Volumeof Solutionltr 
moles of solute
  1000
Volumeof Solutionml 

Q. If 4 gram sodium hydroxide dissolved in water to make 500 ml of solution. Find


molarity of solution.

FOR A NEUTRAL SOLUTION (OR WATER)



H  OH
H2O 

[H+ ]=[OH ]=107molL1


 its pH = 7 (magnitude of negative power to which 10 must be raised to express
[H+ ] )

FOR AN ACIDIC SOLUTION


[H+ ] > [OH ]
or [H+ ]>107molL1 (i.e.106 ,105 ,104 etc.)

 its pH < 7 (i.e. 6, 5, 4, ….0)

FOR A BASIC SOLUTION


[OH ] > [H+ ]

or [OH ]>107molL1 (i.e. 106 ,105 ,104 etc.)


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or [H+ ] < 10 7 mol L1 (i.e. 108 ,109 ,1010 etc so that [H+ ][OH ] = 10 14 )

 its pH > 7 (i.e. 8, 9, 10, ….14)

Hence, acidic or basic strength or neutral nature of solution may be expressed on


the pH scale from 0 to 14 as follows:

0
10 10 10 10 10 10
7
10 10 10 10 10 10
1 10
10 10
9
10
2 3 4 5 6 8 11 12 13 14
+
H

10 10
14
10 10 10 10 10
7
10 10 10 10 10
13 4
10
5 0
10
12 11 10 9 8 6 3 2 1
10
[OH]
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
14 7
10 10 10 10 10
13 4
10
5 0
10
12 11 10 9 8 6 3 2 1
10
pH
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

ACIDIC CHARACTER INCREASES BASIC CHARACTER INCREASES


strongly moderately weakly NEUTRAL weakly moderately strongly
acidic acidic acidic basic basic basic

Conclusion: From the above figure, we lead to a conclusion that


(i) for a neutral solution, pH = 7
(ii) for a basic solution, pH > 7
(iii) for an acidic solution, pH < 7
Relation between pH and pOH

H  OH
H2O 

H  OH 
kw 
H2O
k w  H  OH 
k w  10 7  10 7 
k w  10 14

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pkw  log k w 
 log 10 14 
pkw  14
Note : pH + pOH = 14

Q. A 10–2 M HCl solution will have a pH of


A. 3
B. 4
C. 5
D. 2

Q. A 10–4 M NaOH solution will have a pH of


A. 4
B. 6
C. 8
D. 10

Q. Calculate pH of 0.2 M H2SO4 aqueous solution


Q. Calculate pH of 0.1 M Ca (OH)2 aqueous solution

Q. pH of two solutions A and B are 3 and 6 respectively. This means that


A. Solution A is twice as acidic as B
B. Solution B is twice as acidic as A
C. Solution A is 1000 times more acidic than B
D. Solution B is 1000 times more acidic than A

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Q. How many times a solution of pH = 3 be diluted to get a solution of pH = 6?


A. 2 times
B. 10 times
C. 100 times
D. 1000 times