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Discourse Markers,

New Proficiency Gold , Longman Exam Skills, Successful Writing Proficiency

1 Time sequence
When/as soon as/The moment they arrived, the meeting began.
On hearing the news, we immediately phoned to congratulate them.
From early childhood/an early age, she showed great aptitude for music.
Throughout his adult life, he has dedicated himself to helping others.
Up to that time, she had never even been abroad.
Soon Finally At last In the meantime/Meanwhile
Until then From then on Since then
Within minutes After a while Afterwards In no time
By then/that time At first In time
Once Hitherto (weeks) later
Earlier Before that/Previously In the end

2 Listing
First of all/In the first place/To begin with, it must be stated that…
Secondly, it could be argued that… Another area to consider is… Another point to remember is…
Last but not least, it must be remembered that…
Finally, it is important to note that… In conclusion, it is necessary to state that…

3 Adding information/emphasising a point/reformulating

He left early, and on top of that/to cap it all, he didn’t pay for his share for the meal. (informal)
She didn’t really want to see the film, and besides/anyway/anyhow she was too tired to go. (informal)
The rent is reasonable. Moreover/furthermore/in addition the location is perfect.
Not only has he achieved a great deal, but he has also set an example for a generation.
They want new regulations in the hostel; above all, they want to restrict the noise level in the evenings.
These new medicines are perfectly safe. Indeed/To be sure, they can be given to young children.
Regarding /As regards /As far as x is concerned / With/In regard to / Speaking of / As for
To turn to Additionally For one thing
In this respect As well as that In the first place
Apart from What is more More/Most importantly
Alternatively Above all When it comes to

4 Giving examples
Many things contributed to her success, for example,/for instance, hard work, good fortune and the support of her friends.
To illustrate this point, …
Let’s take the example of…
Among others Mainly Particularly Principally Specifically

5 Explaining/reformulating
Some cars are more environmentally friendly than others. That is to say/In other words, they cause less pollution.
He read the newspaper to confirm what he knew already, that is/namely that his team had lost.
You should treat your colleagues as friends, or, better still/rather, as close friends if you want to create a good working atmosphere.
At all events In fact To wit
To be precise Rather In a sense
Actually To put it another way
At least Viz
6 Contrast
She was very kind. By/In contrast, he seemed very callous.
Some people learn languages easily. Conversely, others find it very difficult.
It wasn’t a good thing; on the contrary, it was a huge mistake.
They decided not to take the car. Instead, they caught the next train.
On the one hand I enjoyed their company, but on the other hand their strangeness disturbed me.

7 Concession
Although/Even though he was feeling unwell, he attended the meeting.
Despite feeling unwell, he attended the meeting.
Notwithstanding the claim that the decision was unfair, it is important to note that…
He felt unwell; however/nevertheless/nonetheless, he attended the meeting.
For all its clarity of style, the book is not easy reading. (= Despite)
He was feeling unwell but he attended the meeting all the same/even so. (informal)
She left the cinema before the end of the film whilst/whereas/while I stayed until it had ended.
No matter how many/However many times I listen to that music, it still moves me to tears.
Whoever comes, it will be a valuable opportunity to discuss the problem.
Hard as I tried, I could not do it.
I know there is a recession. All the same, sales should be higher.
Much as I love his music, I still think his new CD leaves a lot to be desired.
Incredible as it may sound, I really like my boss.
I know you are disappointed. Be that as it may, it must be nice to know you are not alone.
Admittedly Still
At the same time True
In the face of Even so

8 Giving opinions
In my opinion/view, he is one of the most impressive writers of our generation.
It seems to me that one of the biggest problems facing us today is…
(Personally), I feel that more needs to be done to encourage children to take responsibility.
I can honestly say that…

9 Commenting/expressing own attitude (sentence adverbials)

Surely it must be obvious to anyone that this plan is doomed to failure.
Clearly, more needs to be done to persuade people to use public transport.
Not surprisingly, there has been considerable opposition to this plan.
Irritatingly/Annoyingly, the authorities have decided to cut the funds available for this project.

10 Giving reasons
Seeing that/As it was getting late, they decided to return home.
Trains are being delayed owing to/because of the inclement weather.
Their delay was due to bad weather.
They liked this idea, in so far as/to the extent that it made money for the company.
Seeing as how (substandard) (= Since)
For this reason
On account of this

11 Purpose
In order for her to live a comfortable life, she had to find a well-paid job.
She spoke quietly in order not to/so as not to wake the sleeping child.
So that
With this in mind
To this end
12 Results/consequences
A lot of people voted for him. Thus/Consequently/Therefore/As a result/Accordingly, he was awarded the prize.
We suspect they are trying to hide something. Hence the need for an independent inquiry.
He became a citizen in 1999, thereby gaining the right to vote.
Many areas have been modernised in such a way as to make the city more attractive to tourists.
It follows
Arising from this
In consequence (formal)
If so /in that case/ otherwise /

13 Comparisons
It’s a good deal/a great deal/very much easier to watch sport than to take part.
She looked as if/as though she’d seen a ghost.
He was nowhere near/nothing like as good at tennis as (he was at) basketball.
The more cities expand, the less access we have to the countryside.
In certain lights In comparison Equally
Similarly By comparison In the same way
Likewise By the same token

14 Summing up
Although the day was not a complete success, all in all it went as well as could be expected.
To sum up/In short, it was a highly successful visit.
Overall, what I most admire is their determination to succeed.
In conclusion/Finally/To conclude, it seems clear that tourism is having an adverse effect on the area.
The team played well, but at the end of the day they just weren’t good enough to win. (informal)
Put simply Strictly speaking Broadly speaking
Altogether Basically Essentially
As a rule By and large Generally
In brief/general/Conclusion/other words

15 Changing the subject

Anyhow At any rate
Anyway Regardless (informal)