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SSiimmppllee EEppiitthheelliiaall TTiissssuuee A.A. SimpSimplele sqsquamouamousus epepitheitheliumlium

1.1. HowHow dodo tthehe ccellsells looklook liklike?e?

TheThe cellscells appearappear asas thin,thin, fatfat platesplates havinghaving aa horizontalhorizontal andand ellipticalelliptical nucleinuclei becausebecause oo thethe thinthin fattenedfattened or!or! oo thethe cell"cell"

2.2. AreAre tthehesese uuclecleateated?d?

es,es, thethe cellscells areare nucleatednucleated becausebecause therethere isis aa presencpresencee oo aa nucleus"nucleus"

!.!. SimpSimplele cocolumalumarr epiepitheltheliumium

1.1. "her"heree isis thethe uucleucleuss o#o# thethe cecellll localocated?ted?

TheThe nucleusnucleus oo thethe cellcell isis locatedlocated nearnear ththee basebase oo thethe celcells"ls"

2.2. "h$"h$ areare thesthesee calcalledled %%o&leo&lett cellcells?s?

TheseThese areare calledcalled gobletgoblet cellscells becausebecause the$the$ areare spespeciacializedlized cellscells thatthat provideprovide !ucus!ucus oror lubrication"lubrication"

'.'. "ha"hatt iiss mmucucusus #or#or??

MucusMucus isis oror lubricatinlubricatingg andand protectiprotectingng thethe lininglining oo thethe intestine"intestine"


SSttrraattii((eedd EEppiitthheelliiuumm

A.A. StratStrati(edi(ed ssquamquamousous epepitheitheliumlium

1.1. HowHow wowoulduld $ou$ou cocomparmparee thethe ieierr adad thethe outouterer sur#asur#acesces o#o#

thethe humahuma ski?ski? )o)o the$the$ ha*eha*e thethe samesame um&erum&er o#o# la$la$ers?ers?

TheThe innerinner suracesurace oo thethe hu!anhu!an s%ins%in isis un%eraun%eratinizedtinized &hile&hile thethe outerouter suracsuracee isis %er%eratinatinizedized,, !eani!eaningng itit becobeco!es!es harhardenedenedd &ith&ith %eratin%eratin andand !a%es!a%es aa tough,tough, dr$,dr$, protectiveprotective coveringcovering'' No,No, the$the$ don(tdon(t havehave thethe sa!esa!e nu!bernu!ber oo la$ers"la$ers"

!.!. TTrasrasitioitioalal epitepitheliheliumum

1.1. HowHow mma$a$ lala$ers$ers oo## celcelll areare *i*isi&si&le?le?

TT&o&o la$ersla$ers oo

cellcell areare visible'visible' itit rese!blrese!bleses

cuboidalcuboidal andand strati)edstrati)ed s*ua!ous"s*ua!ous"

bothboth strati)edstrati)ed

2.2. AreAre ththee celcellsls ii eaeachch lala$er$er sisimilamilar?r?

No,No, thethe cellscells inin eacheach la$erla$er areare notnot si!ilarsi!ilar becausebecause itit cancan appearappear toto bebe ststraratiti)e)edd cucuboboididalal &h&henen ththee titissssueue isis nonott ststrretetchcheded oror strati)edstrati)ed s*ua!ouss*ua!ous &hen&hen thethe organorgan isis distended"distended"

'.'. "hat"hat ccouldould &e&e ththee reasreasoo #o#orr thisthis??

Its stretchable nature could be the reason or this' it or!s a barrier that prevents the contents o the urinar$ tract ro! di+using bac% into the bod$ fuids"

+. "h$ is this epithelial tissue called trasitioal?

This epithelial tissue is called transitional because the cells

are rounded and can slide across one another to allo& stretching' it stretches readil$ and per!its distension o urinar$ organ b$ contained urine"

III. Speciali,ed Epithelia A. E-ocrie %lad 1. "hat do secretor$ cells o# the islets o# La%erhas secrete?

The secretor$ cells o the islets o angerhans secrete hor!ones' beta cells secrete insulin and a!$lin, alpha cells secrete glucagon,

delta cells secrete so!atostatin, and ga!!a cells secrete pancreatic pol$peptide"

2. "hat are other e-amples o# epithelial tissues that are secretor$ i #uctio?



e.a!ples o epithelial tissues

that are


unction are th$roid gland, salivar$ gland and pancreas"

'. i*e e-amples o# edocrie ad e-ocrie %lads i the huma &od$.

Endocrine glands/ pituitar$ gland, pineal gland, th$roid gland,

adrenal gland, testes gland and ovar$ gland E.ocrine glands/ salivar$ gland, sto!ach gland, !a!!ar$ gland, anal gland, s&eat gland and tear gland


1. "here are deposits o# adipose tissues usuall$ #oud?

The deposits o adipose tissues are usuall$ ound beneath the s%in 0subcutaneous at1, around internal organs 0visceral at1, bone !arro&, and

inter!uscular 0!uscular s$ste! and breast tissue1"

2. "h$ are the cells o# coecti*e tissues arra%ed #ar apart #rom each other?

The cells o connective tissues are arranged ar apart ro! each other

because the$ are separated b$ an abundant a!ount o e.tracellular !aterial, also called e.tracellular !atri. co!posed o collagenous, elastic and reticular )bers"

'. How do #ro% ad huma &lood smears di3er?

2rog er$throc$tes are oval/shaped and have a nucleus but do not have platelets &hile hu!an er$throc$tes are biconcave discs, have platelets but

does not have a nucleus"


1. How do the three t$pes o# muscles di3er &ased o their structures?

3%eletal !uscle is striated 0has light/colored bands crossing it1, and !ultiple nuclei" The !uscle loo%s ver$ highl$ organized &hen co!paring it to s!ooth or cardiac !uscle" ardiac !uscle also !a$ appear striated, but &ith onl$ a single band crossing each bundle, the intercalated disc" Each cell possesses onl$ one or t&o, large, round nuclei, &hich t$picall$ stain airl$ dar%" 3!ooth !uscle is not striated and each cell has onl$ a single nucleus" The nuclei are t$picall$ ver$ elongated and dar%/staining and the cells are less organized than other or!s o !uscle"

2. "h$ do muscle cells ha*e more mitochodria tha other cells like the ski cells?

Muscle cells have !ore !itochondria because !itochondria are the po&erhouses o the cell, and !uscle cells need !ore energ$ than s%in cells" Mitochondria is the part o cells that generate energ$ b$ turning nutrients and o.$gen into uel or the bod$" 3ince Mitochondria !anuacture 5TP 0adenosine triphosphate1 &hich is the !ain source o *uic% energ$ and provide the energ$ a cell needs in order to unction or the !uscles, thus !uscles have ar !ore o these"



"hat are the characteristics ad #uctios o# the #our kids o#


tissues #oud i aimal s$stems?

There our %inds o tissues ound in ani!al s$ste!s6 Epitheliu! / Tissues co!posed o la$ers o cells that cover organ suraces such as surace o the s%in and inner lining o digestive tract6


the tissues that serve or protection, secretion, and absorption"


onnective tissue / connective tissue holds ever$thing together"


onnective tissue is characterized b$ the separation o the cells b$ non/living !aterial, &hich is called e.tracellular !atri." 7one and blood are connective tissues"


Muscle tissue / Muscle cells are the contractile tissue o the bod$" Its unction is to produce orce and cause !otion, either loco!otion or !ove!ent &ithin internal organs" Muscle tissue is separated into three distinct categories6 visceral or s!ooth !uscle, &hich is ound in the inner linings o organs' s%eletal !uscle, &hich is ound attached to bone in order or !obilit$ to ta%e place' and cardiac !uscle &hich is ound in the heart"

Nervous tissue / ells or!ing the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous s$ste!" Its unction is to react to sti!uli and to conduct


i!pulses to various organs in the bod$ &hich bring about a response to the sti!ulus"

2. How do er*e cells look like?


Nerve cells loo% li%e branches or spi%es e.tending out ro! the cell


bod$" The cell bod$ has a nucleus &ithin it, the nerves have several points &here it branches into dendrites, the head then e.tends into a narro& e.tension &hich is coated &ith M$elin sheath, and the narro& e.tension then


branches out into dendrites &hich is a !ode o contact to another neuron"

'. How are er*e (&ers similar to electric ca&les?


Nerve )bers are si!ilar to electric cables both conduct po&er through


i!pulses or burst o ions8charges and have insulation 0the cable has plastic coating, the !uscle has !$elin sheath1, &or% in bundle or!at" The a.ons in a nerve are si!ilar to the individual &ires bundled together in a large electrical cable" The$ co!e ro! di+erent sources, get bound together in one pac%age or !ost o their 9ourne$, then branch apart at the end to reach their


individual targets"

+. "hat are the #eatures o# a er*e cell that could hardl$ &e #oud i other cells or tissues?

Nerve cells have a distinctive appearance" E.tending out ro! each nerve cell bod$ are long c$toplas!ic processes, one a.on and several dendrites" 5 t$pical nerve cell bod$ contains onl$ a s!all raction o the total cell volu!e' the rest is contained in the a.on and dendrites" The spaces bet&een nerve cell bodies &ith a elt &or% o these a.onal and dendritic processes, called neuropil"

o a nerve cell 0also called a so!a, plural so!ata1 is basicall$ a

The cell bod$
The cell bod$

The cell bod$

The cell bod$

cell nucleus surrounded b$ c$toplas!" Nuclei o nerve cells are large, round and euchro!atic &ith a single pro!inent nucleolus"

$toplas! o nerve cell bodies is abundantl$ supplied &ith !asses o roughand euchro!atic &ith a single pro!inent nucleolus" endoplas!ic reticulu! 0traditionall$ called Nissl bodies1,

endoplas!ic reticulu! 0traditionall$ called Nissl bodies1, nu!erous :olgi bodies, lots o s!ooth endoplas!ic reticulu!, !an$ !itochondria, and e.tensive c$tos%eletal ele!ents 0!icrotubules and various )la!ents1"

is a process &hich is specialized or conducting signals ro! one to another"

The a.onnerve cell

nerve cell

;endrites are processes &hich are specialized or receiving and integratingsignals ro! one to another" The a.on nerve cell signals ro! other nerve cells" 3$napses are

signals ro! other nerve cells"

3$napses are points o contact bet&een nerve cells 0usuall$ bet&een a.onand integrating signals ro! other nerve cells" ter!inals and dendrites1, &here signals are trans!itted

ter!inals and dendrites1, &here signals are trans!itted ro! one cell to another"