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COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector: ELECTRONIC

Qualification Title: Computer Systems Servicing NC II

Install and Configure Computer


Unit of Competency:
System

Installing and Configuring


Module Title:
Computer System

ACLC COLLEGE OF BUTUAN CITY, INC.


#999 HDS. Bldg. J. C. Aquino Avenue, Butuan City
TABLE OF CONTENT
HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL…….. 9
LIST OF COMPETENCIES ................................................................... 11
MODULE CONTENT .............................................................................. 6

LEARNING OUTCOME 1 - ASSEMBLE COMPUTER HARDWARE …….....13


LEARNING EXPERIENCES 8
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-1 16
SELF-CHECK 1.1-1 18
ANSWER KEY 1.1-1 19
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-2 14
SELF-CHECK 1-1.2 163
ANSWER KEY 1.1 18
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-3 25
SELF-CHECK 1.1-3 31
ANSWER KEY 1.1-3 32
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-4 33
SELF-CHECK 1.1-4 56
ANSWER KEY 1.1-4 57
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-5 58
SELF-CHECK 1.1-5 63
ANSWER KEY 1.1-5 64
TASK SHEET 1.1-5 65
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST 1.1-5 67
HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING
MATERIAL

Welcome to the module in Installing and Configuring Computer Systems, it is


one of the competencies of COMPUTER SYSTEMS SERVICING NC II, a
course which comprises the knowledge, skills and attitudes of a Computer
Service Technician in accordance with industry standards.

The module, Installing and Configuring Computer Systems, contains


training materials and activities related to planning and preparing for
installation, installing equipment/device system and conducting test for you
to complete.

You are required to go through learning activities in order to complete each


learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome are Information
Sheets, Self-Checks, Task Sheets and Job Sheets. Follow these activities on
your own. If you have questions, don’t hesitate to ask your facilitator for
assistance.

The goal of this module is the development of practical skills. To gain these
skills, you must learn basic concepts and terminology. For most part, you’ll
get this information from the Information Sheets.

This module is prepared to help you achieve the required competency, in


Computer Systems Servicing NCII.

This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge and skills
in this particular competency independently and at your own pace, with
minimum supervision or help from your instructor.

Remember to:
 Work through all the information and complete the activities in each
section.
 Read information sheets and complete the self-check. Suggested
references are included to supplement the materials provided in this
module.
 Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager.
He/she is there to support you and show you the correct way to do
things.
 You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and practice
on the job. Make sure you practice your new skills during regular work
shift. This way you will improve both your speed and memory and also
your confidence.
 Use the Self-checks, Operation Sheets or Job Sheets at the end of each
section to test your own progress.
 When you feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, ask your
Trainer to evaluate you. The results of your assessment will be
recorded in your Progress Chart and Achievement Chart.
COMPUTER SYSTEMS SERVICING (CSS) NCII
COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIALS
LIST OF COMPETENCIES

No. Unit of Competency Module Title Code

Installing and
Install and configure
1. configuring ELC724331
computer systems
computer systems

Setting-up
2. Set-up computer networks ELC724332
computer networks

Setting-up
3. Set-up computer servers ELC724333
computer servers

Maintaining and
Maintain and repair
repairing computer
4. computer systems and ELC724334
systems and
networks
networks
Module Content

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: Install and Configure Computer Systems


MODULE TITLE : Installing and Configuring Computer Systems

MODULE DESCRIPTOR:
This module covers the outcomes required in installing and configuring
desktop and workstation computers systems. It consists of competencies to
assemble computer hardware, install operating system and drivers for
peripherals/devices, and install application software as well as to conduct
testing and documentation.

NOMINAL DURATION: 24 hours

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this module, you MUST be able to:
LO1. Assemble computer hardware
LO2. Prepare installer
LO3. Install operating system and drivers for peripherals/devices
LO4. Install application software
LO5. Conduct testing and documentation
LEARNING OUTCOME NUMBER 1:
Assemble computer hardware

ASSESSM
CONDITION METHODO
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA CONTENT ENT
S LOGY
METHOD
1. Unit assembly is 1. OH&S Information  Self- Written
planned and prepared policies and Sheet Study Exam
to ensure OH&S procedures  Demonst
policies and procedures ration
are followed in System Unit Oral
accordance with 2. Necessary Questioni
materials ng
systems requirements
for planned Monitor
6. Materials necessary to installation
complete the work are
3. Tools, Demonstr
identified and obtained
equipment ation
in accordance with
and testing
established procedures devices
and checked against
systems requirements 4. Computer
7. Tools, equipment and Component
testing devices needed s and
devices
to carry out the
installation work are
5. Assembling
obtained in accordance computer
with established hardware
procedures and and Basic-
checked for correct input-
operation and safety output-
system
8. Computer hardware is (BIOS)
assembled in configuratio
accordance with n
established procedures
and systems
requirements
9. Basic-input-output-
system (BIOS)
configuration is
performed in
accordance with
hardware requirements.
LEARNING EXPERIENCES

LEARNING OUTCOME 1
ASSEMBLE COMPUTER HARDWARE

LEARNING ACTIVITIES SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS


Read Information Sheet 1.1-1 on This Learning Outcome deals with
“OH&S policies and procedures” the development of the
Institutional Competency
Answer Self-Check 1.1-1 Evaluation Tool which trainers
use in evaluating their trainees
Compare Self-Check 1.1-2 to Answer after finishing a competency of
Key 1.1.2 the qualification.
Read Information Sheet 1.1-2 on
“Necessary materials for planned Go through the learning activities
installation” outlined for you on the left
column to gain the necessary
information or knowledge before
Answer Self-Check 1.1-2 doing the tasks to practice on
performing the requirements of
Compare Self-Check 1.1-2 to Answer the evaluation tool. Compare your
Key 1.1-2 answer in a Answer Sheets in
Read Information Sheet 1.1-3 on order for you to determine if
“Tools, equipment and testing you’re doing the right things, and
devices” doing your task, you can check
your output using the
Answer Self-Check 1.1-3 performance criteria checklist.

Compare Self-Check 1.1-3 to Answer The output of this LO is a


Key 1.1-3 complete Institutional
Competency Evaluation Package
Read Information Sheet 1.1-4 on for one Competency of Computer
“Computer Components and Systems Servicing NCII. Your
Devices” output shall serve as one of your
Answer Self-Check 1.1-4 portfolio for your Institutional
Competency Evaluation for
Compare Self-Check 1.1-4 to Answer Assemble Computer Hardware.
Key 1.1-4
Feel free to show your outputs to
Read Information Sheet 1.1-5 on your trainer as you accomplish
“Assemble computer hardware and them for guidance and
configure Basic-input-output- evaluation.
system (BIOS) configuration”
Answer Self-Check 1.1-5

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
Compare Self-Check 1.1-5 to Answer
Key 1.1-5
Perform Task Sheet 1.1-5 on
“Assemble computer hardware and
configure Basic-input-output-
system (BIOS) configuration”
Check performance using
performance criteria checklist on
“Assemble computer hardware and
configure Basic-input-output-
system (BIOS) configuration”

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-1
OH&S Policies and Procedures

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading of this INFORMATION SHEET, YOU MUST able to:
1. Identify the basic precautions and procedures in planning, preparing,
installing and testing of computer hardware and software;
2. Enumerate the effects of computers to the people, health risk, and to
the environment.

Introduction:
During installation and initial test, careful planning and preparation are to
be done. To avoid personal injury and damages to wiring due to sharp
pins on connectors and printed circuit assemblies, rough chassis edges and
corners and hot components.

Adhere to warnings and limitations regarding accessibility into areas


designated only for authorized technical personnel.

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT: SOME BASIC PRECAUTIONS AND


PROCEDURES:
1. Before starting the installation, read carefully the documentation and
procedures on any hardware and software settings that may be
required.
2. Failure to do the proper jumper setting may cause damage to your
CPU.
3. Without an effective cooling fan, the CPU can overheat and cause
damage to both CPU and the motherboard.
4. Each bank must have the size and type of memory installed in pairs.
5. Before adding and removing any other system components, make sure
that you unplug your power supply. Failure to do so may cause
damage to your motherboard and in the system component.
6. Test the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system
requirements before booting up.
7. If the computer does not pass any of the power on self-test (POST), the
computer will receive an irregular power on self-test. An irregular

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
POST is a beep code which is different from the standard beep which
can either be no beeps at all or a combination of different beeps.

EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS
Some effects of computers relating to the violation of privacy, the
impact on the labor force, health risks, and the impact on the environment.

1. Violation of Privacy - Nearly every life event is stored in a computer


somewhere—in medical records, credit records, tax records, etc. It is
crucial that personal and confidential records be protected properly.
In many instances, where these records were not properly protected,
individuals have found their privacy violated and identities stolen.
2. Impact on Labor Force - Although computers have improved
productivity in many ways and created an entire industry with
hundreds of thousands of new jobs, the skills of millions of workers
and managers and have been replaced by computers. Thus, it is
crucial that workers keep their education up-to-date. A separate
impact on the labor force is that some companies are outsourcing jobs
to foreign countries instead of keeping their homeland labor force
employed.
3. Health Risks - Prolonged or improper computer use can lead to
injuries or disorders of the hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks, and
back. Computer users can protect themselves from these health risks
through proper workplace design, good posture while at the computer,
and appropriately spaced work breaks. Another health risk, called
computer addiction, occurs when someone becomes obsessed with
using the computer. Once recognized, computer addiction is a
treatable disorder.
4. Public Safety - Adults, teen and children around the world are using
computers to share publicly their photos, videos, journals, music and
other personal information. Some of these unsuspecting, innocent
computer users have fallen victim to crimes committed by dangerous
strangers. Protect yourself and your dependents from these criminals
by being cautious. For example, do not share information that would
allow others to identify or locate you.
5. Impact on Environment - Computer manufacturing processes and
computer waste are depleting natural resources and polluting the
environment. The amount of resources required to manufacture a
personal computer equals that of a mid-sized car.
CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:
Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
SELF-CHECK 1.1-1

A. IDENTIFICATION
Direction: Identify the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the
statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong.
1. Failure to do the proper jumper setting may cause damage your CPU.
2. After adding and removing any other system components make sure
that you unplug your power supply.
3. Test the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system
requirements before booting up.
4. With an effective cooling fan, the CPU can overheat and cause damage
to both CPU and the motherboard.
5. After starting the installation, read carefully the documentation and
procedures on any hardware and software settings that may be
required.

B. ENUMERATION
Direction: Enumerate the effect of computers relating to the violation of
privacy, the impact on the labor force, health risks, and the impact on the
environment.

Note: Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page.
If you get 80% and above, then you may proceed to the next activity but if not, master the lesson and
take the Self-Check again.

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
ANSWER KEY 1.1-1
A. IDENTIFICATION
1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. TRUE
4. FALSE
5. FALSE

B. ENUMERATION
1. Violation of Privacy
2. Impact on Labor Force
3. Health Risks
4. Public Safety
5. Impact on Environment

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-2
Necessary Materials for Planned Installation

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to:
1. Enumerate required qualification for a computer hardware personnel;
2. Identify the qualifications to be a certified hardware professional so
that you could be allowed and authorized to do a well-planned
installation.

Introduction:
Are you the person everyone calls when they have a computer problem?
Have you considered getting paid for fixing near-fatal errors and turning
your PC prowess into a business? According a recent report, sales of
computer services are expected to exceed $47 billion this year in the U.S.
alone, with PC repair leading the way. But there are some requirements that
you need to know before joining the bandwagon of Computer Hardware
Servicing trade, like document/forms (e.g. Job Orders, Request Forms, and
Report Sheets) and qualifications for personnel in repairing computers.

REQUIRED DOCUMENTS/FORMS:
Job Order - (known as works order outside of the United States because the
work is produced in a manufacturing area known as the works) or job order
(sometimes job ticket or work ticket, as it often has some type of ticket
attached) is an order received by an organization from a customer or client,
or an order created internally within the organization. A work order may be
for products or services.

In a manufacturing environment, a work order is converted from a sales


order to show that work is about to be begin on the manufacture, building
or engineering of the products requested by the customer. In a service
environment, a work order can be equivalent to a service order where the
WO records the location, date and time the service is carried out and the
nature of work that is done. The type of personnel (e.g. job position) may
also be listed on the WO. A rate (e.g. $/hr, $/week) and also the total
amount of hours worked and total value is also shown on the work order.

A work order may be a maintenance or repair request from students, faculty


or staff in a university.
CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:
Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
Orders received from outside an organization are often dispatched (reviewed
and scheduled) before being executed. Work orders may be for preventive
maintenance.
Contractors may use a single job work order and invoice form that contains
the customer information, describes the work performed, lists charges for
material and labor, and can be given to the customer as an invoice.
A job order is an internal document extensively used by projects-based,
manufacturing, building and fabrication businesses. A job order may be for
products and/or services. In a manufacturing environment, a job order is
used to signal the start of a manufacturing process and will most probably
be linked to a bill of material. Hence, the job order will probably state:

1. The quantity of the product to be manufactured, built or fabricated


2. The amount of raw material to be used, its price and amount
3. The types of labor required, rate (per hour or per unit) and amount
4. The machine utilization for each machine during the routing process,
its rate and amount

In a service environment, a job order can be the equivalent to a work or


service order where the job order records the location, date and time the
service is carried out and the nature of service that was carried out. The
type of personnel (e.g. job position) may also be listed on the job order. A
rate (e.g. $/hr, $/week) and also the total amount of hours worked and total
value is also shown.
Sample Job Order Form

Computer Repair Job Order Form

Teacher Client’s Name School ACLC College of Butuan, Inc.


Date October 29, 2017 Computer # 001
Service Tag # 001 Model Intel Core i5
Serial # 5343S
Computer Problem: (Brief Description of the Problem)
***Blue Screen Error***

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
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REQUIRED QUALIFICATION FOR A COMPUTER HARDWARE
PERSONNEL:

What Qualifications Do You Need to Become a PC Repair Technician?

Education - Employers prefer applicants, who have completed formal


electronics training in a vocational school, community college or similar
setting, reports the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Training programs may last
from 6 months to two years. Some employers require at least a high school
diploma or GED.

Certifications - Trainees can take the TESDA NC II Computer System


Servicing assessment to demonstrate their competency for entry level jobs to
employers. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority or
TESDA offers a variety of certification programs. In addition, technicians can
achieve certifications even for trainer-ship.

Physical and Personal Traits - PC technicians must be able to squat, bend


and reach to access the computer equipment requiring repair. They should
be physically able to lift at least 50 pounds of computer components.
Employers look for technicians who can stand for long periods of time and
have the ability to perceive a variety of colors. Employers want technicians
who think analytically, are organized and pay attention to detail. They
should feel comfortable working under tight deadlines, and companies may
expect them to work overtime or on weekends.

Knowledge and Skills - Applicants should know how to use a variety of


standard office software, and some jobs also require knowledge of
networking. Companies prefer candidates with previous PC repair
experience, and they may look for candidates with experience repairing
specific brands of computers. Technicians need strong oral communication
skills and should be able to explain their findings to customers using
common terms.

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
SELF-CHECK 1-1.2
A. IDENTIFICATION
Direction: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if the
statement is wrong.

_______ 1. Anyone can perform a planned installation as long as he knows


it.
_______ 2. The Department of Education facilitates the competency
assessment for computer technicians.
_______ 3. Computer Technicians are given the TESDA NC II Computer
System Servicing by TESDA after successfully taking the
Assessment.
_______ 4. Computer Technicians need not to have the strong oral
communication skills for them only repair computers.
_______ 5. Companies prefer candidates with previous PC repair
experience, and they may look for candidates with experience
repairing specific brands of computers.
_______ 6. A job order is an external document by a project based
business.
_______ 7. A job order can be the equivalent to a work or service order
where the job order records the location, date and time the
service is carried out and the nature of service that was carried
out.

Note: Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you get 80% and above, then you
may proceed to the next activity but if not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.

B. ENUMERATION
Direction: Enumerate the required qualification for a computer hardware
personnel

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
ANSWER KEY 1.1-2
A. IDENTIFICATION
1. FALSE
2. FALSE
3. TRUE
4. FALSE
5. FALSE
6. FALSE
7. TRUE

B. ENUMERATION
 Education
 Certifications
 Physical and Personal Traits
 Knowledge and Skills

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-3
Tools, Equipment and Testing Devices

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading of this information Sheet, you should be able to:
1. Identify the different tools and equipment used in computer systems
and networks;
2. Identify the different use and functions of these tools and equipment.

Introduction:
One important thing to consider before executing a well-planned computer
installation is that one must be knowledgeable in the different tools and
equipment used in computer systems and networks. Furthermore, the idea
on how these tools and equipment are properly used is another important
consideration in installing computer systems.

Hardware Tools/Equipment And


Illustrations
Their Functions

Protective Eyewear - enclose or


protect the eye area in order to
prevent particulates, infectious
fluids, or chemicals from striking
the eyes

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
Multi-tester or Multi-meter - A
multi-meter or a multi-tester, also
known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm meter),
is an electronic measuring
instrument that combines several
measurement functions in one unit

Pliers (Assorted) - Pliers is a hand


tool used to hold objects firmly, for
bending, or physical compression.

Screwdriver - A screwdriver is a
tool for driving screws and often
rotating other machine elements
with the mating drive system

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
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Soldering Gun - A soldering gun is
a tool for soldering metals using tin-
based solder to achieve a highly
conductive contact

Desoldering Tool - Desoldering


tools are used for removing the
molten solder so that the joint may
be separated.

Allen Wrench - A hex key, Allen


key, or Allen wrench (also known by
various other synonyms) is a tool of
hexagonal cross-section used to
drive bolts and screws that have a
hexagonal socket in the head
(internal-wrenching hexagon drive)

Flashlight - A flashlight (or torch in


British English) is a hand-held
portable electric-powered light
source. Usually the light source is a
small incandescent light bulb or
light-emitting diode (LED)

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
IC Insertion and Extraction Tool -
Used for extracting and inserting
BIOS Chip

Mirror - In hardware servicing a


mirror is used for inspecting the
peripherals

Tweezers - Tweezers are tools used


for picking up objects too small to
be easily handled with the human
hands

Antistatic Wrist Strap - An


antistatic wrist strap, ESD wrist
strap, or ground bracelet is an
antistatic device used to safely
ground a person working on very
sensitive electronic equipment, to
prevent the build-up of static
electricity on their body, which can
result in electrostatic discharge
(ESD)

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
Gloves - A gloves are garments for
covering and protecting the whole
hand

Printer - a printer is a peripheral


which produces a text or graphics of
documents stored in electronic
form, usually on physical print
media such as paper or
transparencies

Computer - A computer is a
programmable machine designed to
automatically carry out a sequence
of arithmetic or logical operations

Windows Operating System


CD/DVD - An operating system is
used as an intermediary between
hardware and software

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
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Installing and
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Device Driver CD/DVD - An
application used to install the
device and peripherals of a
computer systems and networks

RS 232 pin insertion/extraction


tool -RS232 and D-Sub Pin
Insertion and Removal Tool

Computer Networking Tools and Illustrations


Device and their Functions

Crimping Tool - A crimping tool is


a tool designed to crimp or connect
a connector to the end of a cable.
For example, network cables and
phone cables are created using a
crimping tool to connect the RJ-45
and RJ-11 connectors to the end of
the cable. In the picture to the right,
is an example of what a crimping
tool looks like. This example shows
a tool capable of crimping both RJ-
11 and RJ-45 connectors.

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
LAN Tester - A Device used for
testing network cable connectivity

UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair Cat


5 Cable - A cable used for computer
networking

RJ 45 Connector - A plastic
connector used for UTP Cable to
connect computers in a network

Ethernet Switch - A network


switch or switching hub is a
computer networking device that
connects network segments or
network devices

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
SELF-CHECK 1.1-3

A. - IDENTIFICATION
Direction: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if the
statement is wrong.
_______ 1. Protective Eyewear enclose or protect the nose area in
order to prevent particulates, infectious fluids or
chemicals.
_______ 2. Uni-tester is an electronic device for measuring instrument
that combines several measurement and functions.
_______ 3. Pliers are hand tool used to hold objects firmly for bending
or physical compression
_______ 4. A screw is a tool for driving screws and often rotating other
machine elements with the mating drive system.
_______ 5. A Soldering Gun is a tool for soldering metals using tin-
based solder to achieve a highly conductive contact

B. - MATCHING TYPE
Direction: Select your answer on the choices below that will correspond on
the statement. Write the letter of your answer on the space provided.

COLUMN A COLUMN B

A. Mirror ______ 1. A hand held portable electric


B. Flash light light source
C. Gloves ______ 2. Used for extracting and
D. Tweezers inserting BIOS Chip
E. IC Insertion and ______ 3. Used for inspecting
Extracting Tool peripherals
______ 4. Intended for picking up
objects too small for human
hands
______ 5. Used for hand protection

Note: Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you get 80% and above, then you
may proceed to the next activity but if not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.

CBLM on Computer Date Developed: Document No.:


Systems Servicing NCII May 10, 2019 Issued by:
Compiled by: ACLC College of Butuan
Installing and
Configuring Computer MARY JANE R. PAPA Revision #00
Systems
ANSWER KEY 1.1-3

A. IDENTIFICATION
1. FALSE
2. FALSE
3. FALSE
4. FALSE
5. TRUE

B. MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. B
2. E
3. A
4. D
5. C

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-4
Computer Components and Devices

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading of this information Sheet, you should be able to:
1. Identify the hardware and software components of a computer with its
corresponding functions;
2. Identify the various computer components and peripherals.

Introduction:
A computer system is a special subsystem of an organization’s overall
information system. It is an integrated assembly of devices, centered on at
least one processing mechanism utilizing digital electronics, which are used
to input, process, store and output data and information.

Putting together a complete computer system, however, is more involved


than just connecting computer devices. In an effective and efficient system,
components are selected and organized with an understanding of the
inherent tradeoffs between overall system performance and cost, control and
complexity.

Basic Hardware Components of Computer System


Today, almost everyone in our information society has a basic
understanding of what a computer is and what it can do. A contemporary
computer system consists of a central processing unit, primary storage,
secondary storage, input devices, output devices and communication
devices that work together with software to perform calculations, organize
data and communicate with other computers.

A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control of


instructions store in its own memory, that can be programmed to accept
data (input), it into useful information (output), and store it away in a
secondary storage device (store) for safekeeping or later reuse. The
processing of input into output is directly by the software but performed by
the hardware. Figure below shows some common computer hardware
components.

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Common computer hardware components

Computer system hardware components include devices that perform the


functions of input, processing, data storage; output and communication.
The devices responsible for these five areas are as follows:

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Input devices. - Input devices allow you to enter data or commands in a
form that the computer can use; they send the data or commands to the
processing unit. Commonly-used input devices include keyboard, mouse,
microphone, scanner, digital camera, and PC camera.

Output devices. - Output devices show people the processed data--


information --in understandable and useful form. Four commonly used
output devices are a printer, a monitor, speakers, and a portable media
player. Input/output devices are playing an increasingly significant role in
our lives. The number and variety of input/output devices are expanding.

Processing devices. - Processing devices are the computer electronic


circuitry housed in the system unit. The circuitry in the system unit is part
of a circuit board called the motherboard. Two major components on the
motherboard are the processor and memory. The processor, formally known
as the central processing unit (CPU), has electronic circuitry that
manipulates input data into the information people want. Computer
instructions are actually are executed in the central processing unit.
Memory is a series of electronic elements that temporarily holds data and
program instructions while they are being processed by the CPU. Both the
processor and memory consist of chips. A chip is an electronic device that
contains many microscopic pathways designed to carry electrical current.

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Storage devices. - Storage usually means secondary storage that can
store data and programs outside the computer itself. Storage devices hold
data, information, and programs permanently. These devices supplement
memory (also called primary storage) that can hold data and programs only
temporarily. Common storage devices include a hard disk, USB flash drives,
CDs, DVDs, and memory cards. A drive is a device that reads from and
writes onto a storage medium. A storage medium is the physical material
on which data, information, and program are stored. Some portable devices,
such as digital cameras, use memory cards as the storage media.

Communications devices. - Communications devices provide connections


between the computer and communications networks, and enable computer
users to communicate and to exchange data, information, and programs
with other computers. Communications devices transmit these items over
transmission media such as cables, telephone lines, satellites, and cellular
radio. A widely used communications device is a modem.

In summary, we communicate with computers through input/output


devices. Input devices translate our data and communications into a form
that the computer can understand. The computer then processes these
data, and an output device translates them back into a form we can
understand. The central processing unit manipulates data and controls the
other parts of the computer system. Memory (primary storage) temporarily
stores data and program instructions during processing, while secondary
storage feeds data and instructions into the central processor and stores
data for future use.

The System Unit


The Motherboard - The system unit is a box-like case that houses the
processor, memory and other electronic components of the computer that
are used to process data. All other computer system devices, such as the
monitor, keyboard, and mouse, are linked either directly or indirectly into
the system unit.

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Figure below shows some of the components inside the system unit on a
typical PC, including the processor, memory, expansion cards, drive bays,
power supply, ports and connectors. The processor is the device that
executes program instructions. The memory device is a package that holds
temporarily data and program instructions during processing. An expansion
card is a circuit board that adds devices or capabilities to the computer.
Finally, devices outside the system unit, such as a keyboard, mouse,
monitor, printer, or microphone, are attached by a cable to a port or
connector on the system unit.

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To conserve on space, all-in-one computer houses the system unit in the
same physical case as the monitor. On notebook computers, the keyboard
and pointing device often occupy the area on the top of the system unit. The
display attaches to the system unit by a hinge. The system unit on a
handheld computer usually consumes the entire device. On these devices,
the display is part of the system unit too.

When the cover of a system unit is removed, the motherboard, also called
system board, can be seen inside the housing. The motherboard, a single
circuit board, provides the path through which the processor communicates
with memory components, other components, and peripheral devices. In a
typical personal computer, the components attached to the motherboard
include processor, memory chips, support electronic circuitry, and
expansion boards. It is the processor that is the most important component
of the motherboard.

Many electronic components attach to the motherboard

A computer chip is a small piece of semi conducting material, usually


silicon, on which one or more integrated circuits are etched. The various
chips have standard-sized pin connectors that allow them to be attached to
the motherboard and, there, to a common electrical path, called bus, that
enables data flow between the various system components.

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An integrated circuit (IC) contains many microscopic pathways capable of
carrying electrical current. Each integrated circuit can contain millions of
elements such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors. Transistors act as
electronic switches that may or may not allow current to pass through. If
current passes through, the switch is on, representing the 1 bit. If current
does not pass through, the switch is off, representing a 0 bit. Thus,
combinations of transistors can stand for combinations of bits, which
represent numbers, letters, and other characters. The motherboard in the
system unit contains many different types of chips. A miniaturized central
processing unit can be etched on a chip, then the term computer on a chip.

A central processing unit on a chip is called a microprocessor. On a


personal computer, the central processing unit (CPU) usually is contained
on a single chip. On the larger computers such as mainframes and
supercomputer, the various functions performed by CPU are spread across
many separate chips. Today's popular Pentium microprocessor contains
more than one hundred million transistors.

Ultimately, the type of processor and the amount of RAM placed on the
motherboard define the computer’s speed and capacity. The processor is
generally not made by the manufacturers of PCs. It is made by companies
that specialized in the development and manufacture of microprocessors. A
number of companies make microprocessors, including Intel, IBM, Motorola,
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and Cyrix. Most chips are no bigger than
one-half-inch square. Manufacturer’s package chips so the chips can be
attached to a circuit board such as a motherboard, memory module, or
adapter card.

A variety of chip packages exist. One type, called a dual inline package (DIP),
consists of two parallel rows of pints that attach the chip package to the
circuit board. A pin grid array (PGA) package holds a larger number of pins
because the pins are mounted on the surface of the package. A flip chip-PGA
(FC-PGA) package is a higher-performance PGA packaging that places the
chip on the opposite side of the pins. Another high performance packaging
technique does not use pins. A single edge contact (SEC) cartridge connects
to the .

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Some common chip packages motherboard on one of its edges.

The Central Processing Unit


The central processing unit (CPU), also called processor, interprets and
carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer. The CPU
significantly impacts overall computing power and manages most of a
computer's operations. On larger computers, such as mainframes and
supercomputers, the various functions performed by the processor extend
over many separate chips and often multiple circuit boards. On a personal
computer, all functions of the processor usually are on a single chip.

Most processor chip manufacturers now offer multi-core processors. A


multi-core processor is a single-chip with two or more separate processors.
Two common multi-core processors used today are dual-core and quad-core.
A dual-core processor is a chip that contains tow separate processors.
Similarly, a quad-core processor is a chip with four-separate processors.
Each processor on a multi-core chip generally runs at a slower clock speed
than a single-core processor, but multi-core ships typically increase overall
performance.

Memory - While performing a processing operation, a processor needs a


place to temporarily store instructions to be executed and the data to be
used with those instructions. The CPU cannot process data on an input
device or disk directly; the data must first be available in memory. A
computer's memory in the system unit, located physically close to the CPU
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(to decrease access time), provides the CPU with a working storage area for
program instructions, data and information. Memory is also known as
primary storage or internal storage. Memory usually consists of one or more
chips on the motherboard or some other circuit board in the computer.

The major feature of memory is that it rapidly provides the instructions and
data to the CPU. Memory stores three basic categories of items: (1) the
operating system and other system software that control or maintain the
computer and its devices; (2) application programs that carry our a specific
task such as word processing; and (3) the data being processed by the
application programs and resulting information.

This role of memory to store both data and programs is known as the stored
program concept.

Memory and storage sizes - Programs and data are placed in memory
before processing, between processing steps, and after processing has34
ended, prior to being returned to secondary storage or released as output.
Recall that a character is stored in the computer as a group of 0s and 1s,
called a byte. Thus, a byte is the basic storage unit in memory. Like the
CPU, memory components contain thousands of circuits imprinted on a
silicon chip. Each circuit is either conducting electrical current (on) or not
(off). By representing data as a combination of on or off circuit states, the
data is stored in memory. When application program instructions and data
are transferred into memory from storage devices, each of bytes is placed in
a precise location in memory, called an address. This address is simply a
unique number identifying the location of the byte in memory. To access
data or instructions in memory, the computer references the addresses that
contain bytes of data. The size of memory is measured by the number of
bytes available for use (Figure 4-17). A kilobyte of memory is equal to exactly
1,024 bytes. To make storage definitions easier to identify, computer users
often round a kilobyte down to 1,000 bytes. A megabyte (MB) is equal to
approximately 1 million bytes. A gigabyte (GB) equals approximately 1
billion bytes. A terabyte (TB) is equal to approximately 1 trillion bytes.

The system unit contains two types of memory: volatile and nonvolatile. The
contents of volatile memory are lost when the computer power is turned off.
In nonvolatile memory, the combination of circuit states is fixed, and
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therefore the contents of nonvolatile memory are not lost when power is
removed from the computer. RAM is the most common type of volatile
memory. Examples of nonvolatile memory include ROM, flash memory and
CMOS. The following sub-sections discuss these types of memory.

RAM - Random Access Memory (RAM) is the memory chips that are
mounted directly on the motherboard or mounted on peripheral cards that
plug into the motherboard. The RAM chips consist of millions of switches
that are sensitive to changes in electric current. When the computer is
powered on, certain operating system files are loaded from a storage device
such as a hard disk into RAM. These files remain in RAM as long as the
computer is running. As additional programs and data are requested, they
are read from storage into RAM. The processor acts upon the data while it is
in RAM. During the running time, the contents of RAM may change as the
program is executed.

RAM comes in many different varieties. Three basic types of RAM are
dynamic RAM, static RAM, and magneto resistive RAM. Dynamic RAM
(DRAM) must be refreshed (or recharged) constantly by the CPU or it loses
its contents. Many variations of DRAM chips exist, most of which are faster
than the basic DRAM. One type of DRAM is Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM),
which is much faster than DRAM because it is synchronized to the system
clock. Double Data Rate (DDR) SDRAM chips are eve faster than SDRAM
chips because they transfer data twice for each clock cycle, instead of just
once, and DDR2 and DDR3 are even faster than DDR. Dual channel SDRAM
is faster than single channel SDRAM because it delivers twice the amount of
data to the processor. Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) is yet another type of DRAM
that is much faster than SDRAM because it uses pipelining techniques.
Most personal computers today use some form of SDRAM chips or RDRAM
chips.

Static RAM (SRAM) is faster and more reliable than any form of DRAM. The
term static refers to the fact that it does not have to be re-energized as often
as DRAM. SRAM is much more expensive than DRAM, thus it is usually
used for special purpose, such as used in cache.

A newer type of RAM, called magneto


resistive RAM (MRAM), stores data
using magnetic charges instead of
electrical charges. Manufacturers
claim that MRAM has greater storage
capacity, consumes less power, and
has faster access times than
electronic RAM. Also, MRAM retains
its contents after power is removed
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from the computer, which could prevent loss of data for users. As the cost of
MRAM declines, experts predict MRAM could replace both DRAM and SRAM.

RAM chips usually are packaged on a small circuit board, called memory
module, which is inserted into the motherboard (Figure 4-19). Three types of
memory modules are SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs. A single inline memory
module (SIMM) has pins on opposite sides of the circuit board that connect
together to form a single set of contacts. With a dual inline memory module
(DIMM), the pins on opposite sides of the circuit board do not connect and
thus form two sets of contacts. SIMMs and DIMMs typically hold SDRAM
chips. A Rambus inline memory module (RIMM) houses RDRAM chips
memory module being inserted. The amount of RAM a computer in a
motherboard requires often depends on the types of applications you plan to
use on the computer. A computer only can manipulate data that is in
memory. A computer needs a certain amount of memory to store programs,
data, and information. The more RAM a computer has, the faster the
computer will respond.

A software package usually indicates the minimum amount of RAM it


requires. If you want the application to perform optimally, typically you need
more than the minimum specifications on the software package. The
necessary amount of RAM varies according to the type of work you do and
the type of software applications you are using. The amount of RAM on your
36
computer determines how many programs and how much data a computer
can handle at one time and thus affects overall performance. Generally,
home users running Windows Vista and using basic application software
such as word processing should have at least 1GB of RAM. Most business
users who work with accounting, financial, or spreadsheet programs, and
programs requiring multimedia capabilities should have 1 to 4 GB of RAM.
Users creating professional Web sites or using graphics-intensive
applications will want 4GB or more of RAM. The amount of RAM in
computers purchased today ranges from 1GB to 64GB. In an advertisement,
manufacturers specify the maximum amount of RAM a computer can hold,
for example, 1GB expandable to 2GB.

ROM
Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data
and instructions. That is, the items stored in ROM chips cannot be
modified--hence, the name read-only. ROM is usually nonvolatile. In ROM,
the combination of circuit states is fixed, and therefore its contents are not
lost if the power is removed. The data, instructions, or information stored on
ROM chips often are recorded when the chip is manufactured. ROM chips
that contain permanently written data, instructions, or information are
called firmware. Firmware can be read and used, but cannot be changed by
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user. For example, ROM contains the programs that direct the computer to
load the operating system and other files when the computer is turned on.
In addition to computers, many devices contain ROM chips. For example,
ROM chips in printers contain data for fonts.

Programmable read-only memory (PROM) is a blank ROM chip on which you


can permanently place data and programs. Once the data and instructions
are programmed into PROM chip, the chip functions like a regular ROM and
cannot be erased or changed. A variation of the PROM chip, called
electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip,
allows a programmer to erase the microcode with an electric signal.
EEPROM chips are where the CPU's data and instructions change, but only
infrequently, such as an industrial robot used in an automobile
manufacturer.

Flash Memory 37

Another type of nonvolatile memory is called flash memory. Flash memory is


a chip that keeps its memory when the power is shut off. Similar to a
EEPROM chip, flash memory can be erased electronically and
reprogrammed. Most computers use flash memory to hold their startup
instructions because it allows the computer easily to update its contents.
For example, when the computer changes from standard time to day-light
savings time, the contents of a flash memory chip (and the real-time clock
chip) change to reflect the new time.

Flash memory chips also store data and programs on many mobile
computers and devices, such as smart telephones, digital cameras, pagers,
PDAs, automotive devices, portable media players, digital voice recorders,
and printers. When you enter names and addresses in a smart phone or
PDA, a flash memory chip stores the data. Some portable media players
such as MP3 players store music on flash memory chips; others store music
on tiny hard disks or flash memory cards. The logic capabilities of these
devices can be upgraded by simply downloading new software from the
Internet or a vendor-supplied disk to flash memory.

CMOS
Some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory chips use
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology because it
provides high speeds and consumes little power. CMOS technology uses
battery power to retain information even when the power to the computer is
off. Battery-backed CMOS memory chips, for example, can keep the
calendar, date, and time current even when the computer is off. The flash
memory chips that store a computer's startup information often use CMOS
technology.

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Expansion Slots and Adapter
Cards An expansion slot is a
socket on the motherboard
that can hold an adapter card.
An adapter card, also called
expansion card, is a circuit
board that enhances functions
of a component of the system
unit and/or provides
connections to peripherals. A
peripheral is a device that
connects to the system unit
and is controlled by an
adapter card being inserted in
an the processor in the computer. Expansion slot

Examples of peripherals are


modems, disk drives, printers,
scanners, and keyboards. The
adapter cards contain the
electronic circuitry for many
supplemental capabilities, such as
more memory, higher-quality
sound devices, a modem, extra
ports, or graphics capabilities.
Figure shows an expansion card
being plugged into an expansion
slot on a personal computer
motherboard.

Figure below lists currently used types of adapter cards. Sometimes, all
functionality is built in the adapter card. With others, a cable connects the
adapter card to a device, such as a digital video camera, outside the system
unit.
Some motherboards include all necessary capabilities and do not require
adapter cards. Other motherboards may require adapter cards to provide
capabilities such as sound and video. A sound card is used to enhance the
sound-generating capabilities of a personal computer by making two basic
functions possible.

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Currently used adapter cards and their functions
First it enables sounds to be captured and stored on disk. Second, it enables
sounds to be played through external speakers. The sound card can add
realism to computer games with stereo music and sound effects.
It also allows us to speak commands and enter words to our PCs via speech
recognition. The typical sound card will have receptacles for a microphone, a
headset, an audio output, and a joystick. A video card, also called video
adapter or graphics card, converts computer output into a video signal that
is sent through a cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the
screen.
In the past, installing a card was not easy and required you to set switches
and other elements on the motherboard. Today, many computers support
Plug and Play, which refers to the computer's capability to automatically
configure adapter cards and other peripherals as you install them. Having
Plug and Play support means that a user can plug in a new component turn
on the computer, and then use or play the component without having to
configure the system manually.
There are four widely used types of removable flash memory devices: flash
memory cards, USB flash drives, PC cards, and ExpressCard modules.
Unlike adapter cards that require you to open the system unit and install
the card on the motherboard, you can change a removable flash memory
device without having to open the system unit or restart the computer. This
feature, called hot plugging, allows you to insert and remove the removable
flash memory and other devices while the computer is running.

Flash memory cards and USB flash drive


A flash memory card is a removable
flash memory device, which you inset
and remove from a slot in a computer,
mobile device, or card reader/writer.
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Many mobile and consumer devices, such as smart phones, digital cameras,
portable media players, and PDAs use these memory cards. Some printers
and computers have built-in card readers/writers or slots that read flash
memory cards. In addition, you can purchase an external card reader/writer
that attaches to any computer. Flash memory cards are available in a
variety of shapes, sizes and capacities.

A USB flash drive is a flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port
on a computer or portable device. A special type of USB flash drive, called a
U3 smart drive, includes preinstalled software accessed through a Window-
type interface.

Many computers have a PC Card slot or an Express Card slot, which is a


special type of expansion slot that holds a PC Card or an Express Card
module, respectively. A PC Card is a thin, credit card-sized removable flash
memory device that primarily is used today to enable notebook computers to
access the Internet wirelessly. Express Card modules are the next
generation of PC Cards. An Express Card module, which can be used as a
removable flash memory device, adds memory, communications,
multimedia, and security capabilities to computers. Both PC Cards and
Express Card modules conform to standards developed by the Personal
Computer Memory Card International Association. These standards help to
ensure the interchangeability of PC Cards and Express Card modules among
personal computers.

Other Components

Buses
As previously explained, a computer processes and stores data as a series of
electronic bits. These bits are transferred internally within the circuitry of
the computer along electrical channels. Each channel, called a bus, allows
the various devices inside and attached to the system unit to communicate
with A PC Card slides in a PC Card slot each other. Just as vehicles travel
on a highway to move from one destination to another, bits travel on a bus.

Buses are used to transfer bits from input devices to memory, from memory
to the CPU, from the CPU to memory, and from memory to output or storage
devices. All buses consist of two parts: a data bus and an address bus. The
data bus transfers actual data and the address bus transfers information
about where the data should go in memory.

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Just as vehicles travel on a highway, bits travel on a bus

A bus is measured by its size. The size of a bus, called the bus width,
determines the number of bits that can be transmitted at one time. For
example, a 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits (4 bytes) at a time. On a 64-bit
bus, 64 bits (8 bytes) are transmitted from one location to another at a time.
The larger the number of bits handled by the bus, the faster the computer
transfers data. If a number in memory occupies 64 bits, it must be
transmitted in two separate steps when using a 32-bit bus: once for the first
32 bits and once for the second 32 bits. Using a 64-bit bus, however, the
number can be transmitted in a single step, transferring all 64 bits at once.
The wider the bus, the fewer number of transfer steps required and the
faster the transfer of data. Most personal computers today use a 64-bit bus.

Every bus also has a clock speed. Just like the processor, the clock speed
for a bus is measured in megahertz. The higher the bus clock speed, the
faster the transmission of data, which results in applications running faster.
Most of today's processors have a bus clock speed of 400, 533, 667, 800,
1066, or 1333 MHz

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Buses allow the various devices inside and attached to the system unit
to communicate with each other
Two basic types of buses are found in a computer: a system bus and an
expansion bus. A system bus is part of the motherboard and connects the
CPU to main memory. An expansion bus allows the CPU to communicate
with peripheral devices. Data transmitted to the CPU travels from the
expansion bus and the system bus. When computer professionals use the
term bus by itself, they usually are referring to the system bus. Since the
types of expansion buses on a motherboard determine the types of
expansion cards you can add, you should understand the expansion buses
commonly found in today's personal computers:
 An old and slowest expansion bus is the ISA (Industry Standard
Architecture) bus. A mouse, modem card, sound card, and low-
speed network card are examples of devices that connect to the ISA
bus directly or through an ISA bus expansion slot.
 The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus is a high-speed
expansion bus that connects higher speed devices. Types of cards
inserted into a PCI bus expansion slot include video cards, sound
cards, SCSI cards, and high-speed network cards. The PCI bus

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transfers data about four times faster than the ISA bus. Most
currently personal computers have a PCI bus.

 The PCI Express (PCIe) bus is an expansion bus that expands on


and doubles the speed of the original PCI bus. Nearly all video cards
today use the PCI Express bus, as well as many hard disks and
network cards. Experts predict the PCI Express bus eventually will
replace the PCI bus completely.
 The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is actually a bus designed by
Intel to improve the speed with which 3-D graphics and video are
transmitted. When an AGP video card is inserted in an AGP bus
slot, the AGP bus provides a faster, dedicated interface between the
video card and memory. Newer processors support AGP technology.
 The Universal Serial Bus (USB) and FireWire bus are buses that
eliminate the need to install expansion cards into expansion slots.
In a computer equipped with a USB, USB devices are connected to
each other outside the system unit and then a single cable attaches
to the USB port. The USB port then connects to USB, which
connects to the PCI bus on the motherboard. The USB hot plug
feature allows peripheral devices to be connected to or removed
from the USB port while the PC is running. The FireWire bus works
in a similar fashion. With these buses, expansion slots are available
for devices not compatible with USB or FireWire.
 The expansion bus for a PC Card is the PC Card bus. With a PC
Card inserted into a PC Card slot, data travels on the PC Card bus
to the PCI bus.

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System unit ports
Ports and Connectors
A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a
system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information
from the computer. An peripheral device, such as a keyboard, monitor,
printer, mouse, digital camera, and microphone, often attaches by a cable to
a port on the system unit. Most of the time, ports are located on the back of
the system unit, but they also can be placed on the front.

A connector joins a cable to a port. A connector at one end of a cable


attaches to a port on the system unit, and a connector at the other end of
the cable attaches to a port on the peripheral. Most connectors are available
in one of two genders: male and female. Male connectors have one or more
exposed pins.

Female connectors have matching holes to accept the pints on a male


connector. Manufacturers often identify the cables by their connector types
to assist you with purchasing a cable to connect a computer to a peripheral.
Figure show the different types of connectors you may find on a system unit.
Notice that some are color-coded to help you match the connector to the
correct port. Some system units include these connectors when you buy the
computer. You add other connectors by inserting adapter cards on the
motherboard. Certain adapter cards have ports that allow you to attach a45
peripheral to the adapter card.
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The motherboard is designed with several port options, including at least
one serial port and parallel port each, several USB ports, and a FireWire
port.
 A serial port is a type of interface that connects a device to the
system unit by transmitting data one bit at a time. It usually used to
connect devices that do not required fast data transmission rates,
such as a mouse or keyboard. The COM port (short for
communications port) on the system unit is one type of serial port.
Some modems, which connect the system unit to a telephone line, use
a serial port because the telephone line expects the data in a serial
form. Serial ports conform to either the RS-232 or RS-422 standard
with 9-pin or 25-pin. One of the 9 or 25 lines carries the serial signal
to the peripheral device, and another line carries the signal from the
device. The other lines carry control signals.
 Parallel ports allow the parallel transmission of data; that is, several
bits are transmitted simultaneously. Figure also shows how 8-bit
bytes travel in
parallel over 8
separate lines. Extra
lines carry control
signals. Parallel ports
use the same 25-pin
RS-232C connector
or the 36-pin
Centronics
connector. These
ports provide the
interface for such
devices as high-
speed printers,
external magnetic
tape or disk backup
units, and other
computers. Two newer types of parallel ports, the EPP (Enhanced
Parallel Port) and the ECP (Extended Capabilities Port), use the same
connectors as the Centronics port, but are more than 10 times faster.

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A serial port and parallel port.

 USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports are used in high-speed device


interfaces. Up to 127 peripheral devices can be daisy-chained to a
single USB port. USB ports are ideal for digital cameras, scanners,
games controllers, MP3 music player, CD & DVD, removable hard
disk, PDA, smart phone, and high-speed modems. Many system
units have six to eight USB ports. Some newer peripheral devices
may attach only to a USB port. Others attach to either a serial or
parallel port, as well as a USB port. When connecting a device to a
USB port, you do not need to install a card in the computer. Simply
plug one end of the cable into the USB port and the other end into
the device. To attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port,
you can use a USB hub. A USB hub is a device that plugs in a USB
port on the system unit and contains multiple USB ports in which
you plug cables from USB devices. Some USB hubs are wireless.
The latest version of USB, called USB 2.0, is a more advanced and
faster USB, with speeds 40 times higher than that of its
predecessor.

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 FireWire ports, also called IEEE 1394 port, are similar to the USB
port and can connect multiple types of devices that require faster
data transmission speeds such as digital video cameras, digital
VCRs color printer, scanners, digital cameras, and DVD drives to a
single connector. Up to 63 devices can be connected together using
a FireWire port. The latest FireWire version, called FireWire 800, is
much more advanced than its predecessor, FireWire 400. The
FireWire also supports Plug and Play. Many computer professionals
believe that ports such as USB and FireWire someday will replace
serial and parallel ports completely. Having standard ports and
connectors, such as USB and FireWire, greatly simplify the process
of attaching devices to a computer. In general, FireWire has
replaced parallel and SCSI ports, and USB ports have replaced
mouse, keyboard, serial, audio, and parallel ports. Some newer
computers do not have a serial or parallel port. Users plug the
device in a USB or FireWire port. Figure 4-32 shows how USB and
FireWire are replacing other ports completely.

There are five special-purpose ports available: MIDI, eSATA, SCSI, IrDA, and
Bluetooth. These ports are not included in typical computers. For a
computer to have these ports, you often must customize the computer
purchase order. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) ports connect
the system unit to a musical instrument, such as an electronic keyboard.
The electronic music industry has adopted MIDI as a standard to define how
devices, such as sound cards and synthesizers, represent sounds
electronically. A synthesizer, which can be a peripheral or a chip, creates
sound from digital instructions. A system unit with a MIDI port has the
capability of recording sounds that have been created by a synthesizer and
the processing the sounds to create new sounds. Nearly every sound card
supports the MIDI standard, so you can play and manipulate on one
computer sounds that originally were created on another computer.

An eSATA (external Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) port,


allows you to connect an external SATA hard disk to a computer. SATA hard
disks are popular because of their fast data transmission speeds. eSATA
connections provide up to six times faster data transmission speeds than48
external hard disks attached to a computer's USB or FireWire port.

SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports are special high-speed


parallel port and provide a parallel interface that enables faster data
transmission than serial and parallel ports. Also up to 15 SCSI peripheral
devices can be daisy-chained to a single SCSI port; that is, they are

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connected along a single cable. The first SCSI device connects to the
computer, the second SCSI device connects to the first SCSI device, and so
on. SAS (serial-attached SCSI) is a newer type of SCSI that transmits at
much faster speeds than parallel SCSI.

Power Supply, Cooling Technology


Many personal computers plug
in standard wall outlets, which
supply an alternating current
(AC) of 115 to 120 volts. This
type of power is unsuitable for
use with a computer, which
requires a direct current (DC)
ranging from 5 to 12 volts. The
power supply is the component
of the system unit that converts
the wall outlet AC power into DC
power. Different motherboards
and computers require different
wattages on the power supply. If a power supply is not providing the
necessary power, the computer will not function properly.

Built into the power supply is a fan that keeps


the power supply cool. Many newer computers
have additional fans near certain components in
the system unit such as the processor, hard
disk, and ports. Processor chips generate quite a
bit of heat, which could cause the chip to burn
up. Although the computer’s main fan generates
airflow, many of today’s processors require
additional cooling. A heat sink is a small
ceramic or metal component with fins on its
surface that absorbs and disperses heat
produced by electrical components such as a
processor. Because a heat sink consumes extra 49
space, smaller device called a heat pipe cools processors in notebook
computers.

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Self-Check 1.1-4
A. MATCHING TYPE
Direction: Identify the right answer on the choices below that will correspond
on the statement. Write the letter of your answer on the space provided.
a. Computer 1. an electronic machine, operating under the control
of instructions store in its own memory, that can be
programmed to accept data (input), it into useful
information (output), and store it away in a secondary
storage device (store) for safekeeping or later reuse.
b. Input devices 2. allow you to enter data or commands in a form that
the computer can use; they send the data or
commands to the processing unit.
c. CPU 3. Also called processor, interprets and carries out the
basic instructions d. that operate a computer.
d. RAM 4. The memory chips that are mounted directly on the
motherboard or mounted on peripheral cards that
plug into the motherboard.
e. BUS 5. Measured by its size.
f. Serial Port 6. A type of interface that connects a device to the
system unit by transmitting data one bit at a time.
g. eSATA 7. allows you to connect an external SATA hard disk to
a computer
h. Power Supply 8. A part of System Unit that provide power to a
Computer.
i. CMOS 9. Provides high speeds and consumes little power.
j ROM 10. Refers to memory chips storing permanent data
and instructions.

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-4
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. E
6. F
7. G
8. H
9. I
10. J

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-5
Assemble Computer Hardware and BIOS Configuration

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
After reading of this information Sheet, you should be able to:
1. Enumerate the Steps in Disassembling and Assembling a Computer
System Unit
2. Enumerate the Steps in Accessing and Configuring BIOS.

Introduction:

Knowing the Computer parts, other devices, tools and equipement is truely
helpful. But all the knowledge about those things will become more colorful
if we put it into action.

Disassembly and assembly a system unit is might sound easy. Yes it is


provided that you have done it correctly and safely. SAFETY must the first
thing that every computer technician should keep in mind, that is why to
Plan and prepare to ensure OH&S is also a vital step. You must think that
electrocution and nasty cuts are the most common injuries a computer
technician might have and we need to avoid it by following simple safety
procedures. To disassemble and assemble a computer is essential as being a
Computer Systems Servicing Technician.

Safety of the equipment must also be considered. Not only thinking of the
computer's safety but also to that of your tools. Your tools are your best
friends and you need to take good care of them so they in return can make
your job easy and fast. Example, if you just leave your software installer
anywhere then accidentally falls to the ground and accumulates scratches?
Do you think you can still use the installer again?

Lastly, keep in mind that our aim to disassemble and assemble a computer
unit is to diagouse it, and somehow make it functionable if it is still fixable.
So you need to add extrat care and ensure that all the basic input-out
system will work as well.

Listed below is the checklist for a safe and successful assembling computer
hardware and BIOS Configuration of a computer.

Assembling of a Computer System Unit


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To Assemble:

1. Provided that all peripherals are new. We are now going to assemble
your computer. Remove the retaining screws from the standoff
screws of the motherboard and let the motherboard seat on it
with the ports facing out towards the I/O shield. Lightly push the
motherboard to set its ports to the holes of the I/O shield. Put the
retaining screws on the motherboard screw holes but do not tighten it
yet. Now be careful in doing this one and if this is your first time doing
it, it is best if you lend a hand for assistance. Lightly push the
motherboard towards to I/O shield and lightly tighten the
motherboard retaining screws alternately until all screws are tight
enough but not too tight. This is to ensure that your ports are
protruding correctly out of the I/O shield.

2. Once the motherboard is secured, put the FP, Audio, and USB
header connectors as you will be using your documentation for
reference.

3. Put back the drives to the correct drive bays.

4. Connect back the RAM, Video Card and other card peripherals to
its proper slot inserting it properly and some cards will require
screws to be secured.

5. The data cables (IDE, SATA, floppy cable) should be connected to


its proper headers and drives. Remember the proper configuration of
the placement of the cables especially if you are dealing with the IDE
cables.

6. After the data cables are properly connected, put back the power
supply and secure it with the screws you removed earlier. After
securing the PSU to the chassis, connect the power connectors to the
drives and the motherboard.

7. Once all peripherals are connected properly, have a final inspection by


visually checking for loose connection or improper connection.
Once the system unit connections are thoroughly checked and
verified, connect the keyboard; the monitor, and the power connector
then power up the computer. This initial powering up of the computer
while the side cover is open ensures us that everything is ok before
putting back the side cover. In case something goes wrong, we can
accessibly correct the problem right away. If everything is fine
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shutdown the computer, unplugged the AVR and remove the cables
connected to the back of your computer. Put the side cover back.

8. Put the assembled computer to its place and connect the rest of
the cables and connectors. Power it up and see if there are unusual
effects of your assembling procedure.

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BIOS Configuration

BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System, a set of computer instructions
in firmware which control input and output operations.

It's BIOS that's responsible for the POST and therefore makes it the very
first software to run when a computer is started.

The BIOS firmware is non-volatile, meaning that its settings are saved and
recoverable even after power has been removed from the device.

You might need to access BIOS to change how the device works or to assist
in troubleshooting a problem. Below is the steps how to configure the BIOS.

1. Power on or power cycle the server.


2. To enter the BIOS Setup utility, press the F2 key or Del key while the
system is performing the power-on self-test (POST) FIGURE E-1).

When BIOS is started, the main BIOS Setup utility top-level screen appears
(FIGURE E-2). This screen provides seven menu options across the top of the
screen.

Keep in mind, that BIOS Set-up interface may vary


in the other Computer System Unit.

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3. Use the left and right arrow keys to select the different menu
options.

As you select each menu option, the top-level screen for that menu
option appears.

4. To select an option on a top-level screen, use the up and down arrow


keys to scroll up and down the options presented.

Only options that can be modified are highlighted when you press the
up and down arrow keys.

 If a field can be modified, as you select the option, user instructions


for modifying the option appear in the right column of the screen.
 If a field is a link to a sub-screen, instructions to press the Enter key
to access the sub screen appear in the right column.

5. Modify the setup field and press the Esc key to save the changes and
exit the screen.

Some screens present a confirmation dialog box that enables unwanted


changes to be retracted.

6. On sub-screens that only provide configuration information and


cannot be modified, press the Esc key to exit the screen.

7. To continue modifying other setup parameters, repeat Step 3 through


Step 6. Otherwise, go to Step 8.

8. Press and release the right arrow key until the Exit menu screen
appears.

9. Follow the instructions on the Exit menu screen to save or discard


your changes and exit the BIOS Setup utility.

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Self-Check 1.1-5

A. ENUMERATION
Direction: Enumerate the Steps in Assembling a Computer System Unit

B. ENUMERATION
Direction: Enumerate the Steps in Accessing and Configuring BIOS

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-5
A. ENUMERATION
Assembling
1. Remove the retaining screws from the standoff screws of the
motherboard and let the motherboard seat on it with the ports facing
out towards the I/O shield
2. back the FP, Audio, and USB header connectors
3. Put back the drives to the correct drive bays.
4. Connect back the RAM, Video Card and other card peripherals to its
proper slot
5. The data cables (IDE, SATA, floppy cable) should be connected to its
proper headers and drives.
6. put back the power supply
7. Visually checking for loose connection or improper connection.
8. Put the assembled computer back to its place and connect the rest of
the cables and connectors

B. ENUMERATION

1. Power on or power cycle the server.


2. Enter the BIOS Setup utility
3. Select the different menu options.
4. Use the up and down arrow keys to scroll up and down the options
presented.
5. Modify the setup field
6. Press the Esc key to exit the screen.
7. Repeat Step 3 through Step 6. Otherwise, go to Step 8.
8. Press and release the right arrow key until the Exit menu screen
appears.
9. Follow the instructions on the Exit menu screen

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TASK SHEET 1.1-5
Title: Assemble computer hardware and Configure BIOS
Performance Given the Computer System Unit and peripherals, tools,
Objective: equipment, you are required to Assemble and Configure
the BIOS of the Computer System unit in accordance with
established procedures and systems requirements.
Supplies/  Paper
Materials:  Pen

Equipment:  Computer System unit


 PPE
 Tools

Steps/ Procedure
1. Plan and prepare to ensure OH&S.
2. Obtain the Tools, equipment and testing devices needed to carry out
the Disassembling and Assembling a Computer Unit.
3. Assemble computer hardware following these steps:

 Remove the retaining screws from the standoff screws of the


motherboard and let the motherboard seat on it with the ports
facing out towards the I/O shield
 back the FP, Audio, and USB header connectors
 Put back the drives to the correct drive bays.
 Connect back the RAM, Video Card and other card peripherals
to its proper slot
 The data cables (IDE, SATA, floppy cable) should be connected
to its proper headers and drives.
 put back the power supply
 Visually checking for loose connection or improper
connection.
 Put the assembled computer back to its place and connect the
rest of the cables and connectors

4. Preform BIOS configuration following these steps:


 Power on or power cycle the server.
 Enter the BIOS Setup utility
 Select the different menu options.
 Use the up and down arrow keys to scroll up and down the
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options presented.
 Modify the setup field
 Press the Esc key to exit the screen.
 Repeat Step 3 through Step 6. Otherwise, go to Step 8.
 Press and release the right arrow key until the Exit menu
screen appears.
 Follow the instructions on the Exit menu screen

Note: Please do take a proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) when


performing these steps.
Assessment Method
 Written Test
 Demonstration with Oral Questioning

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST 1.1-2
Criteria Yes No

Did you…..?
1. Plan and prepare unit assembly to ensure OH&S
policies and procedures are followed in ☐ ☐
accordance with systems requirements.

2. Identify and obtain the materials necessary to


complete the work in accordance with ☐ ☐
established procedures and checked against
systems requirements.
3. Obtain Tools, equipment and testing devices
needed to carry out the installation work in ☐ ☐
accordance with established procedures and
checked for correct operation and safety.
4. Assemble computer hardware in accordance
with established procedures and systems ☐ ☐
requirements.
5. Perform Basic-input-output-system (BIOS)
configuration in accordance with hardware ☐ ☐
requirements.

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