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Note: use the tick boxes I to ma.k all material appropiiate to your syllabus.

I. Particles in chemistry
E s.r Reactions involving gases 82
$,/t rverytrring is made of particles 6 Questions on Se,ction 5 84
fl t.z sotia", ttquids, and gases 8
6 Ch€mical change
I 1.3 Particles in solids, iiquids, and gases i0 ,
f] 1.4 A closer lcrok at gases 12 Eor Breaking down compounds 86

fl t.s Mi*tu.." tl E s.z Building up compounds 88

[ 1.6 Mor" abort solutes and solvents 16 Eos Gaining and losing oxygen 90

[] r.z s"tuuitity re E o.l Redox reactions 92

! 1.8 Separaung mixtures (l) 20 E o.s Precipitation and neutralization 94

! t.s Separatin6 mixtures (II) 22 D o.o Energy changes in reactrons 96 I

Questions on Section 1 24
Z t.z Explainin8 energy changes 98 I

2 What are those particleo?

fl os Eneigy from brrrning iuels 100 i

Quesiions on Se(tion 6 102 l

Ezr Atoms, elements, and compounds 26
7 Electricity and chemical chanBe
Az.z More about the atom 28 :

nzg Some different atoms 30 f-] Z.r Cona,r.tors and insulators 104
tr z.r The periodic table 32 f, 7.2 A clos..r look at clectrol),sis 106
nzs Groups 0 and 7 of the periodic table 31 ! 7.3 The electrolvsis of solutions 'l0u
E z.o Groups I and 2 of the periodic table 36 f 7..1 Using electrolvsis (l) 110
Z z.z Across the periodic table 38 ! 7.5 Using electrolysis (lt) 112
Questions on Section 2 40 fl 7.6 Calculations on electrolysis 114
Questions onSection 7 115
3 Atoms combining
! :.t wny .o-pounds are formed 42
8 How fast are reactions?

[] 3.2 The ionic bond 4.1 ! 8.1 Rates of reaction 118

! 8.2 the rate of a reaction 120

n 3.3 Some other ions 46
[ 3.4 The coualent bond .ll] [] A.: Cnangirrg the rate of a reaction (l) 122
[] 8.1 Chonging the ratc of a reaction (ll) 121
[ 3.5 tonic ancl molecular solids 50

! 3.e Mutulr 5z ! 8.5 Explaining rates 126

l-l 8.6 M,,r. at,,ut .at.llvsts 128
[ :.2 lu't"t i rg metals stronBer 5.1

[ 3.8 Cll.l", f.o* diar.rond and graphite 56 ! s.z Enzymes t:o

! 3.9 Comparing glass and plastics 58 f] 8.8 Reversible reactitrns 132
Questions on Section 3 60 E 8.9 Shiftint the equilibrium 134

Questions on Section 8 136

4 . The mole
f ]4.1 'Th" .nr"""s of atoms 62
9 Acids and bases
! +.2 The mole 64 f] s.t lcids and alkalis 138
! 4.3 fercentage composition of a compound 66 E q.2 A.lo.". l,)ol ar acids 140
! 4.,1 Th" for*rla of a compound (I) 68 [ 9.3 A close. Iookat alkalis 142
! 4.5 Th" f.,.-rla of a compound (ll) 70 [ 9.4 Bases and neutralization 144
[ 4.6 Th" of a solution 72 f 9.5 Muking rnlts (l) 146
Qucstions on Section 4 7.1 ! e.o Moking rolrs (tl) 148
f] v.Z Using titration to find concentrations 150
5 Chemical equations
Qucstions on Scction 9 152
I 5.1 Phvsical and chemical change 76
! 5.2 Equations for chemical reactions 78 10 Earth and its resources
I tO t Un* Earth b(.l]an 15.1
f 5.3 Calcr.rlations from equations ll{)
l ] 1t).2 The atmos;rherc p.rst antl prescnt 156
D i0.3 The o.ean 158
16 Carbon and organic compounds

E 10.4 Earth's crust 160 ! 16.1 Carbcn and its compouncls 238

I to.s ttt"kir,gt..rse of Earth's resources 152 ! te.2 The carbon cyclc 240
[]l 10.6 Example, making use of limestone 164 f] te.3 tre rossit fuels ?42
[ 10.7 An overview of industrial prrrcesses (l) 166 I te.l Chemicals from oil (l) 244
fl 10.8 An overview of industrial p(xesses (ll) 168 f] te .5 Chemicals from oil (ll) 24o
n 10.9 Recyclints u0 E 16.6 Plastics 248
Questions on Se':ti.h 10
'17.1 Qucstions i)n Scchon 16 250

11 Air .nd water l7 More organic chemistry

[ 11.i Another look air 174

at E 17.1 The alkanes 252

tt.z t"tuking rse of air 176 E 17.2 The alkenes 2g

fl ll3 Pollution alertt '178 fl 17.3 The alcohols 256

[ 11.4 wate, a.d the watei cycle 180 f] 12.4 fh" -"n,rfacturc'of t'tlr.rnol 258

! u.5 Our water supply 182 f] tZ.S Carboxyllc acids and their comp(,unds 260

ll.6 Soft and hard wnter 184 Questions on Section 17 2{.2

I tt.z tvtatlng trard lvater soft 186 l8 Rocks
Questions on Section 11 188
! ta.t A closer look at Earth's strurture 264
12 The behaviour of melals fl 18.2 lgneous rock 2o6
! i2.1 M"tal. and nonmetals '190 E 18.3 weathering 268
[ 12.2 l"l"tul, u,rd reactiritv (t) 192 I t S.+ f.,,- weathering to dtpositiorr 270
! 12.3 M"tol. und reactivity (ll) 194 f] ts.5 l-.u- sedirnent io sedinreltary rock 272
E 12.{ The reactilit}'series 196 I la.6 M"to-o.phic rock 27-1
Questions on S€ction 12 198 E 18.7 The rock cycle 276
Questions on Section 16 27ti
13 Making use of metals
I l3.t Findir'tg "rld mining metal oies 200 19 The changing face of Earlh
! 13.2 Extracting metals from their ores 202 l] ts.l nnother look at tarth's crust 280
! t:.: tttuking use of metal:. 204 ! tO.2 Are the continents moving? 282
! 13.-l Mc,rc rb,,.rt aluminium 206 [ 19 3 Earth's plates 284
fl I r.s ynr" .1,n.rt iron 2oB ! 19..1 A al,rr". look at platt movements 2u6

I lj.t Corrosion 21{) E 19.5 Sh.rpint the contincnts 2l]s

Qucstions on Sc.tion ll lll Questions on Section l9 290

14 Nonmetals: hydrogen and nitrogen 20 Further topics

tr 14.1 Nirrogen 214 [ 20.1 The.ievelopment of thc pcriodic tablc 292

E 14.2 Hydrogen 216 E 20.2 Radioactivity 294

fl 14.3 Ammonia 217 ! 20.3 More about cells and batte es 296

[ 14.4 Amrnonia and nikic acid in industry 218 ! zo.l colloidr ze8

f] 14.5 Fertilizers 220 ! 20.5 Products from plants 300

Questions on Section 14 222 ! 20.6 M".rornolecules in food 302

! ZO.Z zo yi"td u.d oZ purity 3&
15 Nonmetals: oxygen, sulphur, and the
fl 20.8 ChromatoSraphy 306
f] 20.9 Sili",rn ond its compountls 30ll
E 15.1 Oxyg€n 224
E 15.2 oxides 226 ller ision checklist 310
f] t5.: Srtphr. ond sulphur dioxidc 228 Exam qrrestions 316
D 15..1 Sulphuri( acid 2lU Wi)rking $,ith in thr: lab 32-1
Testing for ions in the lab 326
! ts.s ct" ZAz
Safety first! 328
! 15.6 Sn-" ..,-potrnds of chlorine 2j4
nnswers k) nunrcrical qucstions 329
I l5 7 ttr,,minc anL] ioclinc 235 Thc pcriodic Lr[rlt arrtl ,rtomic masses 33(]
Qucstiens on Section 15 236 lndex 332
Questions on Section 1

A larte crystal of potassium manganate(Vll) was 5 Sk€tch the heatint curve for pure water, between
pl.rced in the bottom ofa be:ker ofcold water and left - 10t and 110t. Mark in the temperatures at which
for several hcurs. water chaites state, and its state for €ach slopint part
of the graph.

6 A coolint curve shows how the tenrperature of a

substance chantes with time, as it is cooled from a gas
to a solid. Below is the cooling curve for one substance:

of potassium manganate(Vll)
a Describe what would be seen afier iive minutes. cl
b Describe what would be seen after several
c Explain your ansrvers using the idea of particles.
d Name the tu,o procerses which have taken place
during the experiment.
Use the idea of particles to explain why:
a solids have a definite shape; a \4'hal rs ihestate of the substance al room
b solids cannot be poured; temperature (20 eC)?
c liquids fill the b.zttom of a contairer; b Use the list ol meltint and boilint points on pate 9
d you can't store gases in open containers; to identify the substance.
e you can't sque€ze a s€aled plasiic sy.inge that's
completely full o{ water;
7 Using ihe idea of particles explain why:
f a balloon expands as you blow into it. e the smellof burnt toast travels all over the house;
b when two solids are placed on top of each other,
Draw diatrams to show what happcns to the pa icles they don't mix;
when: ( a liquid is used in a car's breakint system;
a water freezes to ice; d if you pump up vour bike tyres quite hard vou get a
b steam condenses to water. smcoth ride; ;j
The graph below is a heeting curve for a pure e halving the volume of a gas will double its pressure;
substance. It shows how the temperature rises with f pollution from just one {actory can affect a latge area
time. when the solid is heated until it melts. and then of land. a
the Iiquid is heated until it boils. E A test'tube of ammonia gas is placed atove a test'tube -:
ofair. Ammonia is analkaline gas that turns litmus
blue. It is lighter than air. ta
ammonra gas
blue litmus paper

red lilmus paper


a A{ter a short time the red litmus paper turns blue.
a What is the melting point of the substance? Explain why.
b What is its boilint point? b Would it make any difference if you reversed the
c What happens to the temperature while the test-tubes? Explain your answer.
substance changes state? c What would you see if the test-tube of air was
d How can you tell that the substance is not water? replaced by one containing hydrogen chloride?

The graph shows the solubility curves for coppe(ll) Describe the relalionship that exists between:
sulphate (A) and sodium chloride (B), both plotted on i gas volume and pressurc;
the same axes. b gas volume and temperature;
c gas pressure and temperalure.



The apparatus above can be us€d toobtain pure

water from salt water.
a What is thc purpose of the ice.cold water?
Temperature/'C b Why must the tlass arm from the first lube r€ach
far down into the sccond tube?
it r What is the solubility o[ each substance at: c Explain how the method works.
i 4ot? ii 60t? d What is this separation method called?
b Which substance is more soluble at: A mixture of salt and sugar has to be separated, usint
i 30"c? ii 70t? the solvent ethanol.
c At what temperature do both substances have the . Which of the Fr,/o subsiances is soluble in ethanol?
same solubility? b Draw a dia8ram to show how you would separate
d At what temperature would 459 ot copper(ll) the salt.
sulphate just dissolve in lmt of water? c How could you obtain sutar crystals ftom the
e Would it be poEsible to dissolve 50 t o[ sodium sugar solution, rritlolt losing the ethanol in the
chloride in 100 g ofwater? Process?
d Draw a diatram of the apparatus for c.
10 look again at the solubility curves in question 9.
a I( a saturated solution of copper(ll) sulphate in Eight coloured substances were spotted on to a piece
100I of water is cooled ftom 80t to 20 "c, how much of filter paper, which was then stood in a covered
copper(tl) sulphate will crystallize out ofsolution? glass tank containint a little propanone. Three of the
b If a saturated solution of sodium chloride in 100 6 substances were the basic colours red, blue, and
of water is cooled from 80t to 20 t, how much yellow. The others were dyes, labelled A, B, C, D, E.
sodium chloride will crystallize out of solution? The resultint chromatotram is below:
c To obtain sodium chloride from its solution in
water, the solution must be evaporated to dryness,
rather than left to crystallize. Why is this?
u At 20t (room temperature) 75 000cmr ofammonia
will dissolve in 100 cm' of water. .at
a Look at the table on page 19. How does the
solubility of ammonia comparc with that o(:
i oxygen? ii hydrogen chlodde?
b What can you say about the solubility of ammonia E Bed Blue Yellow
at: i 0"C? ii i()t?
c Explain how the fountain experiment work.
d Would you expect the fountain experiment to work a Which dye contains only one basic colour?
with ammonia? Why? b Which dye contains all three basic colours?
e Would you expect ammonia to have the same c Which basic colour is most soluble in
solubility in other solvents? Why? propanone?
a rl

Questions on Section 2

I Turn to page 30 and learn the names and symbols for 5 For each of the six elements aluminium (Al), boron
the first twenty elements, in order. Then close the (B), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O). phosphorus (P), sulphur
book and write them out. (S), writedown:
e the period of the periodic table to which it belongs;
2 a Give one difference betvreen an element and a b its group number in the periodic table;
compound. c its proton number (atomic number)i
b The formulae of some compounds are given d the number of electrons in one atom;
below. Write down the names of the elements they e its electronic configuration;
contain. f the number of outer-shell electrons in one atom.
CO, CaCll HrS PbCO. KOH HEO Which of the above elements would you expect to
have similar properties? Why?
Hydrogen, deuterium and tritium are isotopes.
Their structures are shown b"low. 6 The statements below are about metals and non-
metals. Say whether each is true or false. (lf false, give
a reason.)
/,--\ /-\
(r) a All metals conduct electricity.
b All metals are solid at room ternperature.
c Nonmetals are good conductoni of heat but poor dt
\_-/ conductors of electricity.

hydrogen deuterrum d Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature. $

e Most metals are brittle and break when i
hammered. j
a Copy and complete the following key:
f Most nonmetals are ductile. tI
g There are about four times as many metals as
a represents
o represents
nonmetals. tt
o represents *,
b What are the mass numbers of hydrogen, 7 a Make a larger copy of this outline of the periodic *a
table: t
deuterium and tritium?
c Copy and complete this statement:
lsotopes of an element always contain the same
number of ..... .... and . but different
numbers of
d The average mass number of naturally-occurring
hydrogen is 1.008. Which isotope is present in the
highest proportion, in naturally-cccurring hydrogen?

Copy and complete the following table for isotopes
of some common elements: b Write irr the group and period numbers.
c Draw a zigzag line to show how the metals are
separated from the nonmetals in the table.
Isotope Name of Proton Mass Number of
d Now put the letters A to L in the correct places in
element number number p e n
the table, to fit these descriptions:
'lio oxySen t6 8 88 A The lightest element.
B Any noble gas.
,TO C The element with proton number 5.
D The element with 6 electrons in its atoms.
,:C E Any element with 6 outer-shell electrons.
F The most reactive alkali metal.
,;C C The least reactive alkali metal.
H The most reactive halogen.
i:tvtg I AGroup3metal.
I An alkaline earth metal.
i!Me K A transition metal.
L AGroup5nonmetal.

I .*
8 This table gives data for some elements: 10 Many scientists contributed to the development of
the modern periodic table. One of them was the
Name Symbol Melting Boiling Electrical Russian chemist Mendeleev. In 1869 he arranged the
point point conductivity elements that were then known, in a table very
("c) ("c)
similar to the one in use today. He realized that gaps
Alu,ninium Al 6(fr should be left for elements that had not yet bcen
2450 good
discovered, and even rvellt so far as to predict the
Bromine Br 58 Poor properties of several of these elements.
Calcium Ca 850 1490 good Rubidium is an alkali metal that lies below
Chlorine Cl - t01 -35 Poor potassium in Group 1. Here is some data for Group l:
Copper Cu 1083 2600 good
Helium He
Element Proton Melting Boiling Chemical
-270 -269 Poor number point point reactivity
lron Fe 15,10 2900 good ("c) ("c)
Lead Pb 327 t750 good
Magnesium Mg 650 l1l0 god Lithium r80 1330 quite
Mcrcury IIg -39 357 good react ive
Nitrogen N -210 - 196 POor Sodium l1 98 890 reactive
Oxygen O -279 - i83 Poor
Phosphorus P u 260 Poor
Dotassium 19 64 760 very
Potassium K a 7o0 good reactive
Sodium Na 98 890 good
Sulphur Rubidiunr 37
S ll9 445 POor

Tin Sn 2n 26m Bood Caesium 55 2q 690 violentll,

Zinc Zn 419 906 good reactive

Use the table to answer these questions. a Using your knowledge of the periodic table,
a What is the melting point of iron? predict the missing data for rubidium.
b Which element melts at -7"C? b In a rubidium atom:
c Which element boils at 280'C? i how many electron shells are there?
d V"hich element has a boiling pcint only I t i! how many electrons are there?
higher than its melting point? iii how many outer-shell electrons are there?
e Over rvhat temperature range is sulphur a liquid?
This question is about elements from the farnilies
f Which element has:
called: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition
i the highest melting point?
I ii the lowest melting point? metals, halogens, noble gases.

i g Which element remains liquid over the widest

temperature range?
Element A is a soft, silvery metal which reacts
violently in water.
h Di.ride the elements into two groups, one of metals Element B is a gas at room temperature. It reacts
and the other of nonmetals. violently with other elements, without heating.
i List the nrelals in order of increasing melting point. Element C is a gas that sinks in air. It does not react
i Which metal is a liquid at room temperature (20"C)? readily with any other element.
k Which nonmetal is a liquid at room temperature? Element D is a hard solid at room temperature and
I List the elements which are gases at room forms coloured compounds.
temperature. What do you notice about the elements Element E conducts electricity and reacts slowly with
in this list? water. During the reaction its atoms each give up two
*{l 9 Before the development of the periodic table, a

scientist called Dtibereiner discovered sets of three a Place the elements in their correct families. Give
ia elements with similar properties, which he called further inlormation about the position of the element
triads. Some of these triads are shown as memhrs of within the family.
ar the same group, in the modern periodic table. b Describe the outer shell of electrons for each
Complete the following triads by inserting the missing element described above.
middle element: c How does the arrangement of electrons in their
chlorine (Cl), ... ......, iodine (l); atoms make some elements very reactive and others
lithium (Li), ........., potassium (K) unreactive?'
calcium (Ca),........., barium (Ba). d Name elements which fit descriptions A to E.

Questions on Section 5

The table below shows tlre structure of sevenl Ir The electronic con iSurationofa neonatom is (2,8)
particles: What is special about lhe outershell of a neon atom?
b The electronic <onfituration of a calcium atom is
Prrtiale Ele.ttons Protons Neutrons Qr,&z). What must happen toa calciunr atom for it
to.chieve rpble tas structure?
12 l2 l2 c Draw a diegram ofan oxyten atom, showint its
B t2 t2 l4 dtht protons (p), eight neutrcns (n), and eight
c 10 12 t2 electrons (€).
D 10 8 8 d What happens to the outer shell electrons of a
E 9 9 t0 c.lcium atom, when it reacts with an oxygen alom?
. the compound tirat is {ormed whencalcium
and oxygen rcact totether. What type of bonding
. Which three particlG at€ tEuttal atoms?
does it corrtain?
b Which particle is a nctltive ion? What is the
, Write a fomrula for the compound in e.
charge on this ion?
c Which particle is 8 positive ion? What is the charge 5. li'rite down the formuia for each of the following:
on this ion? i a nitrate ion
d Which two particl€8 at€ isotopes? ii a sulphate ion
c Use tlle tablc on 30 to identify the particiB A iii a carbonate ion
to E. iv a hydroxide ion
v a nitride ion
2 This question is about the ionic bord forured between vi
a hydrogen carbonate ion
the metal lithium (atomic numbcr 3) ard the non- bThe metal strontium iorms ions with the symbol
metal aluodne (atomic number 9). Sl'. Write down the formula fur each of the
. Hor? urany elccttons rte ttEle in a lithiuqr rtom? iollowin6:
Draw a diagram to show it3 electlon structure.
(You can show the nucletrs as a dark circle at the
i strcntium oxide
ii strcntium chloride
centre.) iii strontium nitrate
b How does a measl.tom obtain a full outer shell of iv strcntium sulphate
electrons? v strcntium hydpgen carbonate
c Draw the structute of a lithium ion, and write a
symbol for the ion. 5 A molecule of a
d How many electrons are there in a fluorine atom? certain gas can b€
Draw a diagram to show its electron structure. represented by the
e How does a norunetal atom become a netative ion? diagram on the right.
I Draw the structure oI a fluodde ion, and write a a What is thegas? What is its formula?
symbol for tire ion. b What type cf bonding holds the atoms together?
8 Draw a diagrim to show what happens when a c Name another compound with this type of
lithium atom rcacts with a fluorine atom. bonding.
h DIaw the arrangement of ions in the compound d What do the symbols. and x represent?
that forms when lithium and fluorin€ react totether
7 Draw diagrams to show how the electrons are shared
i Write a name and a formula for the compound in
in the following molecules:
part h.
a fluorine, F,
i W.ite tumes and formulae for lzro other b water, HrO
compounds which have a similat structure to the
c methane, CHI
compound in h.
d trichloromethane,CHCll
3 Na* O, Al Cf[ N I- e oxyten, o,
a From the list above, select I hydrogen sulphide, HrS
i two atoms g hydrogen chloride, HCI
iitwo molecules Draw the shapes of molecules a, b, and e.
two ions 8a n oxygen molecu le is represented as
O Whal
b What do the following symbols represent? does lhe double line rnean? How manv electrons trom
i Na* each atom take part in bonding?
ii I- b A molecule of carbon dioxide (CO:) can be drawn
c Name the compound made up from Na* and I asO:C =O. Draw a diagram to show how the
ions, and write a formula for it. eleclrons are shared in the molecule.

t .i
9 Nitro8€n is in Group 5 ot the periodic table, and its c Two of the substances have very low melting
atomic number b 7. It erists as molecules, each points, compa.ed with the rest. Explain why these
containing two aioms. could nol be ionic compounds.
. Write the formula for nitroten. d Two of the substances are molecular. Which ones?
b What type of bonding would you erperl bctwcen e Which subst.nce is a giant covelent structure?
the two atoms? ( Which substance do you expect to be very hard?
( Hot! many eledrons does a nitrogen atom have in E Which substances do you expect to be soluble in
its outer shell? tetrachloromethane?
d How many electrons must each atom a
share of, in order to tain a full shell o(8 electrons? Silicon lies directly below carbon in Group 4 of the
c Draw a diatram to show the bonding in a nitrcten periodic table. Here are the melting and boiling
molecule. You need show only the outer-shell points for silicon, carbon (diamond), and their oxides.
electrons. (lt may help you tc look back at the Substance Symbol or It{.pt
bonding in an oxygen molecule, on page,l8.) formula .c "c
f The bond in a nitroten molecule is call€d a lriple
bond. Can you explain why? Carbon C 3730 4530
I Nitrogen (NJ, oxygen (OJ, chtlrine (CL) and Silicon Si 1410 2'l(n
hydrogen (H) allexist as diatomic molecules. What Carbon dioxide CO, sublimes at - 78qC
does Jiolordic mean? S{icon dioxide siol t6l0 2230
h One common gaseous element can form trirtorai\a
molecules. Which onc?
. In which state are the two €l€rnrxts, at room
temperature (20t)?
10 Bri.ks, tiles, muts, and earthenware prots are all b ls the structure of carbon (diamond) giant covalent
c€r.mics. Ceramics are made ofclay, which is made or molecular?
of silicon, oxygen, aluminium, and other elements. c What type of structure would you exPect silicon to
When clay is heated in a kiln, a series of reactions have? Give reasons.
occurs. The rcrsult is a mass of tiny minerat crystals d In which state.rc the two oxides, at room
bonded together by glass. temperaturE?
The atoms on the surfac€ of a c?ramic form a
6ant c What type o( struclure do€s carbon dioxide have?
lattice where all the bonds are stront. But below the I Does silicon dioxide have the same stnrcturE as
hard surface layer the ceramic contains tiny holes or carbondioxide? What is the evidence for your
Pores. answe!?
a What is meant by a giant lottice?
13 Hydrogen bromide is a compound of the two
b Why are ceramics able to withstand temperaturcs
elements hydrogen and bromine. lt has a melting
of over 1500 without meltint? point of - 87 t and a boilint point of -67"C.
c Name a use of ceramics which uses this prop€rty.
Bromine is one of the halogens (Group 7 of the
d What is the main disadvanta6e of ceramics? periodic table).
c Explain how this disadvantage is related to the e Is hydrogen bromide a lolid, a liquid, or a gas at
structurE of the ceramic.
room temperaturc (20"C)?
U This table dves information about some properties of b ls it made of molecules, or does it have a giant
substances A to G. structule? How can you tell?
c What type of bond is formed between the
Substance Electrical Solubility hydrogen and bromine atoms in hydragen bromide?
conductivity in water Show this on a diatram.
d Write a formula for hydrogen bromide.
solid liquid c Name two other compounds that would have
bonding similar to hydrogen bromide.
- 112 POor Poor insoluble
f Write formulae for these two compounds.
B 680 poor good soluble
c _70
Poor Poor insoluble 1{ . Use their structures to explain why:
D 1495 good goid insoluble i graphite is used for the 'lead' in pencils
E 610 poor good soluble ii diamonds arc used in cutting tools.
F 1610 Poor Poor ins<,rluble b Give two reasons why:
c 60 tocd good insoluble i copper is us€d in electrical wiring
iisteel is us€d for domestic radiators.
a Which of the substances are metals? Explain. c Ethanol is used as the solvent in perfume and
b Which of the substances are ionic compounds? aftershave, because it evaporates easily. What does
Cive reasons {or your choice. that tell you about thc bonding in it?

Questions on Section 4

Rclative atomic masses are tiven on page 298. Use the 6 I mcle of sodium carbonate (NarCOJ contains
approximate values tiven in the table. 2 moles o[ sodium atoms, I mole of carbon atoms,
and 3 moles of oxygen atoms.
I How many grams are there in: ln the satr,e way, write down the number uf moles
. I mol€ o[ copper .toms? of each atom present in I moie o[.
bl 5 moles of sulphur atoms? e lead oxide, Pb,O,
c 2 moles of magnesium atoms?
b arnmonium nitr.te, NHTNOT
d 5 moles ofcarbon atoms? c celcium hy,lroxide, Ca(OH):
e 10 nroles of chlorine aioms?
d dinitroten tetroxide, N?Or
f 0.1 moles o{ nitro8en.toms? c ethanol, C:H5OH
I 0.2 moles of neon atoms? f ethanoic acid, CHTCOOH
h 0.6 moles of hydrogen atoms? g hydrated iron(ll) sulphatc,, FeSO,.7H,O
i 1.5 mcles of oxyten atoms?
h iron(lll) anuonium sulphate, Nil,Fe(SO,):
2 Hov, many grams are tllere in: i calcium carbide, CaC
a I nole of hydrogcn molecuics, Hr? i nit.oglycerine, C.H'(NO.)l
b 2 moles of hydrogen molecules, H,? 7 'fhe forrnula of calcium oxrde is CaO. t he RAMs
c I mole of oxygen molecules, Or? are:Ca=40,O=16.
d 0.5 moles of chlorine molecules, Cl-,? Complele the followinE stalemenls.
e 2 moles of phosphorus molcuies, Pr? a I moleo[Ca (.... .g)and I moleof O (......9)
f 4 moles o[ sulphur molecules, $? combine to form...... mole of CaO (...... g).
g 3 moles o[ ozone molecules, 01? b 4.09 of calcium and .. -... g of oxygen combine to
form ......g of calcium oxide.
3 Find how many moles o[ atoms lhere are, in'
c When 0.4g of calcium reacts with oxygen, the

a 329 of:ulphur increase in mass is......9.
b ,18 g o( magnesium d lf 6 moles of CaO werc decomposed to calcium :]
c 23 t o( sodium and oxygen, .. .. . . moles of Ca and . .. . . . moles of
d 14t of lithium
e l.4g of lithium
f 3.19 of phosphorus
O, would be obtained.
e The percentage by mass of calcium in calcium
g 6.49 o{ o:<ygen
h 5.4 goi aluminium 3 In a rea.tion lo make mallganese from manganese
i 2g o{ hydrogen oxide, the following results were obtained:
i0.6tofcarbon l74g of manganese oxide produced 110 g of
k 12 kg of carbon manSanese. (RAMs: Mn - 55, O:15)
a What mass of oxygen is there in 174g of
4 For cach pair, decide which of the two substances manBanese oxid€?
contains the treaier number of atoms. b How many moles of oxyten atoms is this?
a 80 g of sulphur, S0g of calcium c How many moles of manganese atoms are there
b 809 of sulphur 809 of oxygen in 110g of manganese?
c I mole of sulphur atoms,8 moles ofchlorine atoms d What is the empirical formula of manganese
d 1 mole of sulphur atoms, 1 mole of oxygen oxide?
molecules e What mass of manganese would be obtained
e 4 moles of sulphur atoms, I mole of sulphur from 10009 of manganese oxide?
molecules (S")
9 279 of aluminiurh burns in a stream of chlorine to
5 How many trams are there in: form 133.5g of aluminium chloride.
a 1 mole of watet HrO? (RAMs: Al:27, Cl:35.5)
b 5 moles of water? a What mass of chlorine is present in 133.5 g of
c I mole of anhydrous copper(ll) sulphate, CuSO,? aluminium chloride?
d I mole of hydrated copper(ll) sulphate, b How many moles of chlorine atoms is this?
CuSO..5H:O? c How many moles of alunrinium atoms are present
e 2 moles of ammonia, NH.? in 279 of aluminium?
I 0.5 moles of ammonium carbonale, (NHr)]COr? d Use your answers for parts b and c to find the
g 0.3 moles of calcium carbonate, CaCOr? simplest formula of aluminium chloride.
h I mole of magnesium oxide, MgO? e I dm' of an aqueous soiution is made using
i 0.1 moles of sodium thiosulphate, Na,SrO,? 13.359 of aluminium chloride. Whar is its
j 2 moles of iron(lll) chloride, Fdl.? (urcentration in moles per dmr?

L )
Copy and complete the rollov.,int table. An oxide of copper c.n be converted to copper by
(Tiic RnMs are: H: l, C = 12, l.l = 14, O= 16.) lreating ii in a stream of hydrogen in the apparatus
shcwn below:
Compound Molar mass Empiricel Molecular
g/mol formula formule
hydrazine 32 NH, hydrogen n
cynnoten 52 CN
nitrogen r..rride 92 NO,
Blucose r80 cHro
The hydrogen supply was turned on, and hydrogen
1! Hydrocarbons A and B both contain 85.7% carbon,
was allowed to pass throuth the test-tube for some
The moiar masses of A and B are42 and 8{ g/mot.
time befnrc the ex.ess tas v/as lit. The test-tube was
i What two elements ale prpsent in a hydroCarbon? heated untilall the copper oxide was converted to
b Calcul.te the empirical formulae of A and B.
(The RAMs are: H = 1, C:12.) copper. The apparatus was allowed to cool, with
c Calculate the molecular formulae of A and B. hydrof.en still passing through, before it was
12 Zinc phosphide is made by heating zinc and e Copy and complete the word equation for the
phosphorus together. It is found that 8.4t of zinc reaction:
combines with 3.1 g of phosphorus. copper oxide + hydroten +copper + ....
. Find the emeirical formula for the compound. b Whv was the hydrogen allowed to pass thyouth
(The RAMs are: Zn = 55, P 31.)
- the apparatus for some time, before the exc€ss was
b Calculate the percmtate oI phosphorus in it. lit? Why was the excess hydrogen burned?
13 Phosphorus forms two oxides which have the The experiment was repeated sevelal times, by
empirical formulae POr and PrO.. different groups in the class. Each group used a
. Which oxide cont.ins the higher percentate of different mass o{ oxide. The results are shown below.
phosphorus? (RAMs: P = 31, O= 16.)
b What mass cf phosphorus will combine with I Group of copp.r M.3s of coppcr Mrss o, orytcn
mole of oxygen molecules (OJ to form P:Or? orid€/t produced/E losvt
c What is the molecular formula o[ the oxide which ,l
0.62 0.55 0.07
has a formula mass of 284? 2 0.90 0.80 0.10
d Assuming that the other oxide is similar, suggest 3 1.12 1.00 0.12
what its molecular forrnula might be. .l , 69 1.50
14 For each pair, decide which of the two solutions 5 1.80 1.60
contains the greater number of moles ofsolute.
c Work out the missing figures for the table.
e I dmr of I M sodium chloride (NaCl), I dmr of 2M d On graph paper, plot the mass of copper atainst
sodium chloride
the mass of oxyten. (Show the mass of copper along
b 500 cm'of 1M sodium chloride,l dm'of 1M the r-axis and the mass of oxygen along the y-axis.)
sodium chloride
Then draw the best straight line through the origin
c 1dm'o(0.1M sodium chloride,100cm3 of 2M
and the set of points.
sodium chloride
e From the graph, 6nd the mass of oxygen which
d 250 cm3 of 2 M sodium cNoride, I dm' of I M would combine with 1.28I of copper.
sodium hydroxide (NaOtI)
c 20 cmr o( 0.5 M sodium chloride, ,l() cm' of lM
f Calculate the mass of oxygen which would
combine with 128 g of copper.
sodium chloride (Remember, l 28 x lfi):128)
15 Usint 10t of this solute, what volume of solution will g How many moles o(copper atoms are therc in
you prcpare so that its concentntion is 2 M? 128I of copper? (Cu:64)
(RAMs: H:1, Li:7, N:14, O: t5, Mg =24, S=32, h How many moles ofoxyten atoms combine with
Ca:40) 1289 of copper? (O:16)
. lithium sulphate, LLSOr i What is the simplest formula of this oxide of
b magnesium sulphate, MtSOr coPPer?
c ammonium nitrate, NH1NO. i What is another name for the sin plest formulo totrl.d
d calcium nitrate, Ca(NOJ).2HlO in this way?
Questions on Section 5

Decide whether each change below is a physical 4 Balance these eRuations:

change or a chemical change. Give reasons for your . Hr(f) + Br1(g) ------+ HBr(t)
answers. b Cl, (8) + KBr(aq) -----+ KCI (ag)+ Brz (nq)
r ice meliing " c,H.(8) + Or (8) ......+ CO, (8) + H,O(l)
b iron rusting d zn(o + Fe:o, (l) Fe (l) + zno(i)
c pet.ol bumint e M8 () ---.--+ Tio + M8cl, (l)
d candle wat meliint f NH, (.8) + O, (8) + HrO (l) ------+ HI.IO: (l)
e a candle buming t Pb(l.lOJ, (s) ------+ PbO? (s) + NO, (8) +O? Q)
f wet hair drying h Al (s) + HCI(44) + AlCl! (oq) + H, (8)
g milk souring i C,H'OH (l)+O, (8) ---+ COr(8)+HrO(l)
h perlume evaporating i NarCO: (s)+ HCI (a4) -----+
i a lump of roll sulphur being crushed NaCl (44) + H,O (l) +CO, (8)
i copper being obtained from coppe(ll) oxide 5 Memrry(ll) oxide breaksdown into mercury and
k clothes being iloned
I custanl being made oxyten when heated. The equation for the reaction is:
m a cigar ette being smoked 2Hp(s) ---.-+ 2Hg(D+o,B)
n coppe(ll) sulphate crystallizing from solution r Calculate the mass of 1 mole of mercury(ll) oxide.
Calculate the mass of I mole of mercury(ll) oxide.
wdte a chemical equatiotr for each of the lollowing. (O= 16, Hg=20r)
You do not need to add state symbols. Example: b Firrd how much mercury and oxygen arc produced

@@+ @-&(ft when 21.7I of mercury(ll) oxide is heated,

5 lron(ll) sulphide is formed when iron and sulphur

2Hr +O?-2H?O ieact together:
Fe (s) + S (s) ------' F€6 (s)
. How many grams of sulphur will react with 56 g of
iron? (The RAMS on page 63 will help you.)
"@*@ -@@ b lf Tgof ircn and l0gof sulphur are us€d, which
substance is in excrss?
c If 7B of ircn and 109 of sulphur are used, name the
UG) substancrs present when the reaction is complete,
and find the mass of each.
d What mass of iron would react completely with

"@* @ -@oo l0g of sulphur?

7 The following equation represents a reaction in which

iron is obtained from ircn(lll) oxide:

,4Y:\- ffo
FerO! (s) + 3CO (8) 2Fe (s) + 3CO2 (8)
d @o-@@ a, a?3
a Write a word equation for the rcaction.
b What is the formula mass of iron(lll) oxide?
(.o)6) (The RAMs are; Fe - 56, O = f6.)

"&&.@-d$d$ c How many moles of FerOs are present in 320 kg

of ircn(lll) oxide? (1kg= 1000 B)
d How many moles of Fe are obtained from 1 mole of
Write equations for the lollowing reactions: e From c and d, find the number of moles of iron
a 1 mole of copper atorns combines with I mole of atoms obtained frcm 320 kg of iron(lll) oxide.
sulphur atoms to form 1 mole of copper(Il) sulphide, f Find the mass of iron obtained from 320 kg of
CuS. iron(lll) oxide.
b 3 moles of lead atoms combine with 2 moles of
oxygen molecules to form t mole of lead oxide, PbrOr. 8 What is the volume at rtp in dm3 and cm3, of :

c 1 mole of ethanol molecules, C2H5OH, bums in 3 e 2 moles of hydrogen, H.?

moles of oxygen molecules to form 2 moles of carbon b 0.5 moles of carbon?
dioxide molecules and 3 moles oI water molecules. c 0.01 moles of nitrogen, Nr?
d 1 mole of iron(lll) oxide, Feror, is reduced by 3 d 0.3 moles of oxygen, 02 !
moles of hydrogen molecules to form 2 moles of iron e 0.1 moles of neon, Ne?
atoms and 3 moles of water molecules. t 0.003 moles of ammonia, NH,? i
9 The vol'rmes of some different gases were measured 13 Nitrotlycerine, CrHs(NOr)r, is usedas an explosive.
at rtp. The readinSs were: The equation for the exPlosion reaction is:
i hydrogen,6dm' 4C,HdNOJ,(r) -..*
ii oxy6en,3dm1 l2COz (8) + loHro (l) + 6t't, {3; 1 q 191
iii neon.2400cm' a How rnany moles of nitrotlycerine arc represenied
iv carbon monoxide, 600 dmr in the equationl
v carbon Cioxide,l.2 dml b How many moles of gcs molecules does this Proiluce?
vi sulphur dioxide, ,1130 cm] c How many moles o[ gas molecules are Produced
{rom I mole of nitroglycerine?
a What does rtp mean? d what is the total volume of tas (at rtP) ProducPd
b Givel the volum6, calculate the number o( from 1 mole oI nitroglycerine?
moles of €ach tas pres€nt. e what is the mass of I mole of nittoglycerine?
c Now calculate the numher of trams of each (H: r, c - 12, N:14, O- 16)
tas present. f What would be the total volume of gas (at rtP)
produced from I kg of nitroglycerine exPlosive?
lc The compound sodium hydrogen carbonate,
g Why ii the volurr,e of gas actually prcduced likely
Nal lCOr, d.compcses as follo'rs when heated:
-_ to be much lar8er than this?
2NaHCo](s) Na:COr (s) + Hro(l) +cor(8)
a Write a word equation for the reaction. 14 tlyrlrogen peroxide is a colourless liquid which is
b How many mol€s of sodium hydrogen used as a bi,'ach. It decomPoses like this:
calbonate are there on the lelt side o{ the 2HO, (aq) -.- 2H,O(l) +O, (8)
equation? It is sold as a 3% solutiorl which means that t dmr o[
ii What is the mass of this amount? solution clntains 30g of hydrogen Percxide
(Na =23, H:1, C = 12, O:16) r Why do buh,bles aPPear in the solution as the
c i How many moles of carbon dioxide are hydrogen peroxide decomPoses?
there on the ritht side of the equation? b i What is the mass of I mole oI hydrogen
ii What is the volume of this amount at rtP? peroxide? (H = 1, O= 16)
d What volume.t rtp of carbon dioxide would be ii What is the concentntion in moles/dm! of
obtained if: a 37" solution?
i 84 g of sodium hydrogen carbonate were iii How many moles of oxygen molecules are
completely decomposed? formed when l dmr of the solution
ii 3.4 g of sodium hydrogen carbonate were decomposes?
completely decomposed? iv What volume of oxyten is this at rtP?

11 When calcium carbonate is heated stronSly. the l5 Matnesium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid
following chemical change occurs: as follows:
CaCO.(s) -.- CaO(s) +CO, (8) Mgco, (5) +2HClkq) '-
(Ca = 4,0, c = 12, O: 16) Mtcl, (44) + H,o (,) co, (8)
a Write a word equation {or the chemical change. e How many moles o{ magnesium carbonate will
b [Iow many moles oI CaCO. are the.e in 50t of .eact completely with l00cm3 of 2M acid?
calcium carbonate? b What mass of matnesium carbonate is this?
ci what mass oI calcium oxide is obtained from (Mt = 24, C = 12, O:16, Cl:35.5)
the thermal decomposition of 50t of calcium c What volume of carbon dioxide will be released
carbonate? at rtp?
ii What mass ofcarbon dioxide would be given d What mass of magnesium chloride will be obtained?
off at the sam€ time?
16 2 g (an excess) of iron is added to 50 cm' of 0 5 M
iii What volume would the gas occuPy at rtP?
sulphuric acid. After the reaction, when all the
12 Nitrogen monoxide reacts withoxyten to rorm hydrogen has bubbled oft the mixture of iron
nitrogen dioxide. The equation is: sulphate solution and unreacted iron is filtered.
2NO (8) + O, (8) ------+ 2NO, (8) The urueacted iron is dried and weighed lts mass
a How many moles of oxygen molecules reatt with 1 is 0.69.
mole of nitrogen monoxide molecules? a What rnass of iron took Pa in the reaction?
b What volume of oxyten will react with 50 cmr o{ b How many moles of iron atoms is this? (Fe =55)
nitrogen monoxide? c How many moles of sulphuric acid reacted?
c What is the total volume o( the two reactants? d Write the equation for the reaction, and deduce
d What volume of nitrogen dioxide will be obtained? the chalge on the iron ion that was formed'
€ Explain why there is a reduction in volume in the e What volume of hydroten (calcutated at rtP)
reaction. How could the volume be further reduced? bubbled off during the reacticn?

Questions on Section 6

1 Write balancd equatioN, wint the corrcct symbols, 5 Crude oil is an important raw material. Fractional
for these.hemical reaclions: distillation ofcrude oil produc€s a number o{ useful
. the combustion of carbon monoxide to form products. The distillation process, however, produces
carbon dioxide toc much of the 'heJvy' fraclions. There is greater
b the decompocition of solid mercury(ll) oxide i.rto .!emand lor 'lighter' I.aciions. The heavy fractions
its elements can be (onver ted to lithter fractions by cracking. The
c the synthesisof ammonia tas, NHr, from dtrotcn products obtained are used as fuels and ntonomers.
. and hydrogen The fuels are burned to provide e erty, The
d the preclpitation of barium 3ulphate when monomers are used for the produclion of plastics.
barium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions are . Why is there more demand for the lighter
mixed fractions?
G the reduction of coppe(ll) oxide by hydrogen b Which process mentioned above involves a
f the polymerization of chloro€thene, CH, =CHCI physical rather than chemical change?
g the decomposition o, silver chloridc by litht c What type of .hemical reaction is cracking?
h the de.omposition of ttloltcn aluminiurn oxide by d What type of chemical rcaction is involved in the
electricity production of plastics?
i the cracking of ethane to ethene and hydrogen c i Whichof the ch€mical chantes mentioned in the
i the fermentation of tlucose to make ethanol. passate is an oxidation?
2 When 5.5 g of zinc (Zn) were added to a solution of ii What other name is us€d for this type of
copp€r(U) sulphate (CuSOJ,6.il6 ot copper weie
obtained. (The RAM's are: Zn =65, Cu =61.) 6 Water at 25t was us€d to dissolve two compounds.
What type of chemical reaction is this? The temperature oI each soluiion was measured
b How many moles of zinc atoms were us€d? immediately after the cornpound had dissolved.
c How many moles of copFr atoms were
obtained? Compound T€mperature of solution/'C
d Write a word equation for the teaclion. NH,NO, 2t
c Use tlre inlonnation flom b and c to wdt€ a Cacl, 45
balanced equation for th€ reaction.
a Name the two compounds.
3 When soluiior's of potassium sulphate and barium
b Calolate the tempeEtur€ chante for each.
chioride are mixed, a white Fee*rita& forms. The
c_ Which compound dissolved exothermically?
equation for the reaction is:
K,SO. (!q) + BaCl! (cq, --.---' BaSO. (s) + 2KCl (a{)
a What is a ptecipitat€? e For each solution, estimate the temperatur€
o{ the the solution if:
b Which compound above is the pEcipitate?
c How woirld you separate the precipitate from the
i the amount o{ water was halved but the
same mass of compound was us€d
d i What would remain if ahe precipitate was ii the mass of the compound was halved but the
volume of water was unchanged
ii How would you obtain this substance as a dry iii both the mass of the compound and the
volume of water werE halved.
e A precipitate also forms iI sodium sulphate is used 7 Sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid react as
instead of potassium sulphate, above. Write an shown in this equation:
equation lor the reaction. NaOH (a4) + HCI (a4) ------- NaCl (cg) + H,O 0)
4 23.3t of barium sulphate was obtain€d from the Th€ rcaction is exothermic.
precipitation reaction in question 3. . yJhat tyF of chemical reaction is it?
e What is the formula mass of barium sulphate? b Is heat $ven out or taken in durint the reactiorL or
(Ba:137, S =32, O:16) neither?
b How many moles of BaSOn is 23.3 g of barium c In that case, what happens to the temperat.,rre of
sulphate? the solutions as they react?
c How many moles of KrSO. and BaCl must have d What volume of 0.5 M hydrochloric acid would
reacted, to form 23.3 t of barium sulphate? react completely with 50 cmr of 1.0 M sodium
d The concentrations of the two reactint solutions hydroxide solution?
were 0.1 M (that is,0.1 mole o[ solute in 1 litre of e If tar'ce the volume of acid was added to the
solution). What volume of each solution was ne€ded sodium hydroxide solution, what would vou expect
to form 23.39 ofbarium sulphate? to happen to the temperature? Explain.

I Calor gas is c hydrocarbon called propane, CrH,,.
In This energy diagram represents the reaclicn
fn experiment, I tram of propane was used to heat between
citric acid solution and sodium hydroten carbonate:
l000cmr of water. The tempeiature of the water
qC ros€
trom 20ro 32 "C.
a By how much did the waier temperaturE rise? 1
b Is thc burntng of Calor gas exothermic
endotlrermic? _t
c i Calculate th€ heat enerty given out when I 9l
gran: o[ propane burns. (4 2 kl raises the
temperatu.e of 1000 cmr of water by I t.) I

!i What is the heat enerty given out when

I mole o{ propane burns? (C 12, H l)
-Lighler - =
fuel is another hydrocarbon, called butane I
(CrH,J. lVhen I mole o[ butane
bums,29mk, of heat
energy is tiven out. a Write the chemical equation for the reaction.
d Us. the idea of making and breaking bonds to b What is the energy clEnge, AH, for the reaction?
explar n wi,) ( Is the reaction endothermic or exothcrmic?
.burnint I mole of butane produces more
energy than buming I mole o( propane. d Which en.'rgy clrange in the reaction is
the brcakiig or the forming of bonds?
9 When ammonium chloride (N[Ct) dissolves in
water, the remperature drops by a few degrees.
e Which have stronger bonds, the reactants or
the products? Explain your answer.
ai Is Ihe dissolvint exothermi( or endothermic?
ii What can you say about the bonds thra are 12 Hydrazine, N1Hr, burns in oxygen as follows:
formed with water in the solutioE?
When I mole of ammonium chloride dissolves HH
. o:o(9)
water, 15 k, of energy is taken in.
b How muchen€rgy is taken in when: i 107g ,N-*' (n)
-- *N=N(9) * 2\o(E)
ii I kg of ammonium chloride dissolves in wlater?
. Count and list the bonds broken in this reaction.
10 the main component of natural gas. b Count and tist the new bonds Iormed.
reaction between methane and oxygen is
exothermic: . Calculate the total energy
CH, G1 9,1r1 --> co, (8) iH,orgt
- i i (\uired to break the bonds
a Explain in teims of bor.d bre"aking an<J ,oond ii released when the new bonds are made
making why this reaction is exothermic. (The bond energies in krlmol
are: N_H 391;
b i Copy thediatram below and complete ifto N-N 158; N =N 945; O-H 4A; O =O 49E)
:.f5t., the energ). .ai.rgrtyn ,cr rhis r€action. d Calculate the value of dH-.-".
e ls energy released or absorbed overall?
f Draw an energy diagram for the reaction.
g How much energy is transferred if 100 g of
hydrazine is burnt in oxygen? (MMs: N 14,
= H l.)
h Where is lhe energy tiansferred from and ro? =
i Would hydrazine be suitable as a fuel? Why?
1 mole CHa
13 The ene€y chante for the followint reaction
1 mote 02 involving methane is + 1664kJlmol.

H-C-H(g) -- --> C(g) + 4H(9)


a How many bonds are broken in this reaction?

b How many bonds are formed?
c from the information on the energy chante,
calculate the bond energy of one C_i-bond. -
Methane wiu not burn in air until a spark or
d For a similar reaction involving ethane (CrtL), the
flame is applied. Why not?
energy change is +2826krlmol. Write an equation
When l.mole of methane burns in oxygen,
U90 kJ of like the one above, to show this reaction.
energy ts given out.
c How much energy is given out when I g of e List the bonds broken during the rcaction.
methane burns? (C:12, : l) f Use the data you have avail;ble to calculate the
H bond energy of the C.c bond in ethane.
Questions on Section 7

r What does the term tlrcrrolysit mean? The electrolysis of lead bromide can be investiSated
b Copy the diatram below,.nd lab€l it using the usin8 the followinS aPParatus.
wurda in this iist, which are all corurected u'ith
anode , cathodc , eicctrolyle, onion, calion.

. What must be done to the lead blomide before the

bulb will light?
b What would be sc.? at the Positive el€ctrode durint
th€ etFriment?
c Name the substance in b.
2 In which of ihese woutd the bulb liShi?
d VJhat is tormed at the netative electrode?

'r1h".,"'-Fl "-l e Write an equation for the reaction at each electrode-

5 This question is about the el€ctrolysis of mollen lithium

chloride. Lithium chloride is ionic, and contains
lithium ions (Li') and chloride ions (Cl ).
e Whkh ion is the anion?
b Which ion is the cation?
c Copy the follon'ing diagram and use arrows to
show which way:

'-h mercury sodnrm chionde solulon paralin

i the ions Ilow when the switch is closed;
"r-"lh 'i'-.,
i +l +t
ii theelectrons flow in the wires.

1-'-r'--l -l
*rt", elhanoi solrd polassrum

?t ?l plastic diamond
? d Write equations for the teaction
and the overall rcaction.
at each electrcde,

This question is about the elecirolysis of an aqueous

solution of lithium chloride.
. Write down the names and symbols of all the ions
3 a which of the substances in question 2 are: pEs€nt in the solution.
i conductors? ii non-conductors? b Lithium is a reactive metal,like sodium. What will
iii electrolytes? ivnon-electrolytes? be form€d at the cathode?
b What is the difference between a conductor and an c What will be formed at the anode?
electrolyte? d Write an €quation for the reaction at each electrode
c For which Eubstances above would you exPect to c Name two oth€r el€ctrolytes that will Sive the same
see changes taking place at the electrodes? electrclysis products as this one.
Write an equation (or: 1l Aluminium is cxtracted by electrolysis of molten
a thc overall decomposition aluminium oxide. The aluminium ion is Alrt.
b the reaction at each electrode a Write an equation for the reaction at the caihode.
whcn molten sodium chloride B electrolysed. b How many moles of electrons are required to
obtain I mole of aluminium atoms?
. List the anions rlrd cations prescnt in: c What mass of aluminium will be obtain€d if a
i sodium chloride solution current of 25 000 A flows for 24 hours?
ii coppe(ll) chloride sclution (The RAM of Al:27; ihe charte due to I mole of
b Write dowo the reaction yo.J would expecl at: electrons is 96 500 coulombs.)
i thearrode ii the cathode
when each solulior'r in . is clectrolys€d, usint 12 Using platinum electrodes the apparatus below was
platinum electrodes. set up to electrclyse three different solutions.
c ExPlain wh], the anode reactions in b ar€ both thc
d Explain why copper b obtsined at the cathode, but
not godiurn.

Six substaicas A io F were dissolved in water, and

conncrted in tum into the circuit below. The
symbol@rcprcsents an ammeter, which is.n srlver nrlrate copr.-(ln nrtrate rron nrlrale
instrument for measurint lhe currcnt. :olutron so ulon solulron

e Why is a variable resistor needed in the circuii?

b Write an electron transler equation to show how
siiver is (ormed at the netative electtode.
c ln the experiment, 0.,$3 t o, silver was formed
when a curt€nt was pass€d for 30 minutes.
The RAM of Ag : 1m; the charye due to 1 mole o(
electrcns is 500 coulombs.
i Calculate the current used.
ii Calculate the mass of copper formed in the
The results are shown in this table: middle cell. (Thc RAM of Cu - 64.)
Substance Current Cathode Anode d In the third cell.0.070g of iron was obtained. The
(amperes) ( - (+) RAM of Fe : 56. Calculate whether the solution used
was iron(Il) nitrate (containing Fe?* ions), or iron(lll)
0.8 .oPPer chlorine nitrate (containint Fe1* ions).



c What would be obtained at the positive electrode
in each beaker?
t3 When sodium chloride solution is electrolysed, the
E 1.2 hydrogen oxyEen
gase hydrogen and chlorine arc obtained.
F 0.7 silver oxySen
a i Write down the formulae lor the hydrogen
a Which solution corducts best? and cNoride ions, then say which gas is
b Which solution is a non-€lectrolyte? obtained at each electrode.
c Which solution could be: li Explain why hydrct€n is releas€d instead of
i silv€r nitrate? sodium metal.
ii coppe(Il) sulphate? b i Write the equation fo! the formation of
iii coppe(ll) chloride? chlorine tas at the el€ctrode,
iv sodium hydroxide? ii How many moles o[ electrans are required to
v sugar? release I mole of chlorine tas (CL)?
vi potassium chloride? iii How many coulombs is this? (The charge due
to I mole ofelectrons is 96 500 coulombs.)
Hydrogen chloride is a molecular substance. c A current of 2 A was passed for 20 minutes.
However, it dissolves in water to form hydrocfiloric i Calculate the volume oI chlorine released
acid, which exists as ions: at room tempenturc and pressure (ttp).
HCI (g) * H. (ag) + Cl (a9) (The volume of 1 mole of any gas is 24dmr or
List the ions present in a solution of hydrochloric 24 000 cml at rtp,)
acid. What result would you expec! when the ii Explain why the volume o( hydrogen released
solution is electrolysed with platinum electrodes? is the same as the volume of chlorinc.
Questions on Section 8

The rate of the reaction between magnesium and 3 For this question you will need the graph you drew for
dilute hydrochloric acid could be measured using this question 2.
'fhe experiment with magnesium and an excess o{
riilute hydrochloric ecid was rePeatcd. This time a
diffetrnt con.entraiion of hydro<hloric acid was us€J'
synnge The resuhs were:

Time/min 01 23456
volumc o( 22 34 39 40 40 40

r Plot these results on the traPh you drew for

qu6tion 2.
magnesium b Whkh reaction was [.ster? How can you tell?
c In wNcherptriment was the acid Inorc
drlute hydrochloric acid <onctntratcd? Give a reason 6or your answer.
d The same volume of hydrogen was produccd in
each experiment. What does that tell you about the
mals of magnBium us€d?
a Wh.t is the PurPose o[:
i the tesGtube? { Name three factors that affect the rate o[ a rcaction,
ii the gas syringe? and describe the effect of changing each factor.
b How would you gei the reaction to start?
5 Sugtlrt. te son fot each oI the followitlt
2 Some sragnesium and an rrc?ts of dilute hydrochloric obsgvrtions:
acid erc.eacted totctter. Tlte volume of hydrogen e Magnesiun powder Eacls (aster thin m.tnesium
produccd was recordad every minute, as shown in the ribbo& with dilute sulphuric acid.
rl table: b Hydt!ryen Peroxide deoomPcec much {aster i[ you
Time/mirr 0123 4 5 67 add a piece of raw liver, But boiled liver has no effect
orr it.
Volume of c Th€ reaction betw€en mantan6e carbonate and
hydrogen/cmr 0 14 23 31 38 ,t0 ,lO ,tt) dilute hydrochloric .cid sP€eds uP when some
concentrated hydrochloric acid is added.
a What does an ercess of acid mean? d Znc powder burns much morc vigorously in
b Plot a graph of the results, labelling ihe axes as on oxygen than zinc foil does.
page l2'1. e The reaction between sodium thiosulPhate and
c how mr.rch hydrogen was prcduced in: hydrcc-hloric acid tak6 a very lont time if carried out
i the filst minutc? in an ict bath.
ii the second minute? f Zinc and dilute sulphuric acid rc.ct much more
iii the third minute? quickly when a few dropc of copper(ll) sulphate
iv the fourth minute? solution are added.
v the fiIth minute? t DE[ching with water Prevents too much damage
d What is the rate of the reoction \cmt ot hydrogen per ftom spilt acid.
minute) during each minute? h A car's exhaust piP€ will rust faster i{ th€ car is used
e What is the total volume of hydrogen produced in a lot.
the reaction? i ln fireworks, powdered magnesium is used rather
f How many minutes pass before the reaction than magrrsium ribbon.
finishes? i ln this country, dead animals decdy quite quickly.
g What is the aretoSe ralc oI the reaction? But in Siberia, bodies of mamroths that died 30 000
h A similar reaction had a rate of 15 cm] of hydrogen in years ato have been found fully preserved in ice.
the first minute. ls this a slower or fasler reaction than k The more sweet thints you eat, the faster your teeth
the one above? decay.
How could you make the above reaction Bo I Food cook much faster in a Pressure cooket than in
slower, while still using the same quantities of metal an ordinary saucepan.
and acid? m A conentrated solution of bleach is used for
t low could you make it go faster? rcmoving stains.

6 lvlren scdirrm thiosulphate reacts with hydrochloric When chlorine gas is passed over iodine, the
acid, a precipitate forms. In an investitation, the tirne lollowint reactions take place.
taken fo. the solution to become opaque was recorded. R..ctlon 1: Ir (s) +CIr(t) > 2lcl(l)
(@qle means that you cannol see lhrough it.) brown
Fou. experiments (A to D) were ca.ried out. Only the
con!.enlration of ihe sodium thiooulphate solution w.s
Rc..tion 2: lcl (l) +CL(t) r: ICL(s)
changed each time. The lesults were:
brcwn yellow
r What would you see wh€rf,
I chlorine is first passed oves the iodine?
Erperiment ll nore chlorine is pass€d over it?
Timc tak€tuscconds 42 71 124 63
b Which of the reactions cln be rrlrrscd ?
c What chante would you see as the chlorine gas
supply is tumed off? Explain your answer.
r Draw a dia6ram of suirabl€ apparatus ,or this
experiment. 9 Hydrogen and bromine Eact togcther like this:
b Nam" the precipitaie that forms. Hr(8) + Brrk) + 2HBr(8)
c What would be olsen.d durint the exPerimeni? e Which ot the foliowing will {avour the formation of
d In wnich experir:rent 'ras the leaction: morc hydrcgen bromide?
I fastest? li slow6t? I Adding morc hydrcgen.
e In which experimcni was the sodium thiosulphate ii Removing bromine.
solution mo6t concentrated? How can you tell? lii Removing the product -s it is formed.
f Sugtest two other ways of speeding up this b Expiain why increasing the prEssure has no effect
reaction. on theamount oI HBr iormed.
l0 Ammorria is manufacured lrom nitrogen and
7 Copper(ll) oxide catalyses the decurposition o{ hydrogen. AH*n* -- -92kf /mol.
hydrogen peroxide,0.5 g of the oxkle was edded to a r Wtite the cqu.tion for the rcaction.
,lask containinB l00cm1of hydrcgen Froxide b What does /H*6, mean?
solution. A gas was released. tt wes collectcd end ita
c ls tlre forward r€action endottprmlc or exothermic?
volume noted every l0 secords. This table showa thc
How can you tell?
tesults: d Explainwhy the leld of ammonia:
I rises if you increase the preseure
Timr/sec 0 l0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 li falls il you increase the temp€rature
c Why is the reaction carried out at 450"C
Volumdcml 0 18 30 {O {8 53 57 58 58 58 Iather thrn a lower temper.ture?
11 The dichromate and chromrte ions, Cr2O1r and
a What is a catalyst? CtO.l-, exist in equilibrium as bllows:
b Draw a diagram of suitable apparatus for this crro,l- (aq) + H:o(l)+ 2cror':- (a{) +2H. (aq)
exPedment. orante yellow
c Name the gas that is formed.
d Write a balanced equation for the decomposition a What would you see if you added dilute acid to a

o{ hydrogen peroxide. solution containing chromate ions?

e Plot a graph of the volume of gas (vertical axis) b How would you revers€ the change?
atainst time (hodzontal axis), c Use L€ Chatelier's principle to explain why
adding hydroxide ions shifts the equilibrium.
f Desctibe how the rate charyes duriry th€
reaclion. 1!2 The erwymepolyphenoridas€ is involved in the
g What happens to the concentration of hydrogm oxidation Eaction that causes slicd apple to turn
peroxide as the reaction proceeds? brown in air. Explain the followtg observations.
h What chemicals are prcsent in the flask rfter 90 r Wtren the apple is first cut operl the flesh is not
secpnds? brown.
i What mass o[ coppe(Il) oxidc would be left in the b Browning is much slower when the sliced apple is
flask at the end of the reaction? placed in the fridge.
i Sketch on your graph th€ curve that might b€ c No browning takes plac€ if the apple is placed in
obtained for 1.0 t of coppe(ll) oxide. boiling water for 30 seconds straight after slicint.
k Name one other chemical that catalyses this d Apple that has been pulped in a food mixer turns
decomposition. brcwn much fastet than sliced apple does.
I A catalyst works by lowering the acliur tion .nrrgy tot c The browning reaction does not take place if the
a reaction. Explain what lhat means. sliced apple is dipped in lemon luicc straight away.
Questions on Section 9

Rewrite the Iollowint, choosint the correi word frcm t Do tilese prcFrties belong to acids, alkalis, or both?
each pair in brackets. a Sour taste.
Acids are compounds which di$olve in watet 8ivint b pH Yalues $eate! than 7.
(hydrogen/hydroxide) ions. Sulphuric.cid ir one c Ch.nte the colou! of litmus. is. (strong/weak) acid, which can be d Soapy to touch.
neutralized by (acids/altalis) to form salts cailed c Soluble in water.
(nitrates/sulphates). { May be strong or weak.
Many (metals/nonrnetals) reacl withacids to give t Neutralize bases.
(hydrogen/carbon dioxide). Acids react with h Form ions in water.
(chlorides/carbonates) to give (chlorirr/carbon i Dengerous to handle.
dioxide). i Form salts with certain other chemicals
Solutions ol acids .re (good /poor) conductors of k Usually rr.d with metals.
€lectricity. They also affect indicators. For example, is insoluble in water but
5 A and B are erhite powders. A
phenolphthalein turns ( pink / colourless) in acids,
B issoluble and its solution has a pH of 3.
while litmus tirins (red/blue).
A E ittutt ot A arKi B bubbies or effen'esc* in waler.
The strength ofarr aeid ls shown by iis (ccirc€ntntion/
A trs is given oti and a clear solution forms.
pH) number, Til€ (hither/lower) the number, the
strcnger the acid,
r Orr of the white powders it AorB?
D The other white powder is a c.tbonale. What 8as is
Alkalis are compounds that dissolve inwater giving
(hydrogen,/hydroxide) iors. They have a pH number tiven off in the reaction?
(treater/less) than 7. c Alihowh A is insolubl€ in wat€r, a clear solution
forms when the mixturc of A and B is added to water.
2 This is a brief description ofa neutralization reaction. Explain why.
'25 cmr of potassium hydroxide solution was placed in
a flask and a few drops of phenclphthalein were 6 The cheurical name (or asPirin is
added. Dlute hydrochloric acid was added until the 2rthrnoylorybcnzoic rcid.
indicator changed was Iound that 21 cm' o[ This acid is soluble in hot water.
e How would you expect an aqueous solution of
acid was us€d,'
e Draw a labelled diagram of titration appatatus Ior aspirin to affect litnrus paper?
this nedtralization. b Do you think it is a stront acid or a weak one?
E (pliin why you thinl so.
b What pic'ce of appa.atus should he us€d lo measure
25 cml ofsodium hydroxide solution acor.ately? c What would you erPect to s€e when baking soda is
c What colour was the solution in the flask at the start edded to an equeous solution o( asPirin?
o( th€ titration? 7 lnsoluble lalts c.n be made by reactint two soluble
d What colour did it tum when the alkali had been chemicals together.
neuiralized? r what is this type of reaclion called?
e Was the acid more concrntrat€d or less concenttated b For each pair of solutioN, name the salt iormed
than the alkali? Explain you. answer. (You may need to look.t the table on Page 1'18.)
I Name the salt {ormed in this neutlalization. i silver nitrate and sodium chloride
I Write an equation for the rcaction. ii sodium carbonate and lead(tl) nitrate
h How would you obtain ptre crystals of the salt? iii ammonium sulphate and barium chloride
3 The table below is about the preparation of salts. iv ma$resium sulphate ard calcium chloride
Copy it and 6ll in the missing details. c Write a balanced equation fot each reaction.

Method oI Reactants Salt forme d Other prcducts

. acid + alkali calcium hydroxide and nitric acid calcium nitrate water
b acid + metal zinc and hydrcchloric acid
c acid + alkali ................ and potassium hydroxide potassium sulphate water only
d acid + carbonate and ........................ sodium chloride water and
€ acid + metal .^, iron(ll) sulphate
f acid + .................... nitric acid and sodium hydroxide
g acid + base ............................. and coppe(tl) oxide copper(lt) sulphate
h acid + .................... enrl copper(ll) sulphate carbon dioxide and
i precipitation silver nitrate and potassium chloride
jprecipitation lead nitrate and potassium iodide

8 Slaketi iime, Ca(OH)1, is spaiintly soluble in water. 11 lVrshing so<ia is crystals of hydrated sodium
It forms an alkalin€ solution called lime water. Its carbonate, Na1COl.rHrO. The value of r can be found
solubility can b€ {ound by titratint a saturated by titration. ln the experiment,2t of hydrated
solution of lrme water with a standard solution of sodium carbonate neutralized 14cmr of a standard
hydrochloric acid, using methvl ornnge as irdicator. 1M solution of hydrochloric acid.
a What is a snlrrrated solution? r Write a balanced equation for the reection.
b V,'hat is the chemrcai rume for slaked lime? b Holv many moles of HCI were neutralized?
c Which ion mates the solution alkaline? c How many moles oI sodium carbonate, NarCOr,
d Which ion from the aciC reacts with this ion? were present in 2g o{ the hyd.ated salt?
e Write an ionic equation lor the neutralization. d What mass of sodium carbonate, NarCO., is this?
(RAMs: Ca =,$. C:12, O=t6)
9, t'he neutralization of l0 cmr of citric acid (C"HgO,) by c What mass o{ thc hydrated sodium carbonate was
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was investigated by water?
titrdtion. Tlre citric acid solution contained 9.5gldmr f How inany moles o( water iE this?
of the acid. The sodium hydroxide solution contained g How many moles of water are there in 1 mole
4.0 B/dmr oi the alkali. The sodiuEr hydroxide
of NarCOr.rHrO?
solution u'as placed in the burette. The icsults o( the h Write the F,:ll formula for washing soda.
titration were as follows:
12 These diagrams show the stages in the preparation of
Tit..tion number copp€r(ll) ethano.te, which is a sa'lt of ethanoic acid.

2nd burette readint (cmr) 15.1 30.1 45.0

I powdered
copper(lI) carbonale
1st burette reading (cmr) 0.0 l5.l 30.1

a Calculate the concentration of the citric acid

solution. (RAMs: C:12, O=16,H=f )
b How many moles of C"tl"O werc used?
c Name a suitable Mlcator br ttre titration.
d What colour change would tudicate the
end point of the titration?
e Calculate the conc€ntratign of the sodiurn coppe(ll) elharoaie
hydroxide solution. (RAM: Na -23)
f Work out the average volume ofsodium
hydroxide solution used in the titration.
g Flow marry moles of NaOH does this
h How many moles of NaOH will neutralize
I mole of C"H5O,? Y/-rrrrrare
i Write a balanced equation for the neutralization.

10 a Divide the followint salts into soltrbL in wter a d.

insoluble in
sodium chlodde
calcium carbonate
potassium chloride
barium sulphate a Which gas is given off in state ii ?
barium carbonate b Write a word equation for the reaction in stage ii.
silver chloride c How can you tell wheh the rcaction is complete?
sodium citrate d Which reactant is completely used up in the
zinc chloride reaction? Explain your answer.
sodium sulphate e Why is copper(ll) carbonate powder used, rather
coppe(ll) sulphate than lump6?
lead sulphate f Name the residue in state iv.
lead nitrate t Write a list of instructions {or carrying out this
sodium carbonate preparation in the laboratory.
ammonium carbonate h Suggest another copper compound that could be
b Now write down two stariing compounds that used instead of coppe([l) carbonate, to make
could be used to make each insoll&le salt. copper(ll) ethanoate.
Questions on Section 10

I This table shows how we thinl the composition of 3 Look again at tire table of tases in question l.
the atmosphe.e has chanted over the last {ew r Name one gas not listed in the table which is
thousand million years. present in very smallquantities in air.

b i Name one gas not lisie.d in the table which
Percentagc of Brsas in rlmosphc.e helps tc protect s trom harrnful raCiation.
Miilions of ycers e6o ll Where is this gas found?
{5m 4000 3U00 2m0 !fi)o Now i|l Erplain how it helps to protect us.
hydrogen 5 31C00 This gas is an__ ofoxygen, O..
What is the missint word?
carbon 90 30 l0 5 0.03 0.03
dioxide { This table compares the concenlration ofsome ions in
nilroten 5 406575n78 dver and sea wat.r. For cxample,5070 of the cations
oxyEen 0 0 0 0 15 2t in river waier are calcium ions, while only 6% of the
cations in s€a waler are calcium ions.
r Plot a graph of the data, showing all four curves on
the same graph. (Use a full sheet of graph paper. Colcentration (rs % o( all cations pics?nt)
Show time on the r axis and grrcentaga ofgas on the in river wetcr in sel water
y axis.)
b About when d,id oxyten 6rst appear? Cal' 50 6
iiExplain how it was Iormd. Na' 20 75
c Which gas once pr€sent in very large quantities
is rcduced to only a small quantity today? Con(rntr.tion (.s 7o of ell anions prcscnt)

ii Suttest ways in which this tas was .emoved in river water in sel water the atmospherc. HCO, 70 2
d Do you think the compooition ot air i5 likely to cl- 20 80
change much over the next million years? Give
reasons to support your answer.
. Which cation is prEsent in a much hither
2 The bar charts below show the compGition of the corEentration in the sea than in rivers? Why?
atmospheres on Venus, Earth, ard Mars. b Calcium and hydrogen carbonate ions are present
in much lower concentration in sea water than in
river water. Why?
Ps0 u FI 5 The water o{ the Dead S€a contains 23Ot oI dissolved
$ao H solids in every litre (dm,) of water. The 6gure for
E70 11 H most other sea water is about 35g. River water has
;6O f,
less than 1g otdissolved solids in every litre.
6s0 l H H
e Why is the value lor river water so much lower
930 H
H than for sea water?
Izo E trl
,H b Where do the dissolved subatances in sea water
de l0 u u come from?
H-_ IJ H- H.
9 g AE
i| ta
9p o6 9_E
c Sutgest reasons why Dead Sea water contains more
dissolved solids than other sea water does.
a: o c
6 The rcrrvcs of a metal are the size of its known ore
; deposits that are considercd worth mining. ln 196t)

a Earth lies between Venus arxl Mars. What would

the reserves of aluminium were put at ll
600 million
tonrcs. They were expected to tast 300 yean. By 1990
you pradicl the composition of its atmosphere to be? they had increas€d to 21 700 million tonnes but wer€
b How does your prediction 6t with the actual expected to last only 194 years,
6gures? t Give iaro reasons why a reserve figure is di{ferent
c Venus is often called Eafth's twin, since it has from the actual amount of the metal left in Earth,s
almost the same size and density. crust.
iAt the start, Ea h's atmosphere was similar to b Give reasons why the figure for aluminium
that of Venus. What caus€d it to chante? reserves increased between 1960 and 1990.
ii What conclusions can you draw about Venus? c Suttest why the prediction for the lifetime of these
d The planet Mercury is the smallest planet in our reserves was reduced a]lhe same time.
solar system, and closest to the Sun. Mercury has
d lt is very difficult to p.edict the lifetime of known
practically no atmosphere. Suggest a reason.
reserves accurately. Why is this?
7 The materiais fo. makint tlass are soda ash, Limeston€ is calcium carbonate, CaCO.. lt is quarried
limeslone, and sand. Recycted glass is also add€d to ona huge scale.
the mixture. e Whichelements are present in it?
r Match each name below to a material ebove. b Calculate the percentage ofcalcium in calcium
i cal.ium carbonate carbonate. (RAMs: C - 12, O:16 Ca = 40)
ii silicon oxide c Muclr oI the linreston€ th.fs qu.rri€d is used to
iii soCium ca.borute makc quick!ime (CaO) for the steel industry.
b Write down the formulae for thc three compou:rds i
What is the chemical name fo. quicklime?
in a. ii
How much quicklime would be obtained from
c What is anoth€r name for recycled glass? 1000 tonnes of limestone?
d Why is it a tood idea to add recycled glass io the d Powdered limestone is us€d to improve lhe wate.
mixture? Give sevcral reasons. quality in acidified lakes.
e Draw a sirnple diagram to show ihe structure of i
Suggest how the water mitht havc become
tlass. (Hint: us€ the index!) acidified in the first place.
I For bottles, a s€nsible alternative to recyclint is to
How does limestone improve its quality?
Why is the limestone powdered?
'rash lhem thorouthly and then ciil lhem. c You liv3 in a limestone area. A new limestone
This table con pares enerty costs in the ia.tory [o]
quarry is being propos€d for the area List the
returnable and non-rcturnable bgttl€s.
advantates ard disadvantates to local people.
EnerBy needed (Mr) RetumableNon-returnable 11 Aluminium is the most abundant metai ln Larth's
crust, but more and mo.e of it is beir€ rccycled.
to make bottle 7.5 1.7
to wash and fill bottle 2.6 2.5
. Why is it worth recycling aluminium?
b A 500 g roll o{ alurrrinium foil from a sup€rmarket
costs around €2.50. Calculate the co6t o, a tonne of
e Whal does MJ stand for? this maaerial. (1 tonne: fm kd
b More energy is used to r,ralr r rcturnable bottl€ c The cost of blocks of aluminium from the factory is
than a non-retudrable one. Suggest a rcason. about €950 per tonne. Comprrc this with your answer
c ln your factory you hav€ to make. choics betw€en for b, and explain any difference.
non-returnable bottlcs, or returnable bottles which
you will wash and rc611. 12 Some copper ores are high $ade, and some are low
i Which is cheaper in terms of energy: to make a grade. This shows how the augra8? trade of copper
return ble bcttle and tet it bacl onc€ for orer mined in th€ United Statcs h.,s changed over the
refillin& or to make two non-returruble bottles? years l9ll-1991.
ii What is the minimum number of times you 2or
would have to wash and refill a reiurnable
bottle, to makc this the cheaper option?
d So far you have considered the eneryy costs within
the factory. What other enetty cosls .re involved in
o ,c.1 \ A
ie 10 \.-=--t=*
recycling bottles?
9 Cement is an important building material. A typical
cem€nt contains about 60% calcium oxide and 25%
silicon oxide. o 1950 1970 1990 Year
a Name the raw material that is the source for:
i calcium oxide ii silicon oxide a What is: i a high-yade ore? ii alow-grade ore?
b What is the main use o( c€ment? b Which is more profitable to mine?
c When water is added to cement, an exothermic c Around which year was the average trade of
reaction ocrurs in which calcium silicate (CaSiOJ is mined ore highest? Can you suggest a reason?
formed. d As you can see, the overall trend on the graph is
i Write a balanced equation for the formation towards low-grade ore.
of calcium silicate. i What do€s this sugtest about the copper
ii How could you tell a chemical rcaction is mines in th€ United Stater?
(xcurrint? ii What does it sugtest about the demand for
iii Is the r€action reversible? Explain your answei. coPPer?
Questions on Section l1

1 Copy and complete tile followint par.traph: 3 Air is a ;rrirlrrc oi diflerent 6,ases.
Air ii a ... ... ... of ditfercni of it consists e Which gas makes up about 78% oI the nir?
ofthe two elements ... ... ,.. and ...... .... One of b Only one gas in th€ mixture will allow things to
these, ... ... .,., is needed for respiration, which is bum in it. VJhich gas is this?
the process by which livint thints obtain the c How are the gases in the mixture separ.ted from
......... they need. The two elements abovecanbe each other, in industry?
... ...... from liquid rir by... ... ...... ... ..., d Which noble gas is present in the tt€atGt amount
because they have dilferenl ... ... ...... ... .... in .ir?
Much of the . .. . .. . . . obtain€d iE uscd to make ritdc c Which tas containint sulphur is a mairr caus€ of
acid and fertilizers. Some o, the remainint l% of ai. air pollution?
consists of two compourds, ... ... ... ani ... ... .... f Name two other tases that contribute to air
One of these is importait because it is taken in by ;nllution.
plants, in the prercnce of ... ... ..., to form ... ... .... g Name onc s'rbstance which is not. tas but which
The rest of the air is made up ofelements called the also pollutes the air.
... ...,... These are all members of Group ... of the a ln the catalytic converters 6tted to new carc, carbon
Periodic Table.
monoxide and oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust gas
2 Oxygen anci nitroten, the iwo main tases in ait are are conve.ted [o oth€r substances
both slightly soluble in water. Usint th€ apparatus e Explain why we want to remove these tases.
below, a sample of water was boiled until 100 cmtr of b What is meant by a cdaalytic re.ction?
dissolved air had been collected. c In one catalytic reaction, nitrcgen monoxide (NO)
reacts with carbon monoxide to form nitrogen and
c.rbon dioxide. Write an equation for this.
d Name one air pollution problem that is rcl solved
by the us€ of catalytic converters.

5 One cause of hard wate! is th€ reaction between

calcirrEr carbonats, .arbon dioxide, and water.
r lvrite the equation for this Eaction, (Note: it is a
reversible reaction.)
b Name the soluble compound formed.
ci Which ion causes the hardness?
ii Why does this ion affect the ability ofsoap to
form a good lather?
This air was then passed over heated copper lts final d i
How can the equilibrium reaction be reversed?
volume was 57cmr. ii
Why does this remove hardness from water?
a ls air more soluble or l€ss solubl€ in water, as the iii
What is this type of hardness called?
temperaturc ris€s? How can you tell? r You can alrc remove hardness from water using
washing soda. Write an equation for lhis.
b The copper reacts with the oxygen in the dissolved
air. Write an equation for the Eaction. 6 ln an ion exchange column for softening water,
c Draw a diagram of the apparatus us€d for passint calcium and magnesium ions are replaced by sodium
air over heated copper. ions. The total charge on the ion exchange resin must
d What volume of oxytm was pres€nt in 100cmr of always be zero.
dissolved air? r Write the formulae for the thrce metal ions.
r Calclriate the approximate percentates o[ oxygen b How many sodium ions will be exchanged for:
and nitroten in dissolved air. i onecalcium ion? ii one matnesium ion?
I What are the percentages of these tas€s in c After a time, the ion exchanger will no longer
atmospheric air? remove hardness. Why?
g Explain why the answers are different, for parts c d The rcsin is regencraled usint a concentrated
and f. solution of sodium chloride. Explain this.
h Which tas is more soluble in water. nitrogen or c Calolate the maximum mass of calcium ion that
oxygen? could be removed by 100g o{ sodium chloride.
i What is the biological importance of air dissolved (Metal ions have the same mass as their atoms. The
in water? RAMs are: Na = 23, Cl=35.5, Ca =40.)


1 Shaken with soap solution p<ror lather good lather poor !ather
2 Boiled first and then shaken withsoap gocd lather Bood lather poor lather
3 Some bath salts added, shaken with soap good lather good lather Sood lather
solution after filtering

7 Some samples of water wet€ t$ted in the laboratory. Ir Nam€ the two elements from which water is made.
The results are shov.,n in the table above. b Name a solid which is verv soluble in water.
a Only one cf the samples could have been pu;e c N.m€ r metal which reacts quickly with cold
water. Which one? Explain your answer. water.
b The other two samples were both from hard warer d Derribe an experiment you could carry out in the
areas. labcratory to find out whether tap water contains any
iWhich contained remporar,v haidness? disso!ved sr-rlids.
Which contained p€rmanent hardness? e Describe a method o[ conrpletely rehovint
Exglain how you were able to tell th.m apart. dissolved solids from tap water.
( Name one substance that could cause the hardness
in sample C.
10 25 cmr samples of water from four different areas
were tested with soap solution, to see how much soap
8 A distilled water soluticn was needed for a lather that lasted at least
B tap watel half a minute. The experiment was repeated a second
C calcir.rm hydroxide solution time using samples that had been boiled, and then a
D sodium chloride solution thild time using samples that had been passed
E unknown solution through an ion exchanter. The rcsults are shown in
Ten drops of soap solution were added to l0cmrof the table below.
each o( the above liquids. After shaking lor I minute,
these heithts of lather were obtained:
Volume of soap solutiotu(m!
Sample Untreated Boiled Passed through
ion erchanger

"'M.""M 5cm
C 25 20 1.9
H w H
1.E 1.8 1.8

BC D E . Which o( the samples is th€ hardest water? Why do

you think so?
. Does the tap water come from a hard water or soft b Which sample behaves like distilled water?
water area? Explain your answer. Explain your choice.
b Does sodium chloride form a precipitate with the c Decide whether the hardness is temporary
soap solution? Explain your answer. permanent, or botlr in:
c Does calcium hydroxide cause hardness? How can i
sample A
you tell from the experiment? ll
sample B
d What can you say about liquid E, the unknown lll cample C
solution? d Name a chemical which could be responsible for
e Another sample of solution E was boiled for 5 the hardness in:
minutes, and then the test repeated. This time a lather i
sample A
hei8ht of 8cm was obtained. Explain this result. ii
sample B
f What result would you expect for a further sample c Write an equation for the reaction in which the
F, which is water from an ion exchanger? temporary hardness is removed, in samples A and C.
I What results would be obtained, using l0 drops of f Explain how an ion exchanger removes hardness
a soapless detergent in place of the soap solution? from water.
Questions on Section 12

I Read the followint passate about the physical { This shows metals in order of.eactivity:
properties of metals. gic/julz (mosl rerclive)
Elements are divided into metals and nonmetals. colciunt
All metals are g!9q!gig{3999!gg!919. Mary of them ,4agnesium
have a hi6h g!g4qi!v and they are usually g!ggl!!9 and zinc
malleablS. AII these properties inlluence ih€ way the iron
metals are used. Some metals are !98!99!.nd this lead
leads to special uses for them. @Ppet
r Explain the meaning of ihe words urxderlined. sihn (lasl reaclioe)
b Copp€r is ductile. How is this property useful in a Whichelement is stored in oil?
everyday life? b Which elements will leact with cold water?
c Aluminium is hamm€r€d and bent to make c Choose one metal that will not reac with cold
larye structures for use in ships and aeroplanes. water but will re.ct withsteani. Draw a diagram of
What property is imPlrtant in the shaping of this
suitable apparatus to demonstrate this reaction.
metal? (You must show how the stcarr. is ploduced.)
d Name one metal that has a loar density. d Name the gas given off in b and c.
e Some metals arE cast into bells. What property c Name another Eagent that Eacts with metals to
must the chosen metals have? give the same tas.
, Add the conect wotd:. Metals ate g@d conductots oJ I Which of the metals will nol react with oxyten
... ..... and electticity. when heated?
t Name one other physical ploperty of metals and g How does iron react when heatd in oxygen?
give two examples of how this property is use{ul.
h How would you expect: i lead ii calcium
2 a Write a short passate, like that in question l, about to Ieact when heated in oxygen?
the physical properties of nonmetals. (Hint look at the table on page 192 and the full
t{ b Give one way in which the clre,n liral properties of reactivity series on pate l!)6.)
;t nonmetals and metals diffur.
5 l,ook atain at the list of metals in question 4.
c Name tu,o nonmetab which each show a metallic
Because zinc is more.eactive than iron, it will remove
property, and describe the proFrty.
the oxygen from iron(lll) oxide, on heating.
3 From this list, choos€ elements to match the a Write a word equation for the reaction.
descriptions below: b D€cide whether these chemicals will react totether,
iron argon
aluminium chlorine when heated;
iodine gold sulphur carbon i magnesium + Iead(ll) oxide
brcmine copper potassium hydroten ii copper + lead(ll) oxide
A a black solid which.onducts electricity and
iii magnesium + copper(ll) oxide
cannot be melted in the school laboratory
iv iron + magnesium oxide
B a yellow solid which burns with a blue llame
c For those that react:
C a grey-black sotid which forurs a purple vapour
i describe what you would see
D a dense pale tleen gas which kills bacteria
ii write a word equation
E a pinkish brown solid which conducts electricity
iii write a balanc€d equation.
but do€s not rcact with dilute hydrochlodc acid
d What name is given to reactions o( this type?
F a red-brown liquid which reacts with iron to form 5 When matnesium powder is added to copper(ll)
a solid product sulphate solutioo solid copper forms. This shows
G a gas which does not react with anythint and is that magnesium is more reactive than copper.
used as the inert gas in tungsten litht bulbs a Write a word equation for the reaction.
H a solid which is attracted to a matnet and forms b Us€ the list of metals in question 4 to decide
coloured compounds whether these will react together:
I a {airly reactive solid which appears to be inactive i iron + copper(tl) sulphate solution
because of a surface oxide layer ii silver + calcium nitrate solution
J a solid which reacts violently with water and iii zinc + lead(tl) nitrate solution
burns with a lilac flame c For those that react:
K a flammable gas which is lighter than air and i describe what you would see
burns to form water ii write a word equation
L a coloured solid which is very dense and iii write a balanced equation.
chemically unreactive. d What name is given to rcactions of this type?

,.3 7 This table sholvs the densitie3 of some metals: 9 Chromium is a typical transition metal. lt reacts with

E M€tal Density (g/cmr)

hydrochloric acio in a similar lvay to iron. It forms a
green ion with the formula CC*.
r i What would you see when chromium is added
aluminium 2.7
to dilute hydrochloric acid?
calcium 1.6
coPPer 8.9
ii Write
a balanced equation for the teaction.

gold r9.3
b i
VJhat wculd you see if powdered chromium
was added to copper(ll) sulphate solution?
iron 7.9
lead 11.4
Write a balanced equation for this teaction.
c Chromium can be obtained from its oxide by
matnesium 7.7
heating with zinc metal,
sodium o.97
i Which is more reactive, chromium or zinc?
r Arrange the metals in order of inceasing density.
ii Write a balanced equation for the rcaction.
d Chromium can also be obtained at the cathode by
i What is meant by dsrsifv? electrolysis of a solution containing the Cf* ion.
ii Which r.retal is least dense? l^,lrite an ionic equation for the cathode rcaction.
iii Whrch one is nrest dense? e Anothei transition netal, titairium, is extracted
iv A biock of metal has a "olume of 20cmr and a from its chloride by heating with sodiuin. yJhat can
mass of 1589. Which metal is it?
you say about its reactiviti?
b Arrange the metals in order o{ reactivity.
i What is the density of the most Eactive metal? 10 Nickel is betow iron but above lead in the reactivity
ii What is tlre density of the least rc.ctiv€ metal? seri€s. Use the series to predict the reaction of nickel:
iii Does there appear to be a relationship . on heating in air
betwe€n density and reactivity? If yes, what? b with cold water
c Using low-density metals for vehicles saves money c with concent ra ted hydrochioric acid
in terms oI fuel costs and road and rcpaiE. d on heating with copper(ll) oxide
Explain why. c when it is placed in a solution of lead nitrate.
d Which of the lowdensity melals above is the most 11 Use the reactivity s€ries to explain why:
suitable for vetricles? Why? Give three reasons.
e What would first need to be done to this metal to
r calcium is not used br household articles
make it stront enough for use in vehicles?
b copper is used for water pipes
( Sutgest some substances you could use {or part e, c powdered magnesium can be used in fireworks
and explain your choice.
d gold is an excellent material for fillint teeth
12 Writeequations for the reactions that occur when:
8 Strips of copper foil and magnesium ribbon were
a matnesium reacts with steam
cleaned with sandpaper and then connectd as
shown below. The bulb lit up.
b zirrc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid
c aluminium is heat€d with ircn(lll) oxide
d copper wire is placed in silver nitrate solution.
26V 06v 08v
Ia5 -=
copper loil magnesrum fibborr

sulphuric acid

a Why wete the metals cleaned with sandpaper?

ffi 'r1,
b Name the electrolyte used. acid copper acid copper acid copper
c Explain why the bulb lit up.
d Which is the more reactive of the two metals? Look at the three cells above,
e Which rcleases electrons into the circuit? a How can you tell that lhe three unknovrn metals
f In this arrangement, enerty is beint changed from are all more reactive than copper?
one form to another. Explain. b Place the metals in order, most reactive first.
B What is this type of arEntement called?
( What voltage would be obtained if the cell was
h Give two tood reasons why this particular constructed using: i AandB? ii BandC?
arantement could not be used commercially as a d For each of the cells in c statewhich metal is the
battery. negative terminal.
Questions on Section 15

srup 2> srci)3

l tonne ( 1000 kg) 1okg ol 2 5 kg ol almost 2 5 kq ol
ol rock + copFer ore concenl(aled copper orc cupt-,.r. 999" p ne copper. 99 Itb purc

The diagram above shows stag6 in obtaining copper opened and water tanks and shower blocks buih. The
from a low-grade ore. This ore contains coPP€!(li) average life span has risen to around 50. Atound
sulphide, CrrS. lt may also containsr,ull amounts o( €10 millicn a vear is paid l.: the villages in wages and
silver, gold, platinum, iron, zinc, cadmium, and leas€ payments. Now peopie buy thei. food in slorcs
arsenic. and cook on cookers in their kitchens instead of
. What is an ort? outsidc on open fires. Some even fly to Pcri Moresby,
b What is a lour-grade ore? a 2 hour fli8ht away, to go shoppint.
c What narne is given to the waste ro(k in an ore? Every dav around 80 000 tonnes of waste are washed
d i what process is us€d in step I to corrctntrate from lhe mine into the Ok Tedi river. This has killed
the sulphide ore? Explail how it work. fish and flooded food tardens. The rain forest is
ii The waste nraterial from this process is in the dyint as tree rcots get submcryed. The !illa8es
form of mud. Explain why. nearesl the mine sulfer from clouds ofdust and
c i What process is carricd out in step Z to €xtract fumes, The men, who in the past would have hunted
the copper from the orc? all dey, now sit idly smokint and (hewint betelnut.
p' ii Write an €quation for the rcaction. No one fishes or swims .ny more.
iii I IMt is this type o{ reaction called?
iv The copper is 9% pure. Sutgest some ln 1994,landowners livint downstream from the
impurities it may contain. mine lodted a writ in an Australian court claimint
f i What pioc€ss is carried out at step 3 to prrrify nearly €2 billion cornpensation from the mining
the metal? (Hint: try page 110.) company for damage to h€alth and the environment.
ii What will the main co6t in thG pro.ess b€? But in 1995 the Papua New Cuinea government made
iii As w€ll as purc copper, this process may it illetal for its people to claim for damaSes.
produce other valuable substances. Explain. Artuments about the case continue.
t List all the environmental problems that may aris€ a Write a list of all the benefits
the mine has brought
in going from A to D. to the local people. Divide them into social and
2 Read this passate. economic benefits.
b Now write a list of the problems it has broutht.
In 1981 a copper mine opened at Ok Tedi in Papua Divide them into suitable groups.
New Guinea. Cold is found with the copper at this c what problems are likely to arise in the future
mine. lt produces 2fi) 000 tonnes of copper a year and when the mine closes down? Suggest as many as
350 000 ounces o( gold. The pint owners are BHP, an
you can.
Australian company (52%), Metall Mining d Does the mine benefit the rest of Papua New
Corporation, a Caudiancompany (18%), and the Guinea? Explain.
tovernment oI Papua New Guinea (30%). ? Why did the mining company spend so much on
Before the mine opened, around 35 000 villagers lived inlrastruct ure?
in small clusters of bush huts arourd the ar€a. They f Who tains most of the profits from the mine?
lived by fishing, huntint, and gowint crops in their t why might the government of Papua New Cuinea
food gardens. There were no schools or health care, have decided to make claims (or damages illegal?
and the average life span was not much more than 30. h On balance, based on the inlormation above, do
Many people died from malaria. you feel the local people have a right to
Since then, the minint company has sp€nt around
1170 million on buildint roads and other 3 List l0 goqis and l0 services we would not enioy if
inlrastructure. S.hools and health centres have been thcrc was no nrining.
Some information about the €\tractiorr of four 7 Many metals are more useful when mixed with other
different metals is shown below. elements thall when they are pure.
r What name is given to the
Formula of Mcthod of b What metals ale found in these mixiures?
main ore crtredion b,oss solda stainlcss steel fiqngonas,- sleel
Iron Fe,O, Heatint with carbon
c Describe the useful properties of each mixture.
Aluminium AlrOr.2HrO Electroly"is 6 Bauxite is the hydrated oxide of a metal. The
Copper CurS Rcastint the ore metal is extracted (rorn it by electrclygis.
Sodiun NaCl Electrolysis e Which metal is extracied from bauxite?
b The compound cryolite is also need€d for the
a Give the chemical name of each ore. extraction. Why is this?
b Arrante ihe four metals in order of ttactivity. ( What are the electrodes madc of?
c How are the more reactive metals extracted? d i Ai which electrode is the metal obtained?
d i
How is the least reactive metal extracted? ii Write .n equation for the reaction that takes
Why can't this method be us€d lor lhe more place at this electrode.
reaclive metais? c i Vy'hat product is released at the other
e Aluminium is a lot more expensive than iron even electrode?
though both 016 a.e relatively cheap. Why is this? ii
This product reacts with the electrode itself.
fWhich of tte methods would you ur€ to extract: What problem does that cause?
potassium? ii
lead? iii magn€sium? f Give threc uses of the metal obtained.
(Hint look at the r€activity series on page 196.) t To imprcve its ltcsistance to corro3ion, th€ metal is
tGold is a metal found native in th€ Eadh's crust. o(tm anodized. How is this carried out? What
Explain what,utitr means. happens to the surtace df the metal?
h Whcre should gold go, in yourlist for b? 9 e Draw a diagram o[ the blast {urnace.
I Name another metal which ocurs natlve.
Show clearly on your diagiam:
5 The metals zinc ard lead arc oblaincd from ores i where eir is'blasted'into the [urnace
which are compounds containint the metal and liwher€ the molten iron is removed
sulphur in the molar ratio 1:1. lii
where the second liquid is removed.
e Name the compounds in these ores.
b Nam€ the three ralr'materials added at the top.
b l{rite down their (ormulae. ii What is the purpose ofeach material?
c Name the second liquid that is rcmoved from
In the extraction of the metal, the compounds are lhe bottom of the furnace.
roacted in air to obtain the oxide of the metal. Then ii l{hen it solidifies, does it have any uses? lf so,
the oxide is heated with coke tu obtain the metal and name one.
carbon monoxide. i
d Name a waste gas from the top ofthe furnace.
c i Write equations for the roasting of the ores. iiDoes this gas have a use? lfso, what?
ii What tyF of reaction is this? . Write an equation for the rcaction that prcduces
d i Write equations for the rcactions with coke. th. iron.
ii Which substances are reduced? I Most of the iron that is obtained from the blast
e Which gives the greater mass of metal, 1000 g of furnace is us€d to make steel. What element, other
lead ore or 1000g of zinc ore? Explain your.nswer. than iron, is present in mo6t steel?
6 Explain why the following metals are suitable for the lO oluminium gold iron tin matnesiur,1.
given uses. (There should be more than one rcason in miw sucl cakium stainless steel
each case.) . ln the above list of metals and alloyc only four are
e Aluminium for window frames. rcsistant to corrooion. Which are they?
b lron (or bridges. b Explain why each is rcsistant to corrosion.
c Copper for electrical wiring. c Which of the other metals or alloys wiU conode
d Lead for roofing. most quickly? Explain your answer.
c Zinc for coating steel. d Which metal in the list is the mait widely used?
f Titanium for replacement hip ioints. c Cive another rume for the corrosion of this metal
g Platinum for jewellery. and write an equation for the reaction.
h Tin for coating food cans. I List five methods used ro prevent this reaction and
i Chromium for coatint car bumpers. explain how each method works.
F Questions on Section 14

1 The reaction that takes place when hydrogen is

passed over iron(ll) oxide is:
...* Fe (s) + Hlo (g)
il This apparatus can be used to prepare sclely a
solution of ammonia in water:
r Complete the sentences below. mrxlure ol an ammonrum sall aid an alkalr
ln the reaction the iron(ll) oxide is ... ... .. to:roo
and the hyCrogen is ... ... ... to *ater. ln lf€ reaction,
b Draw a diatram o[ the apparatus that could be
us€d to demonstr.te this .eaction in the laboBtory.
c Suggest why carbon monoxide and not hydrogen
is used in industry, to ext.act iron lmdr iron oxide.
d Give one use o( hydro8en, in industry.
2 This para6,raph is about the element nitroten.
Rewrite it, choosint the corrcct item rrom each pair in
brackets. Arnmonia gas is tiven off when the tcst tube is
Air is a (mixture/corhpound) which contains (l/{) heated.
nitroten. The symbol for nitroten is (N/Nr) and the e Name lwo compeunds which could be heated
. gas is made of (molecules/atoms) reprcs€nted by the totether in the test tube.
rormula (N/NJ. lt is therefore a (monatomic/ b Writ€ an equation for the reaction.
diatomic) tas. Nilrogen is needed bv plants lo make c Why would it be dantlrous to dip the glass tube
(proteins/sugars). Most plants are unable to take into the water, u,iilo!l usinE the filter funn€l? (Hint:
nitrog€n dilectly from the (water/air), so some think about the fountain experiment.)
'6xin8' of the tas is required. Some is fixed by (rain/ d lf a few drops of litmus solution were added to the
lightning) and some is fixed by (leav6/bacte.ia), but wrter in ttle trouttl what colourchange would be
most is fixed artifcially by making (pollutants/ seen durint the experiment?
{( fcrtilizers). For ihese, the nitroten is first reacted with c If the water was replaced by a dilute solution of
i (hydrcgen/oxyged to dve the (taslsolid) ammonia. nitric acid, what sali worrld be formed in the trough?
This is tumed into (sulphuric/nitric) acid, which is
The diatram shows apparatus Ior anexperiment to
then used to make fertilizeE such.s amrr'onium
make ammonia. X and Y are two tas syrintes,
connecteC to a combustion tube A. At the start,
3 The diagram below represents the nitrogen cycle. Say svringe X contained 75 cml of hydrogen and syringe Y
where the following words should fit in the diagram. contained 25cmr of nitrogen.
You will need to use some words lwice.
,tilroga otr a tito,tu
nilrolcs proleirc ba.leria
r i'''l h

r Copy the diatram, labellint the tas€6.

b How would you make the gases mix?
c The reaction needs a catalyst. Why?
d Name a suitable catalyst.
e Where should the catalyst be placed? Add the
catalyst to your diatram.
f Where should the apparatus be heated? Show this
on your diagram.
g How would you show that some ammonia had
beenobtained, at the end of the experiment?
Look at question 2. Make up a similar question about
the properties of ammonia. Use brackets to provide
alternatives (rom which another pupil could .hoose.

dry ammonra

7 Usint the above apparatus, dry ammonia is passed l0 Wdte a para8raph explaining why ammonia and
over heated coppe(tl) oxice. Tte gases giveir off rre ritric acrd arc very lmportant chemicals.
passed through a cooled U-tube. A liquid (A) ,onns
in the U-tube and a colourler: gas (B) colleds in the 11 Ammonium compounds .nd nitrates are of 8!€at
impodance as lertiliz8rs.
8as Fr,
aThe copper(ll) oxide is reduced to copper. Whet i Why do thes€ compounds help plant growth?
would you se€ as the gas pass€s over the heatcd b Name one zarua, Iertilizer.
copper oxidc? c Name two compounds containint nitr en which
b Why is the U-tub€ surtounded by I ficezing are manufacturd for
use as {ertilizers. Write the
mixture? chemical formuhe for these compourds.
c The liquid A is found to tum bluc cobalt chloride d Name two clemeatt6 other than nitioten which
paper pink arrd to have r boiling point oI lm t. ptants n€cd, .nd explain their inporlance to the
Identify liquid A. plants.
d ls ga: B roluble or insoluUc in watcr? c Why rre som€ fertilizers not suitable for quick-
c ldentify gas B. (Hinh look !t the other in $owing vetetables like lettuce?
this reaction.) , Som€ fertilizers ate acidic. What is usually added to
f lvrite a word equation for tire reaclion. soils to correct the level of aciditr,?
g Th+ copper oxide is rdrctd by the ammonia. t trnd which is intensively farmed needs rpgular
Explain what this m€ans. applicrtions o{ feltilizer. Explain why.
h How will the mass o( thc h€ated tute and contents . h Fertilizers obviously have advantages. But many
chan8e, during the reaction? people are worried abgut the increasint use o{
fertilizeB, especially nitrates, by farmers. Can you
I The manu{acture oI anrmonia and nitric acid are both sutEest why?
very important industrial prcc€sses.
12 Ammonia gas is bubbled into copper(tl) sulphate
A AMMONIA solution. At 6rst a blue prccipitate forms. This then
a Name the raw matedals used. tums to a deep blue solution.
b Which two gases react together? r Whal is the blue precipitate? (Hint: remember that
c Why are the two tases scnrbbed? ammonia solution contains hydroxide ions.)
d Why is the mixture pass€d over ircn? b Explain why the colour deepens as morc ammonia
e What happens to the rrnacred nitrogen and gas is added.
hydrogen? c This reaction of ammonia is a useful one.
I Why is the manufactured ammoni. stored at high Explain why.
13 Nitric acid acts both asan oxidizing agent and as an
B NITRIC ACID acid. Say which way it is behaving when it:
a Name the raw materials used. . is neutralized by sodium hydroxide.
b Which chemicals react together to lorm nitric acid?
b reacts with a carbonate tivint carbon dioxide gas.
c What would happen if the gauze containing
c reacts with copper releasint nitroten dioxide tas.
platinum and rhodium lvas removd?
d reacts with copper oxide to form copFr nitrate.
d Why must the chemical plant be constantly e reacts with dry sawdust, causing it to burst into
checked for leaks?
9 Write equations for the chemical reaciions in f reacts with magnesium, tivint a dark brown 8as.
question 8. I turns litmus solution red.
Questions on Section 15

Look at each description below in tum. Say whether

Thr tollowint diagrams reprpsent rholecules of
il hts oxyt.n, or 3ulphur, or clrlorine.
diilerent substances that contain sulphur.
. Quite soluble in w.ler r Write the chemical formula lor ea;h stbstance,

b Solid at rcom temDerature
then name the substance.
c Reacts with rnetali tc form oxides
d Exists in more than one solid form
e When damp, removes the colour
t Burns in air with a blue flame
trom dyes '&
t Reacis with hydrogen lo fomr water
h A poisonous gas
i ls added to rubber to make it tough and stron8
i Relights a gtowing splint
k Is cclourless
I Reacts with other elements to form chlorides
m Forms a gaseous oxide which causes acid iv
when -.urnt-
Or),gen re.cts wiah many different elemenrs.
. Lopy rnd complete the (ollowing t.ble to show the #ryb
resutts ot combustion experiments cafiied
out using
Frs oi oxyten gas. b How would you convert:
substance iii into substance i?
substance i into substance ii?
Element What you would see in the grs
tar substance i into substance v?
potassium Below is a flow chart for the Contact process.

b Which element does not need h€atint?

c Which element does not catch ftre? catatysl charrber
d ln the case of potassium, the product ls soluble in conlarntng substance C
water. which of the other products are
e Which prcducts give acidic aqueous solutions?
f Which of the elements form basic oxides?
3 The elements sulphur and oxygen are in the
troup of the period ic table, so they have similar
prope ies. But there are also some differences
between them. Us€ the inlormation
on pa tes224_22g
to answer these questions.
a Oxygen is a nonmetal. Is sulphura nomnetal?
D-_l-rolhe elements look alike at room
txPlatn youranswer.
c Both the elements are molecular. r Namesubstances A, B, C,
D E, and F,
What type of b Why is a catalyst used?
bondint do their molecules contain?
d ln what way are their molecules different? c a chemical equation for the
reactron that
takes place on the catalvst.
hydroren to rorm rhe
ny-orogen sulphide, HrS. Name ras is.1tr;.nroa ucti6n of subsrance F very
diffeE from the compound formcd
one way in whlci this lWtrl
rmportant? Cive three reasons.
between oxygen e. Copy orrl the flow
and hydrogen. cha , writing in the full rumes
of the diffeEnt substances.

solad A

1'he following table shows the pioperties o( certain 9 The apparatus above was usd to investitate the
oxides. reactionbetween hydrogen chloride ard iron 6lings.
. Nrme a suitable substance for solid A.
When rdded to weter: b Name a suitable substance for liquid B.
Stnte at Is cner8y pH of c The reaction between iron and hydrochloric acid is
Oxide 20'C given oul? solution exothermic. Whai would you see in the combustion
Matnesium oxide soltd no above 7 d Gas C bums with a squeaky PoP. What is it?
Calcium oxide solid yes above 7 r Su8g€st a r.ame ior the product lert in the
Copper(ll) oxide solid no (ombustion tube altcr the reaction.
Sulphur dioxide 8as yes below 7 ( Write a wod equation for tte rcaction.
Carbon dioxide tas lto below 7 t The experim€nt could be dantercus. Suggest why.
10 when pi€cr of damp blue litmus paper is Plac€d in a
. why is no pH givcn forcoppe(lt) oxide? litmus changes cclour. Firs( the
gas lar of chlorine, thc
b Which compounds Bive a rise in temperature when blue colour tums to red, then the red colour quickly
added to water? \{hy? disappeare, leavint the paFr white.
c Wirich two compounds containonly noNnetals? r Explain why the pape! turns red,
d From the information in the table, what b Explain why the red colour then disappears.
conclusions can you draw about:
i the pH o{ solutions of oxides? 11 Chlorin€ gas is passed throu8h two solutions, as
ii the state of oxides at room temperature (20t)? shown below.

7 Sulphuric acid can act as a dehydtating atent and an chlonne chlorine

oxidizing agent, as well as an acid. Decide how it is
behaving in each o{ the followint cases:
a It turns blue litmus red.
b It reacts with magnesium to $ve hydro8en.
c lt can be used to dry hydrogen chloride gas.
d It neutralizes sodium hydroxide to (orm a salt.
e It reacts with coppet ttleasint Eulphur dioxide.
t It tums sugar black,
g It turns blue copper sulphate white.
h lt produces carbon dioxide when added to a
e What would you xe in each test tube?
E a Look atain at the r€actions in question 7. For each b What chemical(s) are formed in each tube?
say whether the sulphuric acid should be c Write word and chemical equations for each
concentrated, dilute, or either. rcaction.
b To makedilute sulPhuric acid, the concentrated d Which of the reactions is a disPlacement?
acid must be added carefully to watet ard nsuet the c l lrite th€ word equation ior a similar disPlacement
other way round. ExPtain why. reactior; using chlorine.
- .

Questions on Section 16

R€spiration and photosynthesis are two important il Crude oil is a mixture of hydr<xarbons, cach with a
processes in the carbon cycle. Which o[ them: dif ferent boilint point.
a produces carbon dioxide? t Whal is a hydrocarbon?
b releases energy? b Crude oil is an important raw material. Why?
c is catalysed by chloroph)41? c H.w rs ihe mix(urc s€patated?
d makes lood in the leaves of Plants? d A simple sepatation can te carried out In the
e is similar to the burning oI luels? laboratory, usinB this apparatus:
t requires sunlight to wo.k?
g releas€s oxygen into lh€ .tmosphere?
h produces water?
i is endothermic?
j continues at all times?
k takes Fce in both plants and animals?

Copy the diagram and label it using these labels:

mineraluool soak d in crude oil delivery tube
therraomcter hcol watet lraction
G i What is the purpose of the mineral wool?
ii What is the purpose of the waler?
iii Why is the thermometer placed where it is?
In the experiment in question 4, a crude oil sample
was separated into four llactions. Th€se were
collected in the temperature ranges shown below:

Fraction Temperature range/"C

This diatram shows the carbon cycle. The numbers
1-11 reptesent missint labels. 25-70
. Write the numbe.s l-11 as a list. B 70 ll5
b Beside them write the correct label chosen frcm c 115 200
this list. (You may usea label more than orrce.) D 200-380
rcspimtion combustion ol fxsil fucls
comes oul ol f{,lulion pholosynthesis coal Which fraction:
oil lecding dissolocs sr.dimenl r has the lowest range of boiling points?
b burns most readily?
Fossil fuels arc the world's main source of energy.
a What is a lossil Fel? Name three.
c has molecules with the longest chains?
b Explain how coal was formed. Crude oil must be refined before it can be used.
c Explain how oil was formed. Draw a diagram to Refining involves three main processes:
show where it is found in rocks. scpreting. cracking and reforming.
d Is wood a fossil fuel? Explain. a Explain how fractional distillation is used to
e 'Fossil fuels are stores of solar energy.' ls this true? separate groups of products from crude oil.
Explain. b Explain why crackint improves the rante of
f Focsil fuels are considered a non-renewable products obtained from crude oil.
resource. Why is this? c i What happens to the molecules in the reforming
I 'We must become less dependent on fossil fuels in process?
the 2lst century.' Give two reasons why, and suttest ii Which particular product makes use of
a list of steps to achieve this aim compounds obtained from re(orming? Why?

The diatram below represents the prccess used to l!ame Formula

separate crude oil intc differeni (ractions. ethene CH, :61-1,
ethanol C,H.OH
ProPane C,H"
Borlrng .rinyl chloride CHr : CHcl
rangF ("c) Fraction styaelr€ C,H.CH : CH,
chloropropene cHlcr{ - cHci
<40 gas

40 180 naplha
. Whati9. molorflc.?
b Name the tyF of reactiun in whicir monomers add
180 250 kerosene on to each olhe. to make plastics.
c Which of the compounds above could be used as
250 300 gas oil (lioht)
monomeni for making plastics?
30O 350 gas orl(heavy) d For each cornpound you chose in c:
crudc >35O residue
wdte an equation (or the polymerintior! wfurt
oii in the method shown on page 89.
ii sutgest a nar,re for the polymer formc{.
e The oolymers oblained frorn the monomers
above are all thcrmoglestics- What special prcperties
. Name the p(rcess. do thermoplastics have?
b Thisprocess is based on the fact that different f Some plastics are thermosettin8 plastics,
compounds have different _ __. i
Name one.
What are the missint words? ii What special prop€rty do thermosetting plastics
c i Usint the terms ?vaqrolion and condensliofl, have?
explain how naphtha is produced. g The use o( plastics can c.use environmental
ii Is naphtha likely to be a sinde compound ot probleuE. Name two of thes€ problems.
a trcup of compounds? Explain your tnswer. h Name orr other problem caused by our
d How do the bubble caps help in the proc€6s? deperdency on plastics.
e Write down one use for each fraction obtained. l0 T€flon' is the comrn rcial rume tiven to thc polymer
f i A hydrocarbon has a boiling point of 200 qC. obtained ftom the monome! tetrafluoroethene.
In what fraction will it be found? The monomer has this ltructure:
ii A.e the carbon chains in its molecules shorter FF
or lonter than those found in naphtha?
iii ls it more, or less, viscous than naphtha? )c=cl-r
I This shows hovr hydrocarbons are cracked: a What feature of the monomer makes
polymerization possible?
b Name the typ€ of polymerization that occu.s.
c Show the structur€ of the repeatint unit in the
d What is the chemical name {or this polymer?
e Write an equation for th€ re.ction, like lhose on
page 89.

colton woo soaked n a 11 Three plastics A, B, and C have these structures:

hydrocarbon orl A long-chain molecules with no side chains
B long<hain molecules with side chains
a What is crackirS? C long-chain molecules with cross-linking between
b What two thinSs are needed to crack thechains
hyd rocarbons? r Draw dilgrams to show these struclures.
c Why should the 6rst tube of tas that is collected b€ b Which diagram could rePresent:
discarded? i a thermosetting plastic?
d ls the gaseous product soluble or insoluble in ii a tow-density thermoPlastic?
water? Explain your answer. iii a hBh-density thermoPlastic?
e Ethane, CrH", can be cracked to give ethene. CrtL, c For each choice in b, exPlain why the structurP
and hydrogen. Write an equation for this reaclion. Sives rise to that Particular ProPerty.
Questions on Section 17

1 A homologous series is a family of comPounds with a { Propene is one of the many important hydrocarbons
general formula and similar chemical proPcrtic. The made from oil. Like propare, it is made up of
saturated hydrccarbons Iorm a homologous series molecules that contain three carbon atoms. Like
with the general Iormula C,Hr*r. elhrrr, it has a double bond.
a Explain whrt rhe term szh.t l.d means, a Drav., a molecule of propene.
b Name the seri€6 descriH above. b How does it differ from a molecule of propane?
c Write the lotmula [or the hydrocarbon in this c To which group of hydrocarbons does:
series with two carbon atons, and name il. i propane ii propene belong?
Dr.w . mol€ele of lhe compourtl. d Write formulae for propane and propene.
d i Name r homologous serieE of unsaturated e which of the two is a salsrol.d hydro<a.bon?
hydrocarbons, and write a Beneral formula , i Explain why ptopene re.cts immediately with
for it. bromine water, while propane does not.
ii Write a formula for the member of this series ii What would you sc. in the rea(tion?
with two carbon atoms, and name it. g Name another reatent that would react
iii Draw a moleculeo{ tlre compourd. immediately with propene but not with propane.
h Prop€ne is c,btained by breaking dcwn longer-
2 Use the informaaion on pa6es 252 to 255 to answet chain hy.lrocarbons. What is this process called?
th€se questions about the alkanes: i Propene is the monomer for making an important
a Which two element.'4o alkanes contain? plastic. SuStest a name lor the polymer it forms.
b Which alkane is the main compound in natural i Thc reaction which converls propene to a polymer
gas? is.alled an
c After butane, the next two alkanes in the series arc What are the missint words?
Wtane a\d How many carbon atoms would
hexsne. - -.share the moleculat formula
5 Three hydrocarboru
you expect to find in a molecule of:
C'H'I. Their boiti$ points are 35t,28'C, and lot.
pentane? li hexane?
d Writedown the fomulae for pentane.nd hexane.
. To which {amily ot hydrocarbons do they belont?
b What name is tiven to different compounds that
e Draw a molecule of substance.
have the same molecular formula?
t Is pentane solid, liquid, or t.s at room i
c Draw molecules of the three hydrocarbons.
g Suggest a .ralue for the boiling point o{ pentane,
Now assign a boiling point to each structure,
and explain your choice.
and explain your answer.
d Would you expect the three hydr@arbons to have
h Worrld pentane react with bromine water? Explain. the same cltfrricdl properties? Explain.
i Alkanes burn in a good supply of oxygen. Name
the gases formed when they burn. 6 lIethanol vapour is passed over heated aluminium
i 1 /rite a balanced equatiox for the complete oxide, a dehydration reaction occurs and the tas
combustion of pentane in oxygen. ethene is produced.
k Name two substancrs formed durin8 incot plrta r Draw a diagram of suitable apparatus for carryint
combustion of pentane in air. out this .eaction in the lab.
b What is meant by a dehydration reactionl
-3 Hex-l-ene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. lt melts at c write an equation for this reaction, showint th€
- "C and boils at 63 oC. lts empirical formula is
1,l{) structure of the molecules.
CH: and its moleolar mass is 84tlmol. d i What will you see if the gas that {orms is
a i
To what family o{ hydtocarbons does it belong? bubbled through bromine water?
ii What is its molecular formula? ii Why would you nol see this if ethanol vapour
iii What does the 1 in its name mean? was passed through bromine water?
iv Draw a molecule of hex-l-ene. e In industry, ethanol is made by a reaction which is
v Now draw another isomer with this {ormula. the reverse of this dehydration reaction; steam and
bi In what state is hex-l-ene at room temperature? ethene r€act together in the prcsenceof phosphoric
ii Make a tuess at the boiling point o{ hept-l-ene, acid at high temperature and pressure.
the next member of the s€ries. i Write an equation for this reaction.
ci Hex-l-ene reacts with bromine water. Write an ii What type of reaction is it?
equation to show this reaction. iii What is the purpose oI the phosphoric acid?
ii What is this type of reaction called? iv What effect will an increase in pressure have
iii What would you sse during the rcaction? on the reaction? Explain.
Ethanol is o m€mber of the alcohol family. i0 Ethanoic acid is a membel of the homolo8(;us seies
a What is the functional troup of this iamiiy? with the generai formula C,H.,, ,COOH.
b Write down the formula of ethanol. r Name this senes.
c Ethanol can be made by the fermentation of sugar. b What is the functionalgroup of the series?
This diagram shows apparatus lor studying the c Draw and name the mcmber of the series (or which
process. What goes in the ilask?
d Elhanoic acid is a &rcct acid. Explain vrh:t this
means, using an equation to help you.
e Eahanoic acid reacts with carbonates.
i What would you s€€ during this reaction?
ii Write a balanced equation for the reaction with
sodium carbonate.
11 Ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol in the preseflce of
concentra ted sulphuric acid.
. Name the organic product formed.
b What type o, compcund is it?
d Which temperature is best for tlre reaction? c How could you tell thai it had formed?
i OeC ii lO"C iii 25 qC iv 75'C d What is the function of the sulphuric acid?
Explain your answer. e The reaction is rerrsiDle. What docs this mean?
e i Which gas is released during fermentaiion? f Write an equation for the reaction.
ii How could you prove this? I i Explain why the reactions bet..^,een organic acids
f Complete the equation for the fcrmentation: and alcohols are important in industry.
C,finOt G) -+ ii Cive three.examples of things you buy that
contain products faom these reactions.
g Hor long would you expect the reaction to take?
12 Soaps are salts of fatty acids. They are usually sodium
i 5 ii 5 hours iii 5 days lv 5 months
h What process would you use to separate
reasonably pure etharpl from ihe mixtur€? . Give one exampl€ ofa fatty acid.
b In what way is a latty acid different ftom ethanoic
8 Ethanol is an important compound in industry. acid? ln what way is it the same?
a Give three tses for it. ( The fatty acids are obtained from oils of vegetable
b Describc two methods used to make elhanol in orrtin. Nimc two of these orls.
industry, and write equations for the reactions. J Below is orre example of a compound found in
( One of these methods is a batch proc€ss, and one is a vetetable oil, and us€d to make soap.
aotliiuous proccss.
i Explain the terms in italics. HrC - OOC(C,?H..)
ii Say which method is which. I

d For each m€thod, give: H C - OOC(C,5Hr)

i two advantates ii two dbadvantates I

of making ethanol that way. H,C - OOC(C,.H?,)

e When ethanol is r,rixed with petrol, it reduces the
amount o{ carbon monoxide and soot (rcm car i This oil is in fact an ester. Explain why.
exhausts. Explain why. ii To make soap, the oil is reacted with a sodium
compound. Which one?
9 Ethanol is a member of the homologous s€des with
the general formula C,,H?,,* rOH.
iii The reaction will producefour diiferent
compounds. Write down the formulae for them,
a Name this homologous series.
b Draw and name the first member of the series. iv Identify which of the four products can be used
as soaP.
c Wine contains ethanol. A glass of wine was found
to have a sour taste.
v One of the four products is an alcohol. Name
the alcohol,
iWhat chemical is responsible for this taste?
vi How is this alcohot different {rom ethanol?
Explain how it came to be in the wine.
d Ethanol reacts with sodium. 13 a water alone is not much use for removing grease
Bubbles of gas form around the sodium. What from your hands. Explain why.
gas is this? b Draw a diagram to show how soap molecules
ii W te a balanced equation for the reaction. surround a particle of grease and carry it away.
Questions on Section 18

1 Imagine slicing Eadh in halt and taking a h)urney A laboratory demonstration was carried out to show
from the crust to the c€ntrc. how igneous rock forms. The following results were
e Draw a diagram showint the cruss-s€ction throuth obtained by recrystallizing equal amounts of the
the c€ntre, and label the layers. chemical srlol at 0"C and at 50 "C.
b l^,Ihat happens to:
i temperature ii density iii pressure I

you move from the gurface to the centre?

as I

c Why is the irmer core solid and not liquid?

d Why is th.e overall density of Earth much 8r€ater I

than the average density of the t(xks that form the I

crust? L
2 This table shows a sel€ction of common minerals
found in rock.
r What is meant by r$ryslallizitlS and how is it
Mineral Chemical H.rdrrces Density caried out in the laboratory?
formula (Mohs sr' b What effect does the terr,peraturc have on:
sc.le) i the sp€ed of crystallization?
ii the size of the crystals?
quartz sior 7 2.65
c Explain how these lesults relate to the two main
halit? Nacl 2.5 2.16
types of igneous mck, extrusive and intrusive.
calcite CaCO. 3 z.7t
SrPsum CaSO..2HP 2 2.3 4 igneous rock can be classilied according to the
pyrite FdL 6 5 percentage of silica in it. As the {ollowing SraPh
diamond c l0 3.5r shows, the amount of silica prcsent affects both the
a feldspar KAISilob 6 2.55 crystallizing point and the viscocity of the magma.

. What arc ftincrals?

b What is the dilferenc€ between a rock and a 1
mineral? I

c Which mineral in the table is: a

i a chemical elernmt? I

il an imn ore? 6l !rscosrly -- crystallizing q

po'n! I
iii a hydrated salt? I 6
iv a sulphide?
v a form of silica? O
d Which mineral is the main component of chalk?
€ Which minera! is a silicate?
f Write down the chemical name for each mineral.
t The Moh! tcale fq measuring the hardness ol 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 o/o
minerals is named after the German mineralogist a How are igneous roct<s formed?
ftied ch Mohs. The larter the number the harder the b Give ihe chemical name and formula (or silica.
mineral, List the minerals above in order of hardness. c i What happens to the crystallizing temPerature
h Which minerat cannot be scrakhed by any others as the peEentage of silica increases?
in the list? ii Which type of rock would rcmain molten for
i A fingemail has a hardness of 2.6 on the Mohs longer, one with a high or a low silica content?
scale. Which minerals in your list can be scntched by
d i What e(fect do€6 the addition of other elements
a finger nail?
have on the visccity of the matma?
i Name the two least dense minerals from the table. li Explain this effect using the idea of forccs
k Do you think there is a connection between density between atoms in giant structures.
and hardness? Use evidence from the table to support
your answer. Gabbro is an inlrxsiue igneous rock. Andesite is an
I Quartz is used to make cutting and sandin8 dis.s erlrusioe igneous rrrck.
for power to,els. Why? a Explain the terms in italics,
m Which minerals occur as evaporites from s€a b In what way(s) would you expect these rocks to
water? look: i similar? ii different?
n To which group of rocks do evag;rites belong? c Which of them appears at Earttls surface only after
o Which mineral will dissolve in acidic rain watei? ertxion of other rocks?
'Ihe tollowing diagram represents a geological feature
found in many areas,


This is a sarnple of the igneous rock obsidirn. lt is a a Which type ol rock is:
volca nic glcss, which means it is not crystalline. i sandstone? ii limestone?
. What is the source of the rock obsidian? b Explain the s€querce of events that led to
b What type of structu.e (tii:nt or mole€ular) docs ii sandstone being deposite.l on ihe iinrestone.
have? c Why is the limestone under tire sandstone a
c How would you describe the arrengement o( the different heitht ftom the rest?
atoms in obsidian: o ercd or disord.rcd? d Assume that the rateof weathering oI limestone is
d What kind ol cooling produced obsidiani rapid or dbout 0.025 mm per )/ear.
slow? Explain your answer. i How lont has it b€en since the sandston€ was
e How do you think obsidian would trspotd to level with the surtounding limesione?
being struck with a hammer? Explain. ii What assumption have you made in this
f Suttest how cbsidian may have been used by early calculation?
Dolcrilc is an itneous rock (ounrrl in Cumbria. ln one
Erosion ard trrnsport arc part of the rcck cycle. area it is (ound in cont.ct with the sedimentary rock
a What is aosion? sandstone.
b What name is given to the movement of rock
particles that causes erosion of other rocks?
c List the three main transport a8ents.
d Explain what would cause each transport atent to
drop the load oI particles it carries.
e A sedirnent deposited by wind or water may be sandslone
r'.ll sorl?d. What does that mean?
f Explain how a stream sorts paiticles. D

Se,limentary rocks often contain rock fratments that a The crystals of dclerite.t A are smaller than tho€€
have been transported by rivers and deposited on at B. Suttest a reason.
river and sea beds. The rock fragments can be b The sandstone at C has become 'baked' and is
classi6ed as sand, mud, or pebbles according to their much touther than the sandstone at D. Why?
size. All three are affected to different extents by c From this evidence, which rock is older? Explain.
movint water. d Sometimes dolerite lorms a sill, where lava pushes
a Which of the three types of particle rcquires mo6t its way between the planes ofsedimentary rock.
enerty to transport it? Why? Make a sketch of a sill.
b Place the following observations in orde! of c [s a sill younger or older than the sedimentary rc(k
increasing water speed. above it?
A the s all Wbbles mooe furlhct doonstraam f What characteristic(s) might you expect the
B xnd is liy'ted. lrom the sea bed s€dimentary rock on top of the sill to have?
C mud settles on the riuer bcd g Other igneous rocks form as a result of lava flows.
D large pehblu are moaed lro one place to anothrt They cool and harden. Then sedimentary layers form
E only pebbles ore found. on top.
F sand is dropped on the xa lxd i How would you check whether a piece of
c Explain why the opposite banks of a river do not igneous rock was a sill or a lava flow?
always look the same. (The drawing on pate 270 will ii Why is it likely that the surlaceofa lava flow
help you.) will be uneven and full of small holes?
Questions on Section 19

I In 1915 the 8€oPhyeiciat Alfred Wegemr suttested

rhat Fsrth's-co;tinents had orrr been irined as a
superclntinent. His theory was based on eviderre
that included:
i '<ontinentrl6f
ll occ'urrence oI tlE rnimal lodsil Mc'osalrn,ls
ili tlistribution of iogsils ol ilre llora Glossoptttis
r What was Welerrr's supercontinent called?
b Take each pic& of evidenc€ l-iii in tuEL ard
explain how it supports Wegener's th€ory'

2 Early in the 20th c€ntury two oPPosin8 th€ori€s were 5 r This dia8ram shows a cross-section through two
.rrt iorward to exolain the featurcs oI Earih's crust plates, A a;d B, coPy it and add these labets:
iheorv A: Its featlres are the result of the shrinking icon occanic crusl contin?nlol crusl fiounloins
and wrinkling of the crust .s it cool'd' rr'conk trcnch scdimcnls conlincntal matgi\
Tlrcory B: Eaih was onc€ a Siant continerrt which b i Draw an arrcw to show the moYement o[ A.
split aPart to form seParate continents' ii Guess how far A would rnove in 12 months'
r Which of these theories: iii What other name is Siven to the crust in A?
i fits b€6t with the ide. that Earth is unct"ntinS? iv Where is the oldest Part of Plate A? ExPlain'
ii suggegts thrt Ghantcs ate still toint on? i
c Why does plate A sink beneath Plate B?
iii nts best *ith tt," idea lhat Earth's crust is a ii Whit scientific nar.e is dven to this Ptocess?
tix€d solid mass? d Name a mineral you'd find tn the s€dimmt'
b Sugtest why Theory B, propoced by Alfrcd c Mark on your diigram an area where metamorPhic
Wegenet in 1915, was .rot accePted by scientists at rock could form.
that point. I Mark a Point on your diagram where you think a
c Describe two kay Pic<6 oI evidence ihat were later volcano mitht eruPt. Explain your reasoning'
discovered, which helFd to establish his theory' 6 'StriPes' of ma$retic tEversal aPPear in the
3 Plat€ tectonics is the dtiving fol(t behind the oeanic crust. They Provide evidence about th€ Past'
rec,vcling of rocks. The key to Plate tectonics is thc Age in millions ol YeaIs
heat Senerated in Eafth's intedor'
e What is meant by the rccycliag oI rocks? .9ooi-?,
b i Name an imPortant soutr! o( heat enerty in
F-arth's interior.
Explain how this heat enerBy leads to the
movement of Plates
c Sedimenlary rock can be recycled as metamorPhic
rock. '+'
i How does sedimentary rock get Pushed down
throuth Earth's crust? \l/
ii Explain how it becomes metamorPhic rock' basall
d Sedimentary rock can also be recycled as itneous r i Where on this diagram is th€ oceanic ridte?
rock. Wh.t further conditions woutd be needed to ii What process haPPens here?
tum it into iSneous r.ther than metamorphic rock? iii Where is the oldest rock?
{ The convection cuE€nts in Earttls mantle provide the iv
Why is the pattem symmetdcal?
energy for Plate movement. Draw a simPle diagram b iWhat do the black and white striPes rePresent?
to represent the lithosphere and show how plate ii
what substance present in basalt is affected by
movement oc(rrs. Use a[ows to rePresent the Earth's magnetic field?
convection crrrrent and add these descriPtions: iii This rock provides a Permanent record of
iHeat eneBy arises from the decay of radioactive changes occurring over millions of years. How?
elements in the centre of Earth. c From the diagtam, estimate the average lifetime o(
Matma rises as it becomes less dense. a magnetic reversal.
Plates are carried along on the currents of magma. d Would you expect this Pattern of magnetic
iv Magma cools and sinks as it becomes more dense. reversals to continue in the future? Explain.



r 9 when continents collide,
(olded and sometimes broken.
rocks sorr,etim6 become

. Which of these two processes results in:

i tand being uplifted? ii the formation of r fault?
b Draw diagrams to illustrate the diflerenc€ betw€en
the two processes.
c What is: i .n entklin?? ii asYnciiic?
'(ln' d ldenti$ an anticline and a syrcline on the
appropriate diaBram from b.
l0 Earthquakes can c.use Sreat loss ol life and mlllions
ot pounds worrh of damage. Much of the damage is
caused by fire.
rWhat is an earthquake?
7 Above North Atlantic ocean'
is a maP of the b Give three examples ofearth movements ihat
Greenland and Europe werc once ioined' Now the result in earthquakes.
Ncrth Atlantic ocean is t'.'idening by about 2 cm per c why Jon't mairr earthouakes occlr iir the UK?
y€nr. d lrnagine a mainr earthqu:ke hitting your nearest
i what is the cause of this wideninST town. tist as many ways you can in which it could
b ls the plate boundary constructive or destructive? lead to fires, including fires in homes'
c Whar io vou 6nd along the mid-Atlantic ridge? c What other kinds of earthquake damage make 6res
d How was lceland form€d? Fiom what type o( rock? mole difficult to fight?
c i Estimate how long a8o the two continents were
1! ln maior earthquakes many t'uildints are destroyed
i:ined or damaged beyond repair, Buildings are usually
ii Whv are distances Irom the edges of the
coniinentai shelves used in the calculation, desiened-to wiihstand vertical stress (the weitht of
rather thandistarrces from the coasts? rve-ral storcF) but not the'whiPlash' efk they
iii What other assumPtion have you made in experierre during earthqualles'
doing the calculation? lniheGreat Kwanto €arthquake of t923 in IaPa&
I What other tectonic Process must be t.king place to l20m D€oele werc killed and 80% o{ the buildings in
balance out the fact that the crust is tettint Lryer
rotvo dltroved. Most were wooden buitdings which
between EuroPe and Greenland?
*"rl.o*u^k by fire. Fouowing this, Tokyo was
rebuitt with mainly concrete buildings Reirdorced
8 Sirips of coloured Plasticine can be used lo show the concrcte was used'in certain buildinSs The heiSht
movement of rock layers to form fold rnountains' limit for buildings was set at 160 metres
striPs ol . Whatis reinforced colcrcle l
b Erplain why each of the above measures should
help reduce earthquake damage in Tokyo'
( A building technique called basr uolalron is \rsed to
a limited extlent in some earthquake zones The
r Draw a diattam to show what you Predict will buildins is mounted on blocks consisting of alternate
happen if equ-al pushing forces are applied to both lavers oirubber and steel' ExPlain why this technique
ends at the same time. s(ould help to reduce earthquake damate'
b Draw a second diatram to show what you Predict 12 The main causes of iniury during earthquakes
witl happen it one end is held firmly and a pushing
o building coltaPse or damage
force is apDlied to the other end.
o flying glass {rom broken windows
c Which of the t*o processes do you think will . trttiti-piec"s of f"miture such as book cases
oroduce an ote r I umed fold?
h iwh"t do yo, th€ timc s'ale for this . i."" t"-* U-t"n gas lines, electrical short circuits'
"xPect overturned stoves, etc'
orocess to be?
o fallen power lines.
iiWhat other process will be takin8 Plac! over earthquake zone Write down:
i,,,rtio'ro, ti," in
this Deriod ;f time, which will lead to the loss "n
of rocks from the top o[ the mountain?
i fiie prtutions you would take in your home on
of receivine an earthquake warning
- Using the Plasticine modet, draw a diagram like
iii u ihr"""p."."t tlont you would take i{ you
werc out
*iotit top of rhe (old mountain may look
" of doors when an earthquake occurred
at the end o[ the time Period'

Examination questions

The questions are taken from Higher tier papers of the information above. A diagram mav help your answer4
various boards. They are arranged roughly in chapter
order and provide comprehensive coverage of the
b Cwen tests two idenlicalspringy steel nct'dlts. The
table shows her results.
chemistry syllabus. For some of the questior,s you will
necd to refer to the periodic table on page 330. You wrll Tesl R€sull
need graph paper for some of the questions. I Heat r n&dle until nd-hol the (x'ld needle is sofl
in a hunq,n ftim. nnd thcn.d,l rnouSh kr bend casily.
I Barium is in Croup Il of the Periodic Table The .heynistry it stowlv ntto\ t thr flnmr.
ol this metal and of its compounds is very similar lo that
2 Heal a nedlr unlil ({'hot in Thc coolcd ncrdle is harde.lo
of calcium (relative atomic massr Cl2, Ol6, Bal37).
bend than an unh€ated tuldle
. Barium reacls vigo.ously with cold waier.
a buni€n flame, and then plung.'
it inlo cold wats and is vtn hrittle.
Suqgest thc name of another meta! in the same
period thdt reacts with cold wat('r III Thr metallic properties of tire iwo heat-treated necdles
ii Complete the word equation. arc dif{crent. Explain why, in terms of grain sizc. I2l
barium-t water > -............... +............... I2l ( Expl.lin uh\,a mctal such as copper can conducl
b Use the rnformation
el(tricitv l2l
tiven below to predict the iormula iotal marks: 5 MEC
of barium sulphate and of barium phosphatt'.
the formula of the barium ion is Ba'' 3a Describt'a cht'mical test for chlorine. Cive the resull of
the formula of the sulphate ion is SO,' , ihis tcst. I2l
the formula of the phosphate ion is PO,' {2] b -|krrinc is used to make antiseptiis such .rs TCP The
libol hns hccn hkcn from a bottlc ol fCP
c Complcte thc equations ior the action o{ heal on banum
carbonatc and on harium nitrate
BaCO. > ............... +............... FFR
Ba(NO,I + ................ +............... +... ........
Barium is used to extract the element americium from
the compound americium(1ll) fl uoride.
3Ba+2AmF. '2Am+3BaF, ffiil
i Complete the followinS equations b)' includrng the
ekatron trans[er
+ Ba:'
+ Am lr1
ii Which of these cquation. rcpresci-,ts o\idiitronl I I I ()nt of the artivr,irrgredients is halogcrratccl l,ht'nol
e An exccss of hydrochloric acid rlas .rdded to l.l3 g ot iknown as fCP) made by trcating pknol with
rnrl'rrr,,h.rrrrrnr..rrh,'n,rr, lh,.'n i lrIrrrnr, It Lorrt,rirrs Jf'.19.,1 hY mnss of..rrb{rt1, l( l().{
dioxide collected at rt.p. was 0.120dm .The impuritirs .
o\rgcn, I s37 hvdrogen and 5l.E7Q chlonne. :
did not react with the a(id. Calculate tho p(,r.ent.rge L { thir inf rmati,'n h, i.rlcrrl.rh, lht ernfirical
puritY of the barium carbonate. l(,rnrula r)f fal lI
BaCO.+2HCl > BaCl,+CO,+ H,O lRrlative atomrc masseq H= 1;C= 12;O= 16; i
l,,lolar gas volume at r.t.p. is 24 dm cr = 35.5) I31 I
Ihe information on the label suggests that there is I
i The number of moles of CO: collected trl 0.68 B of fCP per 100 cm'of solution. If the
ii The number of moles of BaCO. reacted Il molccular formula is the same as the empirrcal
iii Mass of one mole of BaCOr (grams) tll frrrmula, calculate the nr-rmber of moles of fCl in
iv Mass of barium carbonate (grams) nt l00 cm' o[ solution.
v Percrntage purity of the badum carbonate I1l
Total marks: 7 NEAB
Total marks: 16 CAMi IGCSE
At presenL most car Mies are made from either mild
This question is about metals and allovs
steel or plastic. A large German car manufacfurer is
This" di1g111115 lsprcsent the rclative sizes o[
investigating the use of an alternative material made from
magnesium and aluminium atonis.
plant fibres for this purpos€.
a Plant fibres contain natural polymers, which are
complex carbohydrates. These are made in green plants
fmm srmplerrarbohydrates, such as glucox, by a
magnesium aluminium pnress called corrdersahon WlVmcns\tio .

An .lloy of these two melal( is stronser than pure

iDescribe the formation of glucose by photosynthesis

mJSneslum ur purc Jlumirriurrr. frpl.rirr rrltl u.rl5 tlrt .. rna €reen ptant. I41
ii ExpLrin t orrrlcr rsrrtrrr r polynrrisntiou. iZi

of a synthetic Polymer thatis 6' Ethanol can be madc by the fermentation of Slucc€
polymeriiation. -,-
iii Give the struclute
made bv condensation l2l Yeast is added to an aqueous solution of glucce Carbon

b Haematitel iron(lll) oxide, is reduced to imPuE iron in dioxide is given off and, after a while, ttre solution
a blast fumae. Two imDuriti€: in the iron al€ catbon
bttomc:i warm b€caus€ the reaction is exothermic.
an,l silicon. The impure iton i' .l'alittd into miid stsel C"H, O"(d{) ' 2C,H.OH (,,4) + 2Co,(g) oxrrel and ;ot dere,l calcrum carttorate.
The graph belorv shows how the rate of reaction
i ComplJte the equation f()r the Fduciioi of irun(lll)
changed tTver several daYs.
FeO.+.....CO > ................ + . . ............. t2l
liHow art tll€ impurities removed wheo stel is made
from imoure Lon? l3l
( Polv(Dhenilethene) is a synthetic polymer, usually
calfi poljstyrene lts strrrcture is Siven bclow'

l" '\


rate increases rapidly

\""r. "/
i Deduce the sttu.turc of the monomer of
reaclion slarls slowly
nolvtohenvlethene). l1l
ii irtriii the rar matcrial fmm rvhich most s\arthetic
oolvmers are made. lll time
d i bugsest an environmental advantage of using the
na ral 6brc material rather than a synthetic i grggest a method o[ measunnt the rate of this
Dolvmer lll rd&i... t2l
it bu;sest an advantage of rsing either tlre natunl or a ii SutS!6t a Erson why ttre reaction rate incrcases
syifretic potyme. n*ter than mild sted for car
inili;llv lll
iii Suggeit a reason why the rcaction rate evenhrally
b'odles. nl

Total mark: 17 (CAM / ICCSE)

throuth b Micro-orcanisrns, differcnt to those Produced hy yeast'

The diagram siuws clrlorine gas beint but'bltd
chance ciucGe into lacti( acrd. Whm lacri' acid is
sodium iodide solution.
h""t"l. decompos€s to form acrylic acid and one
chlorine - ritr"i rit" ttt"ctural formulae of these acids
ar€ shown belo\ .

o HH'-c
H-c -c c'a c- ..o
, sodi,lm iodide solution OH HC
whm acrYic acid
-a i' What safety Prccaution should be takm
lactic acid
."*.* exP€riment? i acid tll
p**tion necessary? U I
ii i^liii irir"i Give the empirical formuld of lactic
t irvrr"i iotri l. tr," *aium iodide ;lution at the start
of ii" Complete the word equation

the experiment? tU ili.?il;

' acrvlil acid + " "" tll
iii sctk tira(would distinguish between these
a test
. iitlt ii tt .
for the reaction betwem chlorine
two acids. l3l
and the sodium iodide solution'
.' ,-than utins an indicator' describe a test that
Cl: + 2Nat > I:+2NaCl *outa smw *tai Uoth of these chemicals contain
isic equation for this acid qrouD.
Write the simPlest balanc€d *." of the chemical that reacts with
rcaction. t2l "' iuJ&i
;ffit.";il ;;i; the ester ahvl acrylah l 1 I
a a"*riH as a rcdox r! ction .ExPlain'
- m" "..tto.
transfer, the meaning o{ thc term .' Oreantc chemicals are made frum Petroleum as well as
in-iei*s oi
Edox reaction for this p'rtiflrlar reaction' i-fr'""t ,"i^"".als such as gluiooe The
i.-* *ier to what is oxidised' what is t,"" .J"a t ale propinol fnrm petroleum:
Jar.J *fti"tt it ttt" agent and which is the "is (racked to make the surtable allene;
"xidising tsl sreD I o€troleum
reducing agent.
Total marks: 10 MEC il; ii;;Iil; ;;;rs with steam to rorm Pmpanol
i Name the'suitable alkene'. lll iv During the cxpcriment there are chang$ in the
ii propanol.
Give the structural formula o( Ill numbtr and types of ions present. Explain thc shnpe
iii What type of reaction takes place b€tween the alkenc of the graph using this information. l3l
ard stearn? 11l Total marks: 11 MEC
Total marks: 16 CAM / ICCSE
E This label has bttn taken from a can of lirrrgo Sprrrl/i;r,r1
'lhis question is about the insoluble salt, barium sulphate. Al'l'h, Dtifik
Hospital paiients are tiven a 'barium mtal' befort an X-
ray r.f their stomaci is taken. This't'ariurn rneal'(ontailrs
bari'rm sulphate. lt can be madc as a white precipilate by
reacting aqueous barium hydroxide with sulphuric acid.
r One mole of barium hydrcxide rcacts with one mole ol
sulphuric acid. Finish the equation for the Eaction.
Ba(OIl)E + H:SO, > ................ + ................ I2l
b The pogress of the Eaction between barium hydroxide
,:rd sulphuric acid can be followed by measuring
eieclric,ri con<iuctivig. r The apple flavorrr is rmprovt'd bv thc prest'nce of malic
acid, C II.O.. l\lalie acid is a urat acirJ. E;iplain what is
sulphuric meant by a u,!,at acid. lrl
acid b It was found that 25.0 cin' of the Td,rgo s,,a*litrg Apylc
conductivity Drirrt was net,.,ali ed by 15.0 cm' of sodium hydroxide,
measuring device of conentration 0.10 moles pe. litre.

ll Thc equation which represents this reaction is

C.H^O, + 2NaOH . C.H,O,Na. + 2H,O
H 100O cml Ca!culate the conccntration of mali( acid in:
barium hydroxide i moles per litre.
solution t21
iiSrams per litre.
i The sulphuric acid is added t cm'at a time. What is
(Relative atomic masses H=l
C=l2 O=16) l2l
the name of the piecr of apparatus containinS the
( Suggest why the concenkation of malic acid in the
sulphuric acid? lrl
Apple Drink may be less than that found by htrahon. [|
ii Thi mi*ure Total mark: 5 NEAB
has to be stirred thotoughly as the acid
is added. Erptain why this is impo.tant in order to The table $ves inlormation about car erhaust emissions.
obtain Eliable results. tll
An exp€timent was Cani€d out, adding tlre sulphuric P.irol (.r Dies.l or Dies.l(u
acid I cm' at a time. After each addition of the no c.hl)'tic c.t lr'tic no trtrl,,tic crt llti(
sulphuric acid, the conductiviW was measured. The
results obtained are shown in the graph. ninqen ordes


cafton d,oride

Key: hithest emissioru xxx interm€diate rr lowest emissions x

@ Tlt T.Woph, ptc, Lbndon. 1994.
0 510 15 20 25
volume ol sulphu c acid in cm3 r i Particulates are very small particles o[ a black solid.
Suggest the name of this black solid. tU
i What volume of sulphuric acid has exactly ii Explain how the oxides of nitrogen are formed in cii
neuhalised the 1000 cmr of barium hydroride entrnes. t3l
solution' iii Why does the catalytic converter increas€ the
ii The concenhation of lhe sulphuric acid is emission of carbon dioxide but decreasB the emission
I mol/dm'. what is :he concentration of the aqueous _ . pollutants?
of the othcr I2l
barium hydroxide? You must show how you work b The o\ides of nitrogen are one cause of acid rain. Acid

... out your an<r{er. l2l

rain incrcas€s the rate of rusting of steel.
iii Barium sulphate has lo bc ven purc lor mcdical u<e i Name and describe the source of the other gas that
Write down one reason why thii method ol causes acid rain. I3l-
preparation would be suitdble. tl I
ii Explain why the rate at which steel rusts is lessened
by'sacrificial protection'. t2l
t dioxide is formed d
by the complete combustion The element tin can exist in two different solid forms.
compdunds. Anither reaction that Grey tin has a diamond type structur€ and white tin
Produces carbon diixidc is fermr,nt.rtion. has a metallic structur€.
I L_omPlete the
following ctluaturn for the i What type of dremical bond, ionic, ocvalent or
of glucose. tin?
r:retallic, is pi'esent rn grey l1i
c"H',o" ii Drx'riir hoir' the carbon atoms are arranged in
'.-+- l2l diamond. i2l
, ^Cive
the conditions for this rcaction.
lll iii Describe a typical metallic struchrre. [31
' air pollutant lt is r.rmed bv the
iv Whrch solid form of tin would bc the better
conductor of electricity? Explain your answer. t2I
NOr+O:;i O,+NO
Total marks:20 CAM / IGCSE

tlpe of reactilrn 12 Aluminium is extracted from bauxite.

tt Y\l
:, l'rt'dict
is this? tt I
a A sample of bauxite corrtained:
ihe effect upon the concentration of ozone i,f'
t n*easin
g emissions .il,,jlm:*ffi aluminiurrr oxide 140 g
ii;)"".81 iron(llt) oxide 44 g
minerai watcr has ihe ioi]t:rving information silical 10 g
'o l"tlilll[f,| titanium(lV) cxide 5g

lonspresenlmgfl Calculate the percentage of aluminium oxide in this

;-_I Osltlve bauxiie.
__..-- !v{r
sample of l2l
calcium b The bauxite is mixed rvith aqueous sodiunn hydroxide and
fluoride 0.05
hcated. Balance the following equation for ihis rcaction:
nragrresium 9
chkrride 9
6 nitrale I AlO. + ......NaOH --> 2NaA!Cf, + HO [l|
r.\.rsrJ,u,u u.6
0.6 sulphate 6
- c Purified aluminium oxide is electroly'sed in tanks lined
hydroBencarbonate 126
---------=.----- rvith carbon.

Toht a.y.e"iau..t fAO
t is sodium
stearate. l,redict the effect of shaking (blocks of (aluminium oxide
with this mineral water. Explain your carbon) dissolved in cryolite

H , trfffJ,ii: *" *,H

and calcium lluoride)

tlIH rs evaPorated? "#:,:1.,H:::.xi*i1**"

What sotid produi t'JL1ilL*,
u ,12
t{ " " I',1ltt been used for u'cr threc thousand
1'ears. molten aluminium
uronze, a copper
/ tin allor,, has been used for eren
=l rollBer.
i How is the electrolyte kept molten? tll
*l l,tr in"." another
alltrv that contains coppcr. l1 I ii What is the purpose of the cryolite? tll
a rcas{)n
',*ii" br,rnr" might Li usotl instc.rtl iii Oxl,gen is pioduced at the positive clectrode. The
=i t ,h[H,t#0"fi,'"
," ttre reactivitv serits is:
tll carbon blocks which form this electrode'burn' away
quickly. Write a symbol equation for this reaction [21

d Aluminium teacts with hydrochloric acid:

*l tin
coPPer aluminium + hydrochloric ----+ aluminium + hydrogen
i The main ore
of tin is tin(lV) oxide, SnOr. By writing acid chloride

;-I ,.
a^word equation,
reouced to
suggest how this ore could he
tin. t2l
i Aoueous aluminium chloride contains aluminium
iois. What particles do aluminium atoms lose when
tt hor each of the
occur. If there
following decide if a reaction would they form aluminium ions? tU
is a reacti6n, complete the equation,
otherwise write,no reaction,.
ii Deicribe a test for hydrogen
tas. t2l
iii Describe what you would observe when aqueous
te + SnCl, + sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containinS -
I ln * C,SO, > ions.
alurr,inium t2l
I bn+p.r. , [l] e Alurrinium is used to make containers for soft drinks.
I c Aqueous tin(ll)
sutphate is electrolyserJ using carbon rec,vcled?
I Why should these containers be tU
electrod_es. Tinis
copper(ll) sulplratr
eleitrolysis is srmitr to that"of f The diagrams show the structures of three substances
usiriu carbon elrctrodes. involved in the extraction of aluminium.
l,tt I\., is the' product Ji the negative electrode?
Write thc cquation for the reaition at the positivo
l1 I
oo *#4-
etectrode. {21
iii Name the acid which is formed during thc
electrolysis. " Ill
Use ideas about structurc and bondinS to exPlain th€ p
et/czooor /
following facts about the following substancss. B
i compound.
Calcium fluoride is a Ill
ii Calcium fluoride conducts eleciricity when molten PS I e,aona /
bui not when sclid. 121
iii Oxygen is a gas. lll 6E I .,'
iv Craphite has. vcry hiBh meltinS point. lll I FtOOr
v Craphite may be used at a lubricart. l2l
E 02468
Total marks: 20 CAM / ICCSE
pr$sur€ in atnosphoGs prgssuro in almosph€ros
13 This ouestion is about ammonia and fertilis€rs.
Ammlnia is made fiom nitlqgen and hydrogm in th€
The produclion of sulphur hioxide is carried out at 1.5
Haber process. The equation is N, + 3H, 2NH' i atmnspk'res rather than at B atmospheres. Explain why,
. Write down the name of the catalyst in this Process ll l using the inlormation in the graphs. l2l
b The diagram shows the energy change when ammonia c When dilute sulphuric acid is added to sodium
is madc. carbonate. NaCO., bubbles of gas are n:adily given off.
write an equation for the reacti.n'
Totalmarks:5 MS
t Ne + 3Hz
e+ I 15 The disposal of plasti. waste presents Pmblems. The
wasle usually (ontains a number.,f different polymers
.,1 2NHr which arc drflicult to separate. flre bt,t way ol disposing
of plastic waste is to makc uscful products from it b,'
progress o{ reaction rccycling.

What can you conclude from this energy level diagram?

( Ammonium nikate is a fertiliser made from ammonia
and nitric acid. Nitric acid is made lrom ammonia in
three stages.
Sta8e I ,btrus
ammonia + orygeir > nitrcSen monoxide + sleam
Stage 2
nitrogen mcnoxide + oxygen + nitro8en dioxide
Stage 3
nrhogen dioxide + water + oxygsn + nrtric acid
a I)cscribe two environrnent.rl problems calsed by thc
i Ammonia is a raw material in this process. What are disposal of plastics. t2l
the other two raw matcriJl!? Ill b Plastic wastc could contain a mixiure of additi()n anLi
ii In Stage 1, the platinum has to be heated to 9m 'C to condensation polymers.
start the reaction. Then the terrperature of the i For the following additinn nolymer. dpduce the
catalyst stays at q)0 oC without the need for further structu.-e and the name of the monomer.
heatint. CHg CH:
What does this tell you about the first state? tl]
Total marks: 5 MEC lt
c cH, c cH,
14 This question is about sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid is
manufacturcd from sulphur dioxide in a twostage
In Stage 1, sulphur dioxide and oxygen are passed over I21
vanadium(V) oxide at 400 "C. The equation for the
ii A condensation polymer can be formed from the
monomers NH(CH2)6NH, and HOOC(CH,)8C@H.
reaction is:
Draw the structure of this polymer l2l
2so: (s) + o, (S) + zso,tr) The first staSe in recycling is io melt the plasli( waste. lf
t:re plastic contains (hlorine, hydrogen chloride is
ln Stage 2, the sulphur lrioxide produced is absorbed by
concentrated sulphuri( acid. This is then alluwed to
formed, which can be oxidis€d bacL to chlorine.
absorb water to pmduce q8.5q sulDhuric acid. Chlorine with methane to give two useful
. What is the io'b of the vanadiurri{Vloride? lfl pnrducts chloromethane and dichloromcthane.
i What are the conditions for the reaction bctween
b Craph A shows the yield of sulphur tnoxrde at
different pressures. Graph B shows the r.o.t ,rl methane and chlorine? ut
maintaining different pressures. ii Draw the structure ofi
chloromethane t2l
dichkrnrmethant, I2l
In the secpnd stage, the plastic is heatt{ to a higher i.
temperahrr€ and it decompoGes to a mixturc th;t
Which compound has the formula C,H.? lll
contains ethenc,.prupane and naphtha. Naphtha is a
ii Which two-compounds are alkenes? iti
iii Which rwo comircunds are isomers ot eac}, other? ili
mixture o, liqlid alkan(s. L(rrk at compounCs A, B and C
i Suggeit the name t)f the techniqur. uscd to separak. i Which onc world vou expect to have tlrc hithesr
. mixtures oi liquid alkanes. -
ii Il I
tlre alkanes in naphtha c:n be cr.rcked. Construct in .. h)ilin8 F,inr? Ill
rq ation for the (rarkin; c,f dtcane, Cn,H,.
lr..t\plarn why vou chrxe this compound. l2l
What is the pmpirical f"rmrrla of c.rrnpound B? il j
c,"H" ' I2l Tota! ma.rks: 7 MEG
Alkenes.are used to mak(,a range of imporlant organic 18 The rliagram.reprsents a s€ction thrcugh the EartlL
chcmicals. rhowing the layers which are labelled i,
B. C and D.
i Name thc pnrducl of the rcaction between butene
and steam. 6-70 km thick
ii lll
write an equation and name the produa of the
reaction between pmpene and bromine. l3l
Toral marks: 18 CAI\r{ /tCCSt
15 Heradecane is a long chail hydrocarbon that can be 2900 km lrom sudace
broken dcwn by craiking.
4900 km lrom sudace
C,.H" > H, + C+t,, + C,H,, + C.H;
. i Draw a st.urlural formula for C.H,,.
ii Draw a structural formula for C.lln
bi Explain with the aid of structural formulae how cenke ol earth
ptopene, C,[ reacts with brominc to form
Cive the namr of.
.. l, 2{ibromopropane.
ii Explain with thc aid of structural formulae how
l4l i_ layer A ltl
propane, C+L reacts with blant brcmine in the
ii layer B hi
presenct of W light to form l-bromoprcpane.
h Gve one differencr between byer C and Layer D. '
il j'
-_ I4l c The outer part of the Earth is mide up of tecionic
c 20 on' of a hydroca$on, C,H. wert miied ir*h
plates. These plates move relative to one another. Some
150 crn'of excess oxygen. The mixture was thm igrrted.
of thes€ plates are shown on the diagram below.
Thc volume o[ gas which remained was 120 qn';hich
then detiease-d to 40 crn.after passing though
limewater All volumes of gases were measured at lhe
Same temperafure and pre!6ure,
i What volume of carhon dioride in cm,. waq formcd sea level
in the reaction?
ii Whal volurne o[,rrygr.n, in r.m', n.acted wrth thc
iii Calculate the values of x and y.
t3l rising
Totalmarks: 15 SEC

17 Here are the shucturcs of some carbon compounds. They

ar€ labelled A, B, C, D, E and f. i Volcanic activity is shown at area e. Describe and
erplain the differene between igneous rocks which
HHH H H HH H HH H H form within the Earth aud thoee-which form at the
surface of
ii Explain what is happening at point R where the two

platesmeet. t2l
B c Total marks: 8 NEAB
19 The continmts have continued to move apart very slowly
HHI,J over the last 200 million years.
H. H
H. _C H-C C-C-H HH
_c=c 8
HH 'l'
HJH -^)ci- -x
Y Y.I'
H-;cl H

Choose from A, B, C, D, E or F to answer the following

20O million y6ars ago