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EXPERIMENTEXPERIMENT ## 44

TThheeAAnniimmaallTTiissssuueess

II

AANNSSWWEERRTTOOQQUUEESSTTIIOONNSS

EPITHELIALEPITHELIAL TISSUETISSUE

II

SSiimmppllee EEppiitthheelliiaall TTiissssuuee A.A. SimpSimplele sqsquamouamousus epepitheitheliumlium

1.1. HowHow dodo tthehe ccellsells looklook liklike?e?

TheThe cellscells appearappear asas thin,thin, fatfat platesplates havinghaving aa horizontalhorizontal andand ellipticalelliptical nucleinuclei becausebecause oo thethe thinthin fattenedfattened or!or! oo thethe cell"cell"

2.2. AreAre tthehesese uuclecleateated?d?

es,es, thethe cellscells areare nucleatednucleated becausebecause therethere isis aa presencpresencee oo aa nucleus"nucleus"

!.!. SimpSimplele cocolumalumarr epiepitheltheliumium

1.1. "her"heree isis thethe uucleucleuss o#o# thethe cecellll localocated?ted?

TheThe nucleusnucleus oo thethe cellcell isis locatedlocated nearnear ththee basebase oo thethe celcells"ls"

2.2. "h$"h$ areare thesthesee calcalledled %%o&leo&lett cellcells?s?

TheseThese areare calledcalled gobletgoblet cellscells becausebecause the$the$ areare spespeciacializedlized cellscells thatthat provideprovide !ucus!ucus oror lubrication"lubrication"

'.'. "ha"hatt iiss mmucucusus #or#or??

MucusMucus isis oror lubricatinlubricatingg andand protectiprotectingng thethe lininglining oo thethe intestine"intestine"

IIII

SSttrraattii((eedd EEppiitthheelliiuumm

A.A. StratStrati(edi(ed ssquamquamousous epepitheitheliumlium

1.1. HowHow wowoulduld $ou$ou cocomparmparee thethe ieierr adad thethe outouterer sur#asur#acesces o#o#

thethe humahuma ski?ski? )o)o the$the$ ha*eha*e thethe samesame um&erum&er o#o# la$la$ers?ers?

TheThe innerinner suracesurace oo thethe hu!anhu!an s%ins%in isis un%eraun%eratinizedtinized &hile&hile thethe outerouter suracsuracee isis %er%eratinatinizedized,, !eani!eaningng itit becobeco!es!es harhardenedenedd &ith&ith %eratin%eratin andand !a%es!a%es aa tough,tough, dr$,dr$, protectiveprotective coveringcovering'' No,No, the$the$ don(tdon(t havehave thethe sa!esa!e nu!bernu!ber oo la$ers"la$ers"

!.!. TTrasrasitioitioalal epitepitheliheliumum

1.1. HowHow mma$a$ lala$ers$ers oo## celcelll areare *i*isi&si&le?le?

TT&o&o la$ersla$ers oo

cellcell areare visible'visible' itit rese!blrese!bleses

cuboidalcuboidal andand strati)edstrati)ed s*ua!ous"s*ua!ous"

bothboth strati)edstrati)ed

2.2. AreAre ththee celcellsls ii eaeachch lala$er$er sisimilamilar?r?

No,No, thethe cellscells inin eacheach la$erla$er areare notnot si!ilarsi!ilar becausebecause itit cancan appearappear toto bebe ststraratiti)e)edd cucuboboididalal &h&henen ththee titissssueue isis nonott ststrretetchcheded oror strati)edstrati)ed s*ua!ouss*ua!ous &hen&hen thethe organorgan isis distended"distended"

'.'. "hat"hat ccouldould &e&e ththee reasreasoo #o#orr thisthis??

Its stretchable nature could be the reason or this' it or!s a barrier that prevents the contents o the urinar$ tract ro! di+using bac% into the bod$ fuids"

+. "h$ is this epithelial tissue called trasitioal?

This epithelial tissue is called transitional because the cells

are rounded and can slide across one another to allo& stretching' it stretches readil$ and per!its distension o urinar$ organ b$ contained urine"

III. Speciali,ed Epithelia A. E-ocrie %lad 1. "hat do secretor$ cells o# the islets o# La%erhas secrete?

The secretor$ cells o the islets o angerhans secrete hor!ones' beta cells secrete insulin and a!$lin, alpha cells secrete glucagon,

delta cells secrete so!atostatin, and ga!!a cells secrete pancreatic pol$peptide"

2. "hat are other e-amples o# epithelial tissues that are secretor$ i #uctio?

in

-ther

e.a!ples o epithelial tissues

that are

secretor$

unction are th$roid gland, salivar$ gland and pancreas"

'. i*e e-amples o# edocrie ad e-ocrie %lads i the huma &od$.

Endocrine glands/ pituitar$ gland, pineal gland, th$roid gland,

adrenal gland, testes gland and ovar$ gland E.ocrine glands/ salivar$ gland, sto!ach gland, !a!!ar$ gland, anal gland, s&eat gland and tear gland

/0E/TIE TISSUE

1. "here are deposits o# adipose tissues usuall$ #oud?

The deposits o adipose tissues are usuall$ ound beneath the s%in 0subcutaneous at1, around internal organs 0visceral at1, bone !arro&, and

inter!uscular 0!uscular s$ste! and breast tissue1"

2. "h$ are the cells o# coecti*e tissues arra%ed #ar apart #rom each other?

The cells o connective tissues are arranged ar apart ro! each other

because the$ are separated b$ an abundant a!ount o e.tracellular !aterial, also called e.tracellular !atri. co!posed o collagenous, elastic and reticular )bers"

'. How do #ro% ad huma &lood smears di3er?

2rog er$throc$tes are oval/shaped and have a nucleus but do not have platelets &hile hu!an er$throc$tes are biconcave discs, have platelets but

does not have a nucleus"

4US/ULA5 TISSUE

1. How do the three t$pes o# muscles di3er &ased o their structures?

3%eletal !uscle is striated 0has light/colored bands crossing it1, and !ultiple nuclei" The !uscle loo%s ver$ highl$ organized &hen co!paring it to s!ooth or cardiac !uscle" ardiac !uscle also !a$ appear striated, but &ith onl$ a single band crossing each bundle, the intercalated disc" Each cell possesses onl$ one or t&o, large, round nuclei, &hich t$picall$ stain airl$ dar%" 3!ooth !uscle is not striated and each cell has onl$ a single nucleus" The nuclei are t$picall$ ver$ elongated and dar%/staining and the cells are less organized than other or!s o !uscle"

2. "h$ do muscle cells ha*e more mitochodria tha other cells like the ski cells?

Muscle cells have !ore !itochondria because !itochondria are the po&erhouses o the cell, and !uscle cells need !ore energ$ than s%in cells" Mitochondria is the part o cells that generate energ$ b$ turning nutrients and o.$gen into uel or the bod$" 3ince Mitochondria !anuacture 5TP 0adenosine triphosphate1 &hich is the !ain source o *uic% energ$ and provide the energ$ a cell needs in order to unction or the !uscles, thus !uscles have ar !ore o these"

E50US TISSUE

1.

"hat are the characteristics ad #uctios o# the #our kids o#

 

tissues #oud i aimal s$stems?

There our %inds o tissues ound in ani!al s$ste!s6 Epitheliu! / Tissues co!posed o la$ers o cells that cover organ suraces such as surace o the s%in and inner lining o digestive tract6

 

the tissues that serve or protection, secretion, and absorption"

 

onnective tissue / connective tissue holds ever$thing together"

 

onnective tissue is characterized b$ the separation o the cells b$ non/living !aterial, &hich is called e.tracellular !atri." 7one and blood are connective tissues"

 

Muscle tissue / Muscle cells are the contractile tissue o the bod$" Its unction is to produce orce and cause !otion, either loco!otion or !ove!ent &ithin internal organs" Muscle tissue is separated into three distinct categories6 visceral or s!ooth !uscle, &hich is ound in the inner linings o organs' s%eletal !uscle, &hich is ound attached to bone in order or !obilit$ to ta%e place' and cardiac !uscle &hich is ound in the heart"

Nervous tissue / ells or!ing the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous s$ste!" Its unction is to react to sti!uli and to conduct

 

i!pulses to various organs in the bod$ &hich bring about a response to the sti!ulus"

2. How do er*e cells look like?

 

Nerve cells loo% li%e branches or spi%es e.tending out ro! the cell

 

bod$" The cell bod$ has a nucleus &ithin it, the nerves have several points &here it branches into dendrites, the head then e.tends into a narro& e.tension &hich is coated &ith M$elin sheath, and the narro& e.tension then

 

branches out into dendrites &hich is a !ode o contact to another neuron"

'. How are er*e (&ers similar to electric ca&les?

 

Nerve )bers are si!ilar to electric cables both conduct po&er through

 

i!pulses or burst o ions8charges and have insulation 0the cable has plastic coating, the !uscle has !$elin sheath1, &or% in bundle or!at" The a.ons in a nerve are si!ilar to the individual &ires bundled together in a large electrical cable" The$ co!e ro! di+erent sources, get bound together in one pac%age or !ost o their 9ourne$, then branch apart at the end to reach their

 

individual targets"

+. "hat are the #eatures o# a er*e cell that could hardl$ &e #oud i other cells or tissues?

Nerve cells have a distinctive appearance" E.tending out ro! each nerve cell bod$ are long c$toplas!ic processes, one a.on and several dendrites" 5 t$pical nerve cell bod$ contains onl$ a s!all raction o the total cell volu!e' the rest is contained in the a.on and dendrites" The spaces bet&een nerve cell bodies &ith a elt &or% o these a.onal and dendritic processes, called neuropil"

o a nerve cell 0also called a so!a, plural so!ata1 is basicall$ a

The cell bod$
The cell bod$

The cell bod$

The cell bod$

cell nucleus surrounded b$ c$toplas!" Nuclei o nerve cells are large, round and euchro!atic &ith a single pro!inent nucleolus"

$toplas! o nerve cell bodies is abundantl$ supplied &ith !asses o roughand euchro!atic &ith a single pro!inent nucleolus" endoplas!ic reticulu! 0traditionall$ called Nissl bodies1,

endoplas!ic reticulu! 0traditionall$ called Nissl bodies1, nu!erous :olgi bodies, lots o s!ooth endoplas!ic reticulu!, !an$ !itochondria, and e.tensive c$tos%eletal ele!ents 0!icrotubules and various )la!ents1"

is a process &hich is specialized or conducting signals ro! one to another"

The a.onnerve cell

nerve cell

;endrites are processes &hich are specialized or receiving and integratingsignals ro! one to another" The a.on nerve cell signals ro! other nerve cells" 3$napses are

signals ro! other nerve cells"

3$napses are points o contact bet&een nerve cells 0usuall$ bet&een a.onand integrating signals ro! other nerve cells" ter!inals and dendrites1, &here signals are trans!itted

ter!inals and dendrites1, &here signals are trans!itted ro! one cell to another"