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RESERVIOR DRIVE

MECHANISM.
PRESENTED
BY
okoh oluchi idam
OUTLINE
 INTRODUCTION.

 NATURAL DRIVES.

 PRIMARY DRIVES.

 SECONDRY DRIVES.

 TERTIARY DRIVES.

 CONCLUSION.
INTRODUCTION
 Reservoir drive is the force that causes
hydrocarbon to flow out of the reservoir rock
into the wellbore and up to the surface.

 Most petroleum reservoirs flow unassisted for


at least the first part of the reservoir productive
life.

 If this natural drive is used up, production can


continue only by artificial lift or by reservoir
flooding, either of which may be prohibitively
DRIVE MECHANISMS.
 Primary drive mechanisms.

 Secondary drive mechanisms.


Primary Drive Mechanisms.
This is the first stage of
hydrocarbon production, in which
natural reservoir energy, such as;

 Gas drive, water drive or gravity


drainage, displaces hydrocarbons
from the reservoir, into the wellbore
and up to surface.
 Initially, the reservoir pressure is
considerably higher than the bottom hole
pressure inside the wellbore.

This high natural differential pressure


drives hydrocarbons toward the well and
up to surface.

 However, as the reservoir pressure


declines because of production, so does
the differential pressure.
TYPES OF PRIMARY DRIVES.

 Reservoir-drive mechanisms include;

gas drive (gas cap or solution gas


drive).

 water drive (bottom water drive or


edge water drive).

 combination drive, and gravity


Gas cap drive;
 The gas that accumulates in the
upper portions of a reservoir where
the pressure, temperature and fluid
characteristics are conducive to free
gas.

 The energy provided by the


expansion of the gas cap provides
the primary drive mechanism for oil
recovery in such circumstances.
Gas cap drive reservoir
Solution gas drive:
 A type of reservoir-drive mechanism in
which the energy for the transport and
production of reservoir fluids is provided
by the gas dissolved in the liquid.

 As reservoir fluids enter the wellbore,


changing pressure conditions cause the
gas to break from solution to create a
commingled flow of gas and liquid that
aids production.
Solution gas drive reservoir
Water drive;
 A primary recovery mechanism in which the
pressure from free water is sufficient to move
hydrocarbons out of the reservoir, into the
wellbore and up to surface.

Water drive reservoirs can have bottom


water drive or edge water drive.

 In a bottom water-drive reservoir, water is


located beneath the oil accumulation, while in
an edge water-drive reservoir, water is located
only on the edges of the reservoir.
Water drive reservoir
gravity drainage;
The least common primary recovery
mechanism in which the force of
gravity pushes hydrocarbons out of
the reservoir, into the wellbore and
up to surface.

Gravity force is always present in


the reservoir, but its effect is greater
in thick gas-condensate reservoirs
and in shallow, highly permeable,
steeply dipping reservoirs.
SECONDARY RECOVERY
 The second stage of hydrocarbon
production during which an external fluid
such as;

 Water or gas is injected into the reservoir


through injection wells located in rock that
has fluid communication with production
wells.

 The purpose of secondary recovery is to


maintain reservoir pressure and to displace
hydrocarbons toward the wellbore.
 The most common secondary recovery
techniques are gas injection and water
flooding.

 Normally, gas is injected into the gas cap


and water is injected into the production
zone to sweep oil from the reservoir.

 A pressure-maintenance program can


begin during the primary recovery stage,
but it is a form or enhanced recovery.
TERTIARY DRIVES.
 An oil recovery enhancement method
using sophisticated techniques that alter
the original properties of oil.

 Once ranked as a third stage of oil


recovery that was carried out after
secondary recovery, the techniques
employed during enhanced oil recovery
can actually be initiated at any time during
the productive life of an oil reservoir.
 The three major types of enhanced oil
recovery operations are;
 chemical flooding (alkaline flooding or
micellar-polymer flooding).
 miscible displacement (carbon dioxide [CO2]
injection or hydrocarbon injection).
 thermal recovery (steam flood or in-situ
combustion).
 The optimal application of each type depends
on reservoir temperature, pressure, depth, net
pay, permeability, residual oil and water
saturations, porosity and fluid properties.
CONCLUSION.
In conclusion, reservoir drive
mechanisms are forces necessary for
the flow of hydrocarbons from the
reservoir rocks to the surface.
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