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# Laboratory of Mechanics of Materials

## Practice Cementation Strain PRESENTATION 10%

Gauge
6 PARTICIPATION 60%

REPORT 20%
NAME
ID STUDENT
CONCLUSIONS 10%
LAB GROUP
INSTRUCTOR TOTAL 100%

## OBJECTIVE 5. To provide a wide and linear signal in

response to deformation.
The student will know the operation and 6. Adaptable to the observation and remote
application of strain gauges. Cement a registration.
resistive strain gauge 7. High stability and negligible hysteresis.
8. Economic.
9. Insurance and exempt from aging and
FUNDAMENTS fatigue failures

The ever increasing demand for improvement So far there has developed a device for
in the design of machines and structures led measuring forces with all the features that
to the development of various experimental are desired, but the electrical resistance
techniques to determine the stresses to strain gauges are very close to meeting all
which they are subjected. These experimental these requirements. This is the reason why
methods are used to check the theoretical the device is most commonly used for stress
predictions and to assess efforts in situations analysis as sensors or transducers designed
where they are very complicated to measure force, torque, pressure and
mathematical approximations acceleration.

## The three basic aspects for the construction

Strain gauges can be classified into four
and development of electrical resistance
classes according to their construction:
gauges are
mechanical, optical, acoustic and electric.
1. The resistance of a conductor of constant
Some features that are sought in the creation
section changes as a function of the
of these devices are:
deformation.
2. Each conductive material has different
1. Being able to accurately measure the
sensitivities.
efforts under static and dynamic conditions.
3. It can very accurately measure the change
2. Small, light in weight and thickness of
in resistance of a conductive element
negligible size, to allow its use in hard to
reach places.
The resistance of a uniform conductor section
3. insensitive to temperature changes,
is given by:
vibration, humidity and other environmental 𝐿
conditions. R=ρ
𝐴
4. Easy installation and operation.

## L = length of the conductor.

A = cross-sectional area of the conductor.
Where: ρ = resistivity (material property depends on
R = resistance in ohms (Ω). the temperature)

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Laboratory of Mechanics of Materials
Department of Mechanical Engineering

## If a straight wire is stretched elastically,

increase the length and the cross section is
reduced by the Poisson effect. From equation
it shows that both effects are additive and
cause the resistance to increase, remain
constant resistivity. Sensitivity defining a strain gauge elongation
is called gauge factor (Sg), and is provided by
The term "elongation sensitivity" is used to the manufacturer
express the change of resistance of a
conductor in relation to the length change
that causes it i.e:

ΔR/R
Elongation sensitivity = SA =
ΔL/L

## The sensitivity of a metallic conductor

elongation depends largely on the
characteristics of the particular alloy: cold
work, level of impurities in the alloy and over
the range of strain which is measured.

## In summary, the strain gauges can measure

unit deformations through changes are
proportional to resistance. Normally they
placed on the free surface of the specimen to
measure the effort at that particular point. In
general it is necessary to measure three
strains at a point to fully define the fields of
effort and / or deformation.
The need to identify three quantities, for the
same point and at the same time, led to the
Since Poisson's ratio is about 0.3 for most of design and construction of the strain gauge
the alloys used as drivers for gauges, rosettes. The rosettes are arrays of three
elongation sensitivity will be 1.6 when only gauges that are mounted simultaneously on a
considered the aspect of dimensional changes point of the material surface.
of the driver. This means that a resilient
0.1% increase in length will produce a 0.16
% increase in resistance

## 1.- DESCRIBE THE CEMENTATION 2.- CONCLUSION (WHY IS IMPORTANT

PROCESS TO KNOW THE USE OF THE STRAIN
GAUGES?)

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