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ORGANISATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY = A branch of Psychology that applies the

principles of Psychology to the workplace.

• Org Psycs apply Psychological theories to explain and enhance the
effectiveness of human behaviour in the workplace (Canadian Psychological
• Org Psyc = science of people at work. Org Psycs analyse organisations and
their people, and devise strategies to recruit, motivate, develop, change, and
inspire (APS College of Organisational Psychologists).
• Org Psyc is the science behind how and why people in organisations think and
• Org Psycs use this knowledge to enhance effectiveness, productivity & wellbeing
at work.
AIM/ PURPOSE OF ORG PSYC: Enhance individual and organisational
effectiveness, productivity, and wellbeing • Enhance the dignity and performance
of human beings, and the organisations they work in, by advancing the science
and knowledge of human behaviour.
Principles of learning: used to develop training programs and incentive plans.
Principles of social psychology: used to form work groups, understand
employee conflict.
Principles of motivation and emotion: used to motivate and satisfy employees.
Common TERMS for the field: • Industrial/Organisational Psychology (I/O Psych) •
Organisational Psychology • Occupational Psychology • Business Psychology •
Work Psychology
3 major subfields: personnel psychology, organizational psychology, and human
1) INDUSTRIAL Psychology • Industrial settings • Key issues: Industrial safety,
Organisational vs. individual goals & Teamwork.
2) OCCUPATIONAL Psychology • Organisational Psychology • Key issues:
Recruitment, Selection & Management.
3) HUMAN FACTORS • The integration of humans and machinery within
complex and/or high risk environments • Key issues: Safety/Production
balance, training, accident investigation. Concentrate on: workplace design,
human-machine interaction, ergonomics, and physical fatigue and stress.
4) PERSONELL Psychology • Human Resources • Key issues: Recruitment &
Selection • Training • Equal Employment Opportunity. • Study and practice:
analysing jobs, recruiting applicants, selecting employees, determining salary
levels, training employees, and evaluating employee performance.
5) VOCATIONAL Psychology • Life Coaching • Key issues: Career counselling
• Specialised field within Counselling Psychology and I/O Psychology.
6) CONSUMER Psychology • Specialised field within Social Psychology and
Organisational Psychology • Key issues: Marketing strategies • Consumer
Areas of Specialisation
• Workforce planning and role definition • Recruitment and selection • Learning
and development • Coaching, mentoring and career development • Workplace
advice and advocacy • Change management • Organisational development
• Concerned with the issues of leadership, job satisfaction, employee motivation,
organizational communication, conflict management, organizational change, and
group processes within an organization.
• Measuring employee opinions and other workplace research • Performance
management • Well-being, stress and work-life balance • WHS • HR program
evaluation • Consumer behaviour and marketing.
Employment of I/O Psychologists: I/O psychologists typically work in one of four
1) Colleges and universities. 2) Consulting firms 3) the private sector: work
for a single company 4) the public sector: work for a local or state
government or for the federal government.
Psychological Knowledge Required
• Theories of abilities, skills, and personality of individuals
• Social psychology of group behaviour
• Values, attitudes, and motives
• Measurement and statistical presentation
• Psychological testing
• Perceptual and motor skills
• Learning and cognitive development
• Behavioural principles and behaviour change
• Psychological health and mental health problems
• Communication skills
• Interviewing and surveys

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN Org Psyc vs. Business Management:

1) Main difference = application of psychological principles  Similar
tasks/goals, differences in techniques & reasons behind them
2) I/O Psyc examines the factors that affect people in organisations
(Business Management is focused on the broader aspects of running the
3) I/O Psyc relies heavily on research methods.
4) I/O programs focus almost exclusively on issues involving the people in an
• Hypothesis Testing
• Literature Reviews
• Laboratory and Field Research
• Main Research Methods:
• Experiments: only method that can determine cause-and-effect relationships
- 2 characteristics define an experiment: 1) manipulation of one or more
independent variables and 2) random assignment of subjects to experimental
and control conditions.
- Researcher intentionally manipulates one or more aspects of the question of
interest, called the independent variable, and measures the changes that
occur as a result of that manipulation, called the dependent variable.
• Quasi-Experiments
• Archival Research: involves using previously collected data or records to
answer a research question.
• Meta-Analysis: Meta-analysis is a statistical method of reaching conclusions
based on previous research.
- With meta-analysis, the researcher goes through each article, determines
the effect size for each article, and then finds a statistical average of effect
sizes across all articles. A meta-analysis results in one number, called the
mean effect size, which indicates the effectiveness of some variable.
- Correlation coefficients (r) are used as the effect size when researchers
are interested in the relationship between two variables, and the majority of
studies use correlation as their statistical test.
- A difference score (d) is used as the effect size when researchers are
looking at the difference between two groups.
• Statistical Analysis: Correlation is a statistical procedure that enables a
researcher to determine the relationship between two variables—for example,
the relationships found between an employment test and future employee
• Data / Result Reporting (Reports and Presentations)
Considerations in Conducting Research
Hypothesis = an educated prediction about the answer to a question. This
prediction is usually based on a theory, previous research, or logic.

LITERATURE SEARCHES: 4 types of periodicals:

1) Journals: consist of articles written by researchers directly reporting the
results of a study
2) bridge publications:
3) Trade magazines: contain articles usually written by professional writers who
have developed expertise in a given field.
4) Magazines: These periodicals are designed to entertain as well as inform
(terrible sources to use in support of a scientific hypothesis).

The Location of the Study

1) Laboratory Research: One disadvantage of laboratory research is external
validity, or generalizability of results to organizations in the “real world.”
2) Field Research: What field research obviously gains in external validity it
loses in control of extraneous variables that are not of interest to the
researcher (internal validity). Informed consent can be an ethical issue.

Type A dilemma, there is a high level of uncertainty as to what is right or wrong,
there appears to be no best solution, and there are both positive and negative
consequences to a decision.
Type B dilemma, also called rationalizing dilemmas, the difference between right
and wrong is much clearer than in a Type A dilemma.

HISTORY of I/O Psychology

• Science of Psychology founded in 1879 (Wilhelm Wundt)
• Underlying issues requiring the need for I/O Psych were emerging much earlier
• I/O psyc was born in the early 1900’s - It is generally thought to have started either
in 1903 by Walter Dill Scott.
- Division 14 of the APA began in 1945 with 130 members and now has nearly
6000 members.
- World War I, World War II, the Hawthorne studies, civil rights legislation, new
technology, and changing demographics have had important impacts on I/O

• Main contributors to school of thought:

• ARISTOTLE ‘Politics’ – foundation for modern management
• MACHIAVELLI ‘The Prince’ 1527 – authoritarian structures
• THOMAS HOBBES 1651 – bringing order to man’s chaos
• JOHN LOCKE 1690 – leadership is granted by the governed
• ADAM SMITH 1776 – division and specialisation of labour.
• The Early Years (Pre-WWI): common terms for the field were “economic
psychology,” “business psychology,” and “employment psychology”
• 1881 – First school of professional management at The University of
• Fredrick Taylor 1883 – Development of Scientific Management
• W.L. Bryan 1903 – address to the American Psychological Association (APA)
for psychologists to study “concrete activities and functions as they appear in
everyday life” - The culmination was the start of real life applications of the
science of psychology.
• Walter Scott 1903 – psychology in advertising • WWI – personnel procedures
within the army
• Frederick Taylor 1911 - ‘The Principles of Scientific Management’ – two key
principles 1. Scientifically design work methods for efficiency 2. Select best
workers and train them in the best methods
• Hugo Munsterberg 1913 – ‘Psychology and Industrial Efficiency’ - personnel
selection and equipment design - “The Father of Industrial Psychology” -
Encouraged government funding into industrial psychology.

• World War I (1917-1918): Psychology entered the war: to test recruits and then
place them in appropriate positions. The testing was accomplished mainly through
the Army Alpha (could read) and Army Beta (could not read) tests of mental ability.
• Robert Yerkes – screening of army recruits
• Walter Scott – placement, evaluation, and job duties
• 1917 Journal of Applied Psychology began

Between the Wars (1919-1940): Significant events:

• James Cattell 1921 – Psychological Corporation • Aim: To advance psychology
and promote its usefulness to industry • Today: Publishers of Psychological Tests
• 1920s – first doctoral degrees in Industrial Psychology • Leading United States
• Hawthorne Studies 1939 – insight into human behaviour in the workplace • The
Hawthorne Effect – change in behaviour following the onset of a novel treatment
(increased attention) wears off (behaviour returns to original) as the ‘novelty’
dissipates - employees changed their behaviour and became more productive
because they were being studied and received attention from their managers. -
inspired psychologists to increase their focus on human relations in the workplace
and to explore the effects of employee attitudes.
• Likert and Thurstone 1920s-1930s – measuring attitudes
• 1927 – Australian Institute of Industrial Psychology formed
• Morris Viteles Trilogy – clinical aspects of I/O Psyc
• ‘Industrial Psychology’ 1932
• ‘The Science of Work’ 1934
• ‘Motivation and Morale in Industry’ 1953
• Kurt Lewin 1939 – effects of leadership styles
• The Gilbreths were among the first, if not the first, scientists to improve
productivity and reduce fatigue by studying the motions used by workers.

• World War II (1941-1945): I/O Contributions:

• Selection and placement (US, UK, and Australia)
• Army General Classifications Test
• Classify soldiers into military jobs
• Tests of performance under situational stress
• US Office of Strategic Service (OSS) – the first intelligence agency • Test
identified best candidates for OSS
• 1946 I/O division of APA formed, USA

• 1950s and 1960s: Significant events: several major pieces of civil rights legislation
e.g. developing fair selection techniques.
• 1950 – Ergonomics Society Began (UK)
• 1954 – John Flanigan outlined Critical Incident Technique
• 1964 – Civil Rights Act passed in the US
• Illegal to discriminate in the workplace
• Mid 1960s onwards – job analysis techniques
• Sensitivity training and T-groups (laboratory training groups) for managers.

• 1970s - 1990s: Significant events:

• 1970s - Rise of cognitive approach in I/O psych research • Response to civil
rights led to research of bias in organisations – increase understanding of
employee satisfaction and motivation. - Development of many theories about
employee behaviour in organizations
• 1980s - Interest in participatory management techniques • Organisational
• 1990s – rise of meta-analysis allowed for combination and re-analysis of past
datasets • Work stress and family/work balance of interest • Workplace
aggression/workplace violence
• 80s & 90s - 4 changes: 1) increased use of fairly sophisticated statistical
techniques and methods of analysis. 2) New interest in the application of
cognitive psychology to industry. 3) Increased interest in the effects of work on
family life and leisure activities. 4) Renewed interest in developing methods to
select employees.

• 2000+: greatest influence on I/O psychology is the rapid advances in technology.

Current focus:
• Personnel development
• Workforce health
• Occupational stress
• Leadership research
• Risk assessment
• Positive psychology in organisations
• National, Organisational, and Safety culture


The use of psychological principles best distinguishes I/O psychology from related
fields taught in business colleges.

Psychologists in the area of human factors concentrate on workplace design, man-

machine interaction, and physical fatigue.

I/O psychology made its first major impact in: World War I.

Which of the following is NOT a factor that will affect I/O psychology in the next
decade? Global warming

A(n) Hypothesis is an educated prediction about the answer to our research


Asking "will the results of laboratory research generalize to organizations in the "real
world" is related to: external validity.

Manipulating the independent variable best distinguishes experimental research

methods from other research methods.

Which of the following survey methods has the lowest response rate? Email.
In general, the majority of the research comparing college student samples with
actual employee samples conclude that college students behave different than real
world samples.

If a researcher calculated a correlation coefficient of r = 1.27 between two variables,

you would conclude that there is a(n): error in the calculation.

• DEFINITION: The process of gathering, analysing, and structuring information
about a job’s components, characteristics, and requirements
• A systematic investigation of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job
and the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities a person needs to perform the
job adequately.
• The process of identifying how a job is performed, the conditions under which
it is performed, and the personal requirements it takes to perform the job
• The first step in HR processes such as Recruitment and Selection
• It begins with a consideration of the organisation’s strategy such as designing
selection criteria or determining remuneration.

Job analysis provides

the foundation for such
areas as performance
appraisal, employee
selection, training, and
job design.


1. Writing job descriptions job description = a brief, 2-5pg summary of the
tasks and job requirements found in the job analysis. • Written product of
the job analysis • Basis for HR activities such as selection, evaluation, and
2. Employee selection • Based on Job Description details • By identifying such
requirements, possible to select tests or develop interview questions that
will determine if an applicant has the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities
to carry out the requirements of the job.
3. Training • Knowledge of job activities can be used to develop training
4. Person power planning • Worker mobility and promotion potential • When
aiming to promote from within, job analysis can help to identify the best
candidate(s) for a new position within the organisation. Peter Principle:
promoting employees until they eventually reach their highest level of
5. Performance appraisal • Construction of a job-related performance appraisal
instrument • Job-relatedness leads to improved accuracy. - The use of
specific, job-related categories leads to more accurate performance
appraisals that are better accepted.
6. Job classification • the classification of jobs into groups • Determined by
similarities in required knowledge, skills, and abilities as well as the job
7. Job evaluation • Establish the worth of a job in relation to other jobs within
the organisation • Enables the establishment of a rational pay structure
8. Job design • The process of work arrangement • Determines the optimum
way in which a job should be performed • Aimed at reducing employee
dissatisfaction and increasing productivity levels.
9. Compliance with legal guidelines • Job-relatedness is a legal requirement
for all employee decisions and HR tasks.
10. Organisational analysis • Identification of weaknesses within the
organisation • Addressing the problems will enable the organisation to
improve its functions.
JOB DESCRIPTION: A job description is a relatively short summary of a job and
should be about two to five pages in length.
• A formal account of an employee’s responsibilities for completion of a particular
• Written report with sufficient detail to enable HR decisions such as selection and
• Dynamic document – can and should be updated
• Recommended to include the phrase “and performs other job-related duties as
Job Description SECTIONS A job description should contain the following 8
1) Job title 2) Brief summary 3) Work activities 4) Tools and equipment
used 5) Work context 6) Performance standards 7) Compensation
information 8) Personal requirements
Job Title: Describes the nature of the job • Assists in employee selection and
recruitment • Affects clarity of resumes • Affects perceptions of job worth and
status • Employees feelings of personal worth • Job Evaluation results.
Brief Summary: Summarises the nature and purpose of the job • Useful for
recruitment advertising • should be written in an easy to understand style •
Jargon and abbreviations should not be used • Used in company advertising
and website information.
Work Activities • A list of job-related tasks and activities (job duties) •
Information grouped into categories • Grouped by tasks • Grouped by
KSAOs: • Knowledge • Skills • Abilities • Other Characteristics
Tools and Equipment Used • A list of all the tools and equipment used to
perform the work activities • Target information for employee selection and
Work Context • Work schedule • Degree of supervision • Level of responsibility •
Ergonomic information • Physical and Psychological Stress • Indoors vs.
outdoors • Lighting, heat, noise, and physical space • Clean vs. dirty
environment • Standing, sitting, bending, and lifting.
Performance Standards • Outlines the standards of performance • Describes
how performance is evaluated • Standards used • Frequency of evaluation •
Evaluation dimensions • The person doing the evaluating.
Compensation Information • Documents the salary pay grade • Based on
KSAOs and/or experience • Job evaluation dimensions • Job group
Personal Requirements • Common Names: Job competencies & Job
specifications • These are the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other
characteristics (KSAOs) (such as interest, personality, and training) that are
necessary to be successful on the job. • Examples of ‘other characteristics’
are interests, personality, and training • KSAOs should be separated • those
needed before hire (selection focus) • those that can be obtained after hire
(training focus)
Preparing for the Job Analysis
Before a job analysis is begun, decisions must be made about the type of
information that will be obtained, who will conduct the job analysis, and who
will participate in it.
WHO will conduct the job analysis? • Professional trained in Job Analysis:
Human resources personnel, Supervisor, Consultant, Graduate I/O Psychology
Student, Supervised, in-class exercise
What type of information should be gathered?
• Requirements:
• Formal – writing reports / conducting interviews
• Informal – picking up the mail / photocopying.
• Level of Specificity (detail): Dependent on the nature positon / industry -
Should be consistent across all tasks, knowledge, and statements.
CONDUCTING a Job Analysis

The typical job analysis involves interviewing and observing subject matter
experts (SMEs) to determine tasks that are performed, the conditions under
which they are performed, the tools and equipment needed to perform them,
and the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) needed
to perform them.
Step 1: IDENTIFY TASKS: identify the major job dimensions and the tasks
performed for each dimension, the tools and equipment used to perform the tasks,
and the conditions under which the tasks are performed.
• Methods:
• Gathering existing information: existing job descriptions, task inventories &
training manuals
• Interviewing subject-matter experts (SMEs): SMEs are people who are
knowledgeable about the job and include job incumbents, supervisors, customers,
and upper-level management.
- Individual interviews: the job analyst interviews only one employee at a
- Group interview/SME conference: a larger number of employees are
interviewed together.
- Ammerman technique:
- Convene a panel of experts that includes representatives from all levels of
the organization.
- Have the panel identify the objectives and standards that are to be met by
the ideal incumbent.
- Have the panel list the specific behaviours necessary for each objective or
standard to be attained.
- Have the panel identify which of the behaviours from step are “critical” to
reaching the objective.
- Have the panel rank-order the objectives on the basis of importance.
• Observing incumbents: job analyst observes incumbents performing their jobs
in the work setting Disadvantage: very obtrusive, behaviour changes when being
• Job Participation: One can analyse a job by actually performing it.

Step 2: WRITE TASK STATEMENTS: write the task statements that will be used in
the task inventory and included in the job description
• Task inventory: A questionnaire containing a list of tasks each - The job
incumbent rates each task on a series of scales such as: Importance of task &
Time spent on task
Required elements of a task statement:
1) Action (what is done)
2) Object (to which the action is done)


• Task Analysis - SMEs rate each task statement on the frequency and
importance of the task.
Step 4: DETERMINE KSAOs: identify the KSAOs needed to perform the tasks.
KSAOs are commonly referred to as competencies.


• Determine the best methods to assess applicant KSAOs: interviews, work
samples, ability tests, personality tests, reference checks, integrity tests, biodata,
and assessment centres.
• The ratings from Step 4 are used to weight test scores.
• KSAOs with the highest ratings (frequency & importance) will receive more
weight in selection test results


Methods Providing General Information about Worker Activities:
ALTERNATIVE STRUCTURED METHODS: Provides information on 4 main
factors: 1) Worker activities 2) tools and equipment used 3) work
environment, and 4) competencies
• Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): 194 Items
• 6 main dimensions: 1) Information input 2) Mental processes 3) Work output 4)
Relationships with others 5) Job context 6) Other
Benefits of PAQ: • Easy to use • Standardized, reliable.

Job Structure Profile (JSP): • Designed as a replacement for the PAQ • Easier
to read than the PAQ • Good reliability.
• Job Elements Inventory (JEI): • 153 items • 10th grade readability level •
Correlates highly with PAQ.
Functional Job Analysis (FJA) • Identifies the amount of time spent on: • Data •
People • Things
Jobs analysed by FJA are broken down into the p percentage of time the
incumbent spends on three functions: data (information and ideas), people
(clients, customers, and co-workers), and things (machines, tools, and
Structured Job Analysis Method: KSAOs
Methods Providing Information about Tools and Equipment:
• Job Components Inventory (JCI) • Over 400 questions • 5 main categories:
1. Tools and equipment used 2. Perceptual and physical requirements 3.
Mathematical requirements 4. Communication requirements 5. Decision making
and responsibility
• Good reliability

Methods Providing Information about the Work Environment

Threshold Traits Analysis (TTA) • 33 items • 5 main categories 1. Physical traits

2. Mental traits 3. Learned traits 4. Motivational traits 5. Social traits • Reliable,
short, and user-friendly.
Job Adaptability Inventory (JAI) • 132 items • 8 adaptability dimensions •
Handling emergencies or crisis situations • Handling work stress • Solving
problems creatively • Dealing with uncertainty and unpredictable situations •
Learning work tasks, technologies, and procedures • Demonstrating interpersonal
adaptability • Demonstrating cultural adaptability • Demonstrating physically
oriented adaptability.
Methods Providing Information about Competencies
• Critical Incident Technique (CIT): The CIT is used to discover actual incidents
of job behaviour that make the difference between a job’s successful or
unsuccessful performance. This technique can be conducted in many ways, but
the basic procedure is as follows:
1) Job incumbents generate incidents of excellent and poor performance
2) Job experts examine each incident to determine if it is an example of good or
poor performance.
3) Job incumbents sort incidents into categories.
4) Job analyst combines and names categories.
5) Other job incumbents cross-check assigned categories.
6) Number of incidents per category provides an idea of the importance of each


Although no job analysis method is always better than others, each is better
for certain purposes. For example, the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
is an excellent method for compensation uses, and the Critical Incident
Technique (CIT) is an excellent method for performance appraisal

Survey research by Levine, Ash, and their colleagues found the following:
1) The PAQ is seen as the most standardized technique and the CIT the least
2) The CIT takes the least amount of job analyst training and task analysis the
3) The PAQ is the least costly method and the CIT the most.
4) The PAQ takes the least amount of time to complete and task analysis the
5) Task analysis has the highest-quality results and TTA the lowest.
6) Task analysis reports are the longest and job-elements reports the shortest.
7) The CIT has been rated the most useful and the PAQ the least.
8) Task analysis gives the best overall job picture and the PAQ the worst.

JOB EVALUATION: determine how much employees in a position should be paid -

monetary worth of a job
• Next step after job analysis and writing a detailed job description
• The ideal compensation system: Will attract and retain desired employees •
Will motivate current employees while also providing job security • is equitable • is
in compliance with legal guidelines
• 2 main considerations: 1) Internal pay equity 2) External pay equity
Internal equity, external equity, and comparable worth are important pay issues
that must be addressed during any job evaluation.
INTERNAL Pay Equity: comparing jobs within an organization
• 3 step process to determining internal pay equity:
1. Determining compensable job factors
2. Determining the levels for each compensable factor
3. Determining the factor weights

Step 1: Determine compensable job factors: Factors that differentiate the

relative worth of jobs.
• Examples of compensable job factors: Level of responsibility, Physical
demands, mental demands, Education requirements, Training and
experience requirements & Working conditions.

Step 2: Determine the levels of each compensable job factor.

Step 3: Determine the factor weights - Weights are assigned to represent
factor importance. (Some factors are more important than others).
• Procedure: 1. Job evaluation committee determines the total number of
points 2. Each factor weighted by assigning points – the greater the
importance, the greater the weighting. 3. The number of points assigned to a
factor is then divided into each of the levels. 4. The total number of points for
a job is compared with the salary currently being paid for the job.
EXTERNAL Pay Equity: the worth of a job is determined by comparing the job to
the external market (other organizations).
Direct compensation: the amount of money a job is worth.
• Determined through salary surveys which identify: Salary range, starting
salary, actual salaries paid, Other benefits, Determine market position and
where to sit among it • Direct and indirect forms of compensation contribute to
the total remuneration package
• Limitations: response rate, comparable jobs.

Determining a Sex and Race Equity: pay audits should also be conducted to
ensure that employees are not paid differently on the basis of gender or race.

2 types of audits should be conducted: 1) one that looks at pay rates of

employees within positions with identical duties (equal pay for equal work) and 2)
one that looks at pay rates of employees in jobs of similar worth and responsibility

Conducting a Sex and Race Equity Study: Two types of statistical analyses are
typically used: hierarchical regression and Fisher’s exact tests.


The job analysis is the process of determining the work activities and requirements,
and the job description is the written result.

Which of the following sections in a job description can affect a person's perceptions
of the status and worth of a job? Job title

According to the author, the section of a job description which contains the
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics necessary to be successful on
the job is labelled job competencies; the section containing a list of tasks and
activities in which the worker is involved is labelled work activities.

Gertrude is writing job descriptions and can't decide whether she should include
"getting coffee for the boss" as a task. Her decision is related to the issue of: formal
vs. informal requirements

During the job analysis interview, the questions asked should be: open ended

Which of the following is a proper task statement? Edits supervisor's memos

Which of the following job analysis methods provides information about working
conditions? AET
An employee who enquires about his/her level of pay compared to other employees
within the same organization is addressing the issue of internal equity.

If an organization's compensation plan is competitive with other similar

organizations', they are said to have: external equity

The job evaluation process determines the amount of money that a job is worth; this
amount is called direct compensation.

LECTURE 3 Topic: Recruitment and Selection

• Construct validity - Measures what it is said to
• Criterion validity - Relates to job criteria (KSAOs)
• Predictive: job performance of new hires
• Concurrent: job performance of current workers
• Content validity - Knowledge tests and job relevancy
• Face validity - Does it look relevant to the applicant

Recruitment: attracting people with the right qualifications (as determined in the job
analysis) to apply for the job.
• Internal Method: Recruiting employees already employed by the organisation
• External Method: Recruiting employees from outside the organisation

Recruitment Methods
Formal or Direct - Media Advertisements, Point of Purchase, Direct Mail,
Employment Agencies, University/College Recruiters, Computer Databases,
Special Events & Employee Referral Programs.
Informal or Indirect - Situation-wanted Ads, Direct Applicants & Employee
Effective Recruitment
Effective recruitment methods should: • Get the attention of the public • Screen
unqualified applicants • Motivate qualified people to apply • be cost effective • be
Evaluating Effectiveness (of Recruitment Strategies)
Evaluating recruitment effectiveness – points to consider:
1) Number of applicants each recruitment source yield.
2) Cost per applicant: Cost of the recruitment campaign: dividing the number of
applicants by the amount spent for each strategy.
3) Cost per qualified applicant
4) Time to fill position
5) Job performance
6) EEO/diversity impact
7) Employee retention rates.
Employee Selection Techniques:
Selection: Ensuring the best person for a specific job
Optimal Employee Selection Systems:
1) Are valid: Based on job analysis (content validity) - Predict work-related
behaviour (criterion validity).
2) Reduce the chance of a legal challenge: Face validity - Don’t invade
privacy or intentionally discriminate - Minimise adverse impact.
3) Are cost effective: Cost to develop/purchase, administer, and score.

Employment Interview
• Interviews vary on 3 main factors:
1. Structure: Structured vs. Unstructured - determined by the source of the
questions, the extent to which all applicants are asked the same questions, and
the structure of the system used to score the answers.
• Structured Interview: 1) Source of questions is a job analysis (job-related)
2) All applicants are asked the same questions 3) Standardised scoring to
evaluate each response. ADVANTAGES: Highly structured interviews are
more reliable and valid than those with less structure, from a legal
standpoint, structured interviews are viewed more favourably, structured
interviews result in substantially lower adverse impact than do unstructured
• Unstructured Interview • Does not require consistency in what is asked of
each applicant • No standardised scoring of responses - interviewers are
free to ask anything they want. DISADVANTAGES: Poor Intuitive Ability,
Lack of Job Relatedness, Primacy Effects, Contrast Effects, Negative-
Information Bias, Interviewer-Interviewee Similarity, Interviewee Appearance
& Nonverbal Cues.
2. Style: One-on-one, panel, group, or serial interviews
3. Medium: Face-to-face, telephone, or video-conference.
Structured Interview Goals
• Understand the Applicant: Clarify and confirm resume information • Obtain
new information
• Predict Job Performance: Ask questions focused on past behaviour • Ask
questions focused on knowledge and skills • Ask questions focused on future
• Predict Organisational Fit: Use several interviewers • Combine interview
impression with test scores
• Sell the Organisation to the Applicant • Provide information about the position
and the organization • Answer the applicant’s
Creating a Structured Interview
1. Conduct a thorough job analysis (and write a detailed job description)
2. Determine best way to measure each KSAO
3. Construct the interview questions
4. Create a scoring key for interview answers: Right/Wrong Approach, Typical-
Answer Approach & Key-Issues Approach.
5. Choose interviewers and panel member’s questions.

Constructing Interview Questions

1) Clarifier - clarifies information on the resume/application
2) Disqualifier - a wrong answer disqualifies the applicant from further
3) Level determiner: taps specific knowledge/skill
4) Future-focused (situational) - applicants are given a situation and asked how
they would handle it
5) Past-focused (behavioural description) – tap experience
6) Organisational fit – assess how well an applicant’s personality and values fit
with the organisational culture.

To perform well when being interviewed: you need to be on time, learn about the
company, dress neatly, and use appropriate nonverbal behaviour.

There are three main types of résumé: functional, chronological, and



1. Training & Education
2. Knowledge
3. Ability
4. Skill
5. Experience
6. Personality & Character
7. Medical


• Minimum standards for applicant consideration
• Education standard can predict performance: GPA is a valid predictor of
performance on the job, training performance, starting salary, and more…
• GPA is most predictive in the first few years after graduation
• People with high GPAs are: Intelligent (r = .50) • Conscientious (r = .34)

• Job Knowledge Test: A test that measures the amount of job-related
knowledge an applicant possesses - designed to measure how much a person
knows about a job.
• Standardised Tests for certain occupations (e.g., Lawyers) • highly specific for
particular jobs
• Excellent content, criterion, and face validity.
3. ABILITY: • Cognitive • Perceptual • Psychomotor • Physical
• Cognitive Ability – abilities involving the knowledge and use of information
such as math and grammar
• Cognitive Ability Test – measures the level of intelligence or amount of
knowledge of an applicant
• High validity (ρ = .51)  Predicts training and job performance for all jobs
• The more complex the job, the better cognitive ability tests predict
• Cognitive ability is thought to predict work performance in two ways: by
allowing employees to quickly learn job-related knowledge and by processing
information resulting in better decision making.
• Disadvantage: high levels of adverse impact and often lack face validity.

• Perceptual Ability – measure of facility with such processes as spatial relations

and form perception: Vision, Colour discrimination, Depth perception, Glare
sensitivity, Speech & Hearing.
• Psychomotor Ability – measure of facility with such processes as finger
dexterity and motor coordination: Dexterity (finger, manual), Control precision,
Multilimb coordination, Response control, Reaction time, Arm-hand steadiness,
Wrist-finger speed & Speed-of-limb movement.
• Physical Ability Test – measure an applicant’s level of physical ability required
for a job
• Common methods: Simulations & Tests of physical agility
• Main Issues: • Job relatedness (is it necessary?) • Passing scores (how
much is enough?) • When the ability must be present (at graduation?).
• Assess the degree to which an applicant already possesses a job-related skill
• Two main techniques: 1) Work sample 2) Assessment centre
1) Work Sample • Applicants perform tasks that replicate actual job tasks
• Advantages: Job-related and provide realistic job previews (RJPs involve
giving an applicant an honest assessment of a job) • Good criterion validity •
Verbal work samples (ρ = .48) • Motor work samples (ρ = .43) • Excellent
content and face validity
• Disadvantages: Can be expensive to develop and maintain.
2) Assessment Centre: A selection technique that uses multiple job-related
assessment exercises and multiple assessors to observe and record
behaviours of candidates performing the tasks.
• Multiple techniques may be used such as: • Work samples • Job
Simulations • Structured interviews • Testing.
• Advantages: assessment methods are all job related and multiple trained
assessors help to guard against selection bias.
• Assessment Centre Requirements:
• Based on a job analysis
• Use multiple assessment techniques
• Includes at least one simulation
• Use multiple trained assessors
• Behavioural observations and real time recording of behaviour
• Behavioural reporting
• Overall judgment based on collective information
• Overall evaluation cannot be made until whole process is complete.

- The In-Basket Technique. The in-basket technique is designed to simulate

the types of daily information that appear on a manager’s or employee’s desk.
- Simulations. Simulation exercises are the real backbone of the assessment
center because they enable assessors to see an applicant “in action.”
Simulations, which can include such diverse activities as role plays and work
samples, place an applicant in a situation that is as similar as possible to one
that will be encountered on the job.
- Work Samples. Usually, when a simulation does not involve a situational
exercise, it is called a work sample.
- Business Games. Business games are exercises that allow the applicant to
demonstrate such attributes as creativity, decision making, and ability to work
with others.
• 4 Ways to measure applicant experience: 1) Experience ratings 2) Biodata 3)
Reference checks 4) Interview
1) Experience Ratings • Past experience will predict future job performance
• Points to consider: • The amount of experience • The level of performance
demonstrated during the previous experience • How related the experience is
to the current job • Recency and duration of experience.
2) Biodata • A selection method that considers an applicant’s life, school,
military, community, and work experience
• A biographical questionnaire that contains questions that research has
shown measure the difference between successful and unsuccessful
performers on the job
• Advantages: Good validity (r = .36, ρ= .51) • Can predict for variety of
criterion measures • Easy to administer • relatively inexpensive.
• Disadvantages: validity may not be stable—that is, its ability to predict
employee behaviour decreases with time & may not meet the legal
3) Reference Checking: the process of confirming the accuracy of resume and
job application information • Confirm accuracy of information provided •
Checking for Discipline Problems • Identify work-related issues • Discover new
information about the applicant • Predicting Future Performance • Positivity
bias • Poor predictor of future success.
• Personality Inventories are a form of psychological assessment designed to
measure various aspects of an applicant’s personality.
• Personality inventories fall into one of two categories based on their
intended purpose: 1) measurement of types of normal personality or 2)
measurement of psychopathology (abnormal personality).
1) Tests of Normal Personality: Tests of normal personality measure the
traits exhibited by normal individuals in everyday life. Examples of such
traits are extraversion, shyness, assertiveness, and friendliness. Examples
of common measures of normal personality used in employee selection
include the Hogan Personality Inventory, the California Psychological
Inventory, the NEO-PI (Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality
Inventory), and the 16PF.
2) Tests of Psychopathology Tests of psychopathology (abnormal
behaviour) determine whether individuals have serious psychological
problems such as depression, bipolar disorder, and Schizophrenia.
• They predict performance better than past research suggests
• Low in adverse impact.
Five Factor Model of Personality: 1. Openness to experience (bright, inquisitive)
2. Conscientiousness (reliable, dependable) 3. Extraversion (outgoing, friendly) 4.
Agreeableness (works well with others, team player) 5. Emotional stability (not
anxious, tense).
Personality Testing • Predict performance at low but statistically significant
levels • Add incremental validity to the use of other selection tests •
Conscientiousness is the best predictor of performance. Job-relatedness •
Selected and used based on job analysis.
Interest Inventories: • Interest Inventory – A psychological test designed to
identify vocational areas in which an individual might be interested • Poor
predictors of job performance (ρ = .13) • Better predictors of job satisfaction. -
The most commonly used interest inventory is the Strong Interest Inventory (SII)
Integrity Tests • Integrity Test – A psychological test designed to predict an
applicant’s tendency to steal • Used mostly in retail, but gaining acceptance for
other occupations • Electronic integrity tests (such as polygraphs) have largely
been outlawed • Pen-and-paper integrity tests and inexpensive and useful
predictors of employee theft.
Conditional Reasoning Tests: • Conditional Reasoning Test – Tests designed to
reduce faking by asking test-takers to select the reason that best explains a
statement • Identifies the tendency for people to engage in aggressive or
counterproductive behaviour. - Conditional reasoning tests provide test takers with
a series of statements and then ask the respondent to select the reason that best
justifies or explains each of the statements.
Credit History Check - assess whether the applicant has a good or poor credit
history • Adverse impact • Low validity.
Graphology- a method of measuring personality by looking at the way in which a
person writes, also referred to as handwriting analysis • Limited research / no
clear evidence of effectiveness • Validity depends on content of the writing
• Drug Testing – tests that indicate whether an applicant has recently used a
drug • Drug users are more likely to: • Miss work • Use health care benefits • Be
fired • Quit • Have accidents on the job.
Psychological Exams In jobs involving public safety (e.g., law enforcement,
nuclear power, transportation), it is common for employers to give psychological
exams to applicants after a conditional offer of hire has been made.
Medical Exams In jobs requiring physical exertion, many employers require that a
medical exam be taken after a conditional offer of hire has been made.
Validity of Selection Methods:
The unstructured interview, education, interest inventories, and some personality
traits are not good predictors of future employee performance for most jobs.
It is also clear that ability, work samples, biodata, and structured interviews do a
fairly good job of predicting future employee performance.
Rejecting Applicants
• Guidelines for writing a rejection letter: • Actually send a rejection letter (post or
email) • Don’t send it immediately • Be personable and specific • Include a statement
about the characteristics of the individual who received the job offer (such as level of
experience) • Be honest • Do not include the name of a contact person.
Based on the available research, which of the following recruitment strategies may
enhance employee moral and motivation? Internal recruitment
An organization that does not want its name in public, or fears that people won't
apply if they knew the name of the company, would probably: use a blind box ad
"General Manager: Seeking position as General Manager in Hotel /Motel Restaurant
operation. Six years of experience in all aspects of hospitality industry (includes
personnel, food and beverage, sales, training). Excellent references available upon
request. Reply to Box 3349, East Barre, Vermont." This advertisement BEST
exemplifies a(n): Situation-wanted ad

Research has indicated that employees referred by successful employees had

longer tenure than did employees who had been referred by unsuccessful

Which of the following is NOT part of a highly structured interview? Use of intuition
Applicants attempting to be interviewed immediately after a poor applicant are
demonstrating their understanding of the: contrast effect

What is the first step in constructing a structured interview? Conducting a job


Interviews that contain only past-focused interview questions are also known as:
patterned behavior description interviews

How many paragraphs does the typical cover letter contain? Four

Which of the following is NOT an important principle used in writing a resume?


A factor contributing to the low validity between references and performance is

"leniency." Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to leniency of
references? Length of the letter of reference

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the use of grade point average for
employee selection? GPA has low adverse impact

Cognitive ability tests are excellent predictors of employee performance, but

because they almost always result in adverse impact they should be used with

A selection method that requires data-entry clerk applicants to actually enter

information into a computer using a particular software package is MOST accurately
referred to as: a work sample

Which of the following assessment center techniques allows the applicant to

demonstrate such attributes as creativity, decision-making, and ability to work with
others? Business games

The 16PF is a personality inventory whose 16 dimensions were determined by a

factor analysis. The 16PF is an example of a(n) statistically-based test

Which of the following psychological tests or selection methods is LEAST likely to

predict the criterion with which it has been paired? Interest inventories / employee

Conditional reasoning tests are difficult to fake and were developed to measure a
person's tendency to be aggressive.

The human resource manager at Robson Machinery is looking for a method to hire
employees that will predict future performance and have little adverse impact. Which of the
following would you most recommend? Integrity tests
Organisational Psychology has been described as "the science of _____". people at

I/O Psychology made its first major impact in: World war 1
I/O Psychology examines the factors that affect the people in an organisation, where
as business fields examine the broader aspects of running an organisation.
Which of the following research methods use previously collected company records?
The gathering, analysing, and structuring of information about a job's components,
characteristics, and requirements is a process called: Job analysis
What is the most important outcome of a Job Analysis? Job description
Which of the following sections of a job description can best provide the content for
an online job advertisement? Brief summary
A revised version of the Position Analysis Questionnaire which is used by a job
analyst rather than a job incumbent is the: Job Structure Profile
Determining the worth of a job defines: job evaluation
Help-wanted signs, job fairs, and direct mailings are all examples of: external
recruitment methods

An organisation offers its employees a financial incentive for recommending

applicants who are subsequently hired and remain on the job for a specific period of
time. This BEST exemplifies: an employee referral program

Perhaps the best way to ensure that interviewers base their decisions on relevant
information is to: use a structured interview

Interview questions such as "Why did you leave your last job" and "What do you see
yourself doing five years from now" demonstrate which negative aspect of
unstructured interviews? lack of job relatedness

conditional reasoning tests are difficult to fake and were developed to measure a
person's tendency to be aggressive.

I/O psychology is best define as: The application of the methods, facts, and
principles of psychology to people at work
which subspecialty of I-O psychology deals with enhancing employee skills,
preparing employees for managerial positions, and helping employees work together
effectively? training and developments
walter dill scott is best known for his applications of psychology to advertising
which of the following tests was developed during world war 1 to assess illiterate
recruits? Army beta
which of the following is true of the Hawthorne study: productivity increased when
illumination decrease, Productivity decreased when illumination increase & Workers
were flatter by attention from the researchers
In a laboratory experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter is
called the ______variable: Independent
The variable that is expected to change as a result of the manipulation is call
the_________variable: dependent
in experimental research, the group of participants that is exposed to the
independent variable is call the _______: Experimental group
Group of participants that is not exposed to the independent variable is called
the_________: control group
In research on the correlation between applicant's interview performance and their
job performance 6 months later, job performance is a: criterion variable
In an experiment designed to test the effect of noise an employee performance,
noise is the Independent variable And the employee performance is
the___________ dependent variable
which of the following research methods uses previously collected company
records? archival
Job analysis includes collecting data describing all of the following except:each
employee's level of job performance
Job analysis includes collecting data describing all of the following: what is
accomplished on the job, technology used by the employees & the physical job
which of the following is not a method for collecting job analysis in formation? job
methods used for collecting job analysis information?direct observation, interviews &
structured questionnaires
job analysis can serve as a foundation for: selecting employees, training employees
& evaluating employees performance
a_______is the process of determining the work activities and requirements: job
and________is the written result: job description
the procedure used to determine the relative value or importance of jobs in the
organization is called: job evaluation
scott just received a job an accounting firm. Scott feels that the firm is paying him a
fair wage in comparison to what other employers are paying, a concept also known
as:external equity
the three types of interview are: unstructured, structure, and situational
an average applicant is rated highly immediately after a less desirable applicant. this
is an example of which of the following? contrast effect
which selection technique involves a simulated job situation in which candidates deal
with actual problems? assessment centers
in the situational interview, applicants are asked: how they would respond to a
hypothetical scenario
There are three major ways to determine whether a test is reliable. with the test-
retest method, several people each take the same test twice. reliability
the extent to which tests or test items sample the content that they are supposed to
measure refers most specifically to: content validity
Criterion- related validity refers to the extent to which a test score is related to some
measure of job performance:
concurrent validity involves testing current employees and correlating the results with
their job performance.
With a predictive validity design, the test is administered to a group of job applicants
who are going to be hired. The test scores are then compared to a future measure of
job performance.
if a police applicant is asked questions about her favorite hobbies and religious
beliefs, she may feel the test is not valid. In this case, her impression demonstrates
the importance of face validity.
The consistency or stability of a response on a psychological test is known as
The split-halves technique is away to determine the reliability by dividing the items of
a test into two groups and correlating the two sets of scores.
the most important test requirements is validity
a test that measure specific abilities is a aptitude test.
An organization has difficulty getting enough qualified applicants from its existing
employees to fill a vacant position. As a result, the organization seeks qualified
applicants from outside the organization. This best exemplifies: external recruitment
Which of the following factors would suggest emphasizing your strengths and
concealing your weaknesses in an interview? negative information bias
Which of the following arrival times will have the most dramatic effect on an interview
score? arrive 5 minutes late
Realistic job previews involve telling potential applicants the ____ a job with an
objective of increasing _____. truth about / tenure
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of employer-based websites for
recruitment? all three are advantages
Which of the following is NOT an important principle used in writing a resume?
What is the first step in constructing a structured interview? conducting a job analysis
The most effective realistic job previews (RJPs) are presented in a(n) ______ format:
Based on the available research, which of the following recruitment strategies may
enhance employee moral and motivation? internal recruitment
Which of the following factors would suggest that making a favorable first impression
is important? primacy effects
Bastion Manufacturing plans to start a formal employee referral program in which
employees referring an applicant will get an incentive. According to research, which
of the following incentives would result in the most number of employee referrals?
the size of incentive doesn't matter
About what percent of external hires in large organizations were recruited through
print media? very few (2%)
"Suppose that an angry customer started yelling at you in front of other customers.
What would you do?" This type of interview question is an example of a: future-
focused (situational) question
Based on your text, newspaper advertisements typically ask the applicant to respond
in one of four ways. Which of the following is NOT one of the four ways? contact a
"Can you work weekends" and "Can you work overtime without notice" are examples
of which type of interview question? disqualifier
The most commonly used method to select employees is: employee interviews
Which of the following will increase an applicant's attraction to an organization?
provide realistic information in the ad
A private company whose website lists job openings for thousands of organizations
and resumes for thousands of applicants is called: a job board
In recent years, a trend in help-wanted advertising is to use: creative, high energy
A good example of a _______ interview question is "Your resume says that you
worked for the AMFAM Club, what is that?" clarifying
If a company has a high rate of promoting from within, which of the following may
result? stale work force devoid of many ideas
An employee moving from Engineer I to Engineer II within a company is an example
of a(n): career progression promotion
To help employ qualified veterans, ______ are required to post all job openings with
a state employment agency. federal contractors
Compared to employment agencies, executive search firms: charge higher fees
A good example of a ______ interview question is "If a customer started yelling at
you, how would you handle the situation?" future focused
An applicant who looks around the interviewer's office and pays close attention to
such items as pictures and plaques probably has a good understanding of the role
________ plays in their interview score.: interviewer-interviewee similarity
If you don't know the name of the person to whom you are sending your resume,
use: dear human resource director
Cover letters should never be longer than: 1 page
Which recruitment method is based on the same principles used to market products
to consumers? point-of-purchase methods
Your text identifies eight factors that contribute to the poor reliability and validity of
the interview process. Which of the following is NOT one of the eight factors? Halo
If a group of employees brainstormed possible answers to an interview question,
they would most likely be using the ____ approach to scoring a structured interview.
typical answer
Which of the following factors seems to have the strongest relationship with scores
on a traditional interview? nonverbal cues
When applicants respond to a newspaper advertisement by calling, they should: all
three would be great advice
______ interviews involve several interviewers interviewing one applicant at the
same time: panel
_____ is the process of attracting people with the right qualifications to apply for the
job: recruitment
In a structured interview, if an applicant gets a point for each part of an answer that
taps a main point, she is being scored using the ____ approach: key issues
The majority of the evidence regarding physical attractiveness indicates that, in
general, _______ applicants have an advantage over _______ applicants: more
attractive / less attractive
Which of the following would NOT be good advice about writing a cover letter? use
officious words
When an organization does not want its phones tied up with applicants calling, which
the following advertisement types would it NOT use? respond by calling
Both McDonald's and the military often use ______ to recruit new employees:
television ads
How many paragraphs does the typical cover letter contain? four
The resume that most takes advantage of such principles as primacy, priming, and
short-term memory limits is the ______ resume: psychological
Direct mail recruiting works best for positions involving: specialized skills
Employment agencies charge the company or the applicant when the applicant takes
the job. The amount charged usually ranges from _______ of the applicant's first
year salary. 10% to 30%
Placing a help-wanted sign on a pizza box or a placemat is an example of: point-of-
purchase recruitment
To reduce the cost of campus recruiting, many large organizations are using: virtual
job fairs
Your text identifies eight factors that contribute to the poor reliability and validity of
the interview process. Which factor is related to why there is no relationship between
interview length and outcome? primacy effect
Which of the following is NOT a description of an effective resume? qualification are
embellished a little
Based on the information in your text, research suggests that the best day of the
week to schedule an interview is: there is not a best time
Which of the following assessment center techniques allows the applicant to
demonstrate such attributes as creativity, decision-making, and ability to work with
Cognitive ability tests are excellent predictors of employee performance, but
because they almost always result in ________, they should be used with caution.
b. adverse impact
__ selection tests are used in jobs where applicants are not expected to know how to
perform the job at the time of hire but learn related procedures once hired.
d. Ability
When personnel professionals are concerned with adverse impact or invasion of
privacy associated with a test, they are assessing the:
d. potential for legal problems.
Interviews that contain only past-focused interview questions are also known as:
patterned behavior description interviews
Direct mail recruiting works best for positions involving: specialized skills

Color discrimination, glare sensitivity, and speech recognition are examples of ____

Tests of _____ ability might contain measures of finger dexterity and manual
dexterity aptitudes.

Gandy and Dye (1989) believe that proper biodata items must:
be job related, have answers that are verifiable, and deal with events under a
person's control

Though work samples are excellent selection tools for several reasons, the main
reason for not using them is that they can be:
expensive to administer and construct

Most drugs can be detected for ____ after use.

2-3 days

Increasing the _____ of references seems to increase validity.


Which of the following is NOT a concern about using physical ability tests?

Which of the following is the least useful predictor of future performance?

interest inventories

Because it is not uncommon for applicants to engage in resume fraud, references

and letters of recommendation are used to:
confirm details on a resume

If an employer does not check an applicant's references and the applicant molests a
child after being hired, the employer could be charged with:
negligent hiring

Which of the following is NOT a factor of contributing to reference leniency?

most applicants are highly skilled

Which of the following is the lest useful predictor of future performance?

interest inventories

Which of the following have the highest level of adverse impact?

cognitive ability and GPA

Even though references are commonly used to screen and select employees, they
have not been successful in predicting future employee success. The average
uncorrected validity coefficient for the references and performance is: .18
_______ exercises allow the trainee to work with equipment and in an environment
like that found in the actual job.