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Part 3 Noise A. Thermal agitation noise 22. Form of interference caused by rain or dust storms.

1. What is the non-continuous noise of irregular pulses or spikes of B. Noise factor A. Precipitation static
duration with high amplitudes? C. Noise margin B. Shot-noise
A. Wander D. Signal-to-noise C. Galactic noise
B. Jitter 12. _________ is measured on a circuit when it is correctly D. Impulse noise
C. Hits terminated but does not have any traffic. 23. At 17˚ C, the noise voltage generated by 5kΩ resistor,
D. Singing A. White noise operating over a bandwidth of 20KHz is
2. What theorem sets a limit on the maximum capacity of a B. Galactic noise A. 1.3 nV
channel with a given noise level? C. Impulse noise B. 1.3 µV
A. Nyquist theorem D. Atmospheric noise C. 1.3 pV
B. Hartley law 13. Which standard recommends crosstalk limits? D. 1.3 mV
C. Shannon-Hartley theorem A. CCIT G.152 24. ________ is an electric noise produced by thermal agitation of
D. Shannon theorem B. CCIT G.150 electrons in conductor and semiconductor.
3. Quantizing noise occurs in C. CCIT G.151 A. External noise
A. PCM D. CCIT G.161 B. Internal noise
B. PLM 14. Which standard is utilized in intermodulation noise rates on C. Thermal noise
C. PDM PCM audio channels? D. Flicker
D. PAM A. CCIT Rec. G.151 25. Three identical circuits having 10 dB signal noise-to-noise ratio
4. Noise always affects the signal in a communications systems at B. CCIT Rec. G.172 each are connected in tandem with each other, what is the overall
the ________. C. CCIT Rec. G.190 S/N?
A. transmitter D. CCIT Rec. G.190 A. 5.23 dB
B. channel 15. What is the reference frequency of CCIT phosphomeric noise B. 14.77dB
C. information source measurement? C. 30 dB
D. destination A. 800 Hz D. 40 dB
5. _________ is the random and unpredictable electric signals from B. 1000 Hz 26. The noise figure of the first circuit in tandem connection is
natural causes, both internal and external to the system. C. 1500 Hz 10.5 dB while its power gain is 15, what is the over all noise figure
A. Interference D. 3400 Hz if the second circuit has a noise figure of 11 dB?
B. Attenuation 16. Reference temperature use in noise analysis A. 11.59 dB
C. Distortion A. 75 K B. 11.23 dB
D. Noise B. 250 K C. 10.79 dB
6. Noise from random acoustic or electric noise that has equal C. 290 K D. 10.5 dB
energy per cycle over a specified total frequency band. D. 300 K 27. Is the interference coming from other communications
A. Gaussian noise 17. Which noise is produced by lighting discharges in channels?
B. Whiter noise thunderstorms? A. Jitter
C. Thermal noise A. White noise B. Crosstalk
D. All of the above B. Extraterrestrial noise C. RFI
7. Which causes a quantization noise in PCM system? C. Industrial noise D. EMI
A. Serial transmission errors D. Atmospheric noise 28. What is the reference noise level?
B. The approximation of the quantized signal 18. Man-made noise is usually from _______. A. 10 pW
C. The synchronization between encoder and decoder A. transmission over power lines and by ground wave B. 0 dBm
D. Binary coding techniques B. sky-wave C. 1mW
8. A particular circuit that rids FM of noise C. space-wave D. -90 dBm
A. Detector D. troposphere 29. What is the unit of noise power of psophometer?
B. Discriminator 19. nif stands for A. pWp
C. Phase Shifter A. Non-intrinsic figure B. dBa
D. Limiter B. Noise improvement factor C. dBm
9. What is the reference noise temperature in degrees Celsius? C. Narrow intermediate frequency D. dBrn
A. 17 D. Noise interference figure 30. A large emission of hydrogen from the sun that affects
B. 273 20. Industrial noise frequency is between _____. communications.
C. 25 A. 0 to 10 KHz A. Solar flare
D. 30 B. 160 MHz to 200 MHz B. Cosmic disturbance
10. Unwanted radio signal on assigned frequency. C. 15 to 160 MHz C. Ballistic disturbance
A. Splatter D. 200 to 3000 MHz D. Solar noise
B. RFI 21. External noise fields are measured in terms of _______. 31. Atmospheric noise is known as _______noise.
C. Noise A. rms values A. static
D. EMI B. dc values B. cosmic
11. What is the reliable measurement for comparing amplifier C. average values C. solar
noise characteristics? D. peak values D. lunar
32. Standard design reference for environmental noise temperature. B. dBm 52. A measurement of -75 dBm, C-message weighted, would be
A. 300 K C. dBmc _________ dBrnc.
B. 290 K D. dB A. 8
C. 32 ˚F 43. F1A weighting refers to ___________. B. 7
D. 212˚F A. -90 dBm C. 9
33. Absolute temperature in Kelvin. B. dBrnc0 D. 15
A. ˚C + 273 C. dBrnc 53. Your Western Electric 3A test set meter reading is -23 dBm at
B. ˚C + 75 D. F1A handset at test point level of -8 dB. This is ______ dBrnc0.
C. ˚C + 19 44. Reading a 58 dBrnC on your Western Electric 3A test set at a A. 75
D. ˚C + 290 +7 test point is equal to ______ dBrnc0. B. 29
34. If bandwidth is doubled, the signal power is _________. A. 58 C. 30
A. not changed B. 51 D. 31
B. quadrupled C. 65 54. At what power level does a 1 KHz tone cause zero interference
C. tripled D. 27 (144 weighted)?
D. doubled 45. Reading a 58 dBrn, at a +7 test point is equal to ________ A. 90 dB
35. Name one or more sources of noise bearing on electronic dBa0. B. 90 dBm
communications. A. 26 C. -90 dBm
A. Steam boiler B. 65 D. -90 dBm
B. Galaxies C. 51 55. Reference noise is ___________.
C. Internal combustion engine D. 46 A. a 1000 Hz, -90 dBm tone
D. Both B and C 46. A reading of -50 dBm on the disturbing pair, and -80 on the B. a noise that creates the same interfering effect as a 1000Hz, -
36. The transmitter technique adopted to reduce the noise effect of disturbed pair equals _____ dB of crosstalk coupling. 90dBm tone
the preceding question is called A. 20 C. a noise that creates zero dBrn in a voice channel
A. noise masking B. 30 D. B and C above
B. anitnoise C. 60 56. A practical dBrn measurement will almost always in a _______
C. noise killing D. 25 number.
D. preemphasis 47. Power is __________. A. positive
37. Deemphasis in the receiver in effect attenuates modulating A. actual amount of power reference to 1mW B. negative
signal components and noise in what frequency range? B. logarithmic ratio of two powers C. imaginary
A. dc C. definite amount of energy per time period D. fractional
B. low D. current flow per time period 57. What is the reference level for noise measurement, F1A
C. intermediate 48. 15 dBa F1A weighted, equals ___________. weighted?
D. high A. -90 dBm A. -90 dBm
38. Atmospheric noise or static is not a great problem B. -82 dBm B. -82 dBm
A. at frequencies below 20 MHz C. -85 dBm C. -67 dBm
B. at frequencies below 5 MHz D. -70 dBm D. -85 dBm
C. at frequencies above 30 MHz 49. You are measuring noise in a voice channel with a Lenkurt 58. What is the reference tone level for dBrn?
D. at frequencies above 1 MHz 601A, F1A weighting network and a flat meter. Your meter reads - A. -90 dBm
39. What is the proper procedure for suppressing electrical noise in 47dBm. What is this reading in dBa? B. -82 dBm
a mobile station? A. 77 dBa C. -67 dBm
A. Apply shielding and filtering where necessary B. 35 dBa D. -85 dBm
B. Insulate a all plain sheet metal surfaces from each other C. 38 dBa 59. What is the reference tone level for dBa?
C. Apply anti-static spray liberally to all nonmetallic D. 32 dBa A. -90 dBm
D. Install filter capacitors in series with all dc wiring 50. You are measuring noise at a +3 dB level point, using the B. -82 dBm
40. Where is the noise generated that primarily determines the Lenkurt 601A, F1A weighting network, and a flat meter. The C. -67 dBm
signal-to-noise ratio in a VHF (150MHz) marine-band receiver? meter reading is -57dBm. This is ________dBa0. D. -85 dBm
A. Man-made noise A. 20 60. Atmospheric noise becomes less severe at frequencies
B. In the atmosphere B. 15 A. above 30 MHz
C. In the receiver front end C. 25 B. below 30 MHz
D. In the ionosphere D. 17 C. above 3000 kHz
41. The difference between signal strength at a given point and a 51. You are measuring noise at a -6 dB level point, using the D. below 3000kHz
reference level is________. Lenkurt 601A, F1A weighting network, and a flat meter. The 61. Indicate the noise whose sources are in category different from
A. power meter reading is -59 dBm. This is _________ dBa0. that of the other three?
B. dBm A. 24 A. Solar noise
C. level B. 12 B. Cosmic noise
D. ratio C. 23 C. Atmospheric noise
42. Interfering effect of noise, C message weighted, is _________. D. 32 D. Galactic noise
A. dBa 62. Indicate the false statement.
A. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type 20. The amplifier has a 300 Ω input resistor and a shot noise C. The sun
B. Static is caused by lightning discharges in thunderstorms and equivalent resistance of 500Ω; for the mixer, these values are D. Fluorescent lights
other natural electric disturbances occurring in the atmosphere 2.2kΩ and 13.5kΩ respectively, and the load resistance of the 78. Noise can be reduced by
C. Distant stars are another source of man-made noise mixer is 470 kΩ. Calculate the equivalent noise resistance for this A. widening the bandwidth
D. Flourescent lights are another source of man-made noise television receiver. B. narrowing the bandwidth
63. Which of the following is not a source of industrial noise? A. 8760 Ω C. increasing temperature
A. Automobile ignition B. 875 Ω D. increasing transistor current levels
B. Sun C. 8.76 Ω 79. Noise at the input to the receiver can be as high as several
C. Electric Motors D. 0.876 Ω A. microvolts
D. Leakage from high voltage line 71. One of the following is not a useful quantity for comparing the B. milivolts
64. Indicate the false statement noise performance receivers. C. volts
A. The noise generated in a resistance or the resistive component A. Input noise voltage D. kilo volts
of any impedance is random. B. Equivalent noise resistance 80. Which circuit contributes most of the noise in a receiver?
B. Random noise power is proportional to the bandwidth over C. Noise temperature A. IF amplifier
which is measured D. Noise figure. B. Demodulator
C. A random voltage across the resistor does not exist 72. Indicate the false statement. Noise figure is defined as C. AF amplifier
D. All formula referring to random noise are applicable only to the A. the ratio of the S/N power supplied at the input terminal of a D. Mixer
value of such noise. receiver or amplifier to the S/N power supplied to the output or 81. Which noise figure represents the lowest noise in receiver?
65. The value of the resistor creating thermal noise is doubled. The load resistor A. 1.6 dB
noise power generated is therefore. B. noise factor expressed in decibels B. 2.1 dB
A. halved C. an unwanted form of energy tending to interfere with the proper C. 2.7 dB
B. quadrupled and easy reception and reproduction of wanted signals D. 3.4 dB
C. doubled D. S/N of an ideal system divided by S/N at the output of the 82. The transistor with the lowest noise figure in the microwave
D. unchanged receiver or amplifier under test, both working at the same region is a
66. Indicate the false statement. temperature over the same bandwidth and fed from the same A. MOSFET
A. HF mixer are generally noisier than HF amplifiers. source B. Dual-gate MOSFET
B. Impulse noise voltage is dependent on bandwidth 73. Calculated the noise figure of the amplifier whose Req equals C. JFET
C. Thermal noise is independent of the frequency at which is 2518Ω (RT=600Ω) if its driven by a generator whose output D. MESFET
measured. impedance is 50Ω. 83. What is the noise voltage across a 300Ω input resistance to a
D. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type. A. 39.4 TV set with a 6MHz bandwidth and temperature of 30˚C?
67. An amplifier operating over the frequency range of 455 to 460 B. 3.94 A. 2.3 µV
kHz has a 200 kΩ input resistor. What is the RMS noise voltage at C. 394 B. 3.8 µV
the input to this amplifier if the ambient temperature is 17˚C ? D. 0.394 C. 5.5 µV
A. 40 µV 74. Calculate the noise figure of the receiver whose RF amplifier D. 5.4 µV
B. 4.0 µV has an input resistance of 1000Ω and an equivalent shot-noise 84. Which of the following types of noise becomes of great
C. 400 µV resistance of 2000Ω, a gain of 25 and load resistance of 125 kΩ. importance at frequencies?
D. 4.0 mV Given that the bandwidth is 1.0MHz and the temperature is 20˚C, A. Shot noise
68. The first stage of a two-stage amplifier has a voltage gain of and that the receiver is connected to an antenna with an impedance B. Random noise
10, a 600 Ω input resistor, a 1600Ω equivalent noise resistance and of 75Ω. C. Impulse noise
27kΩ output resistor. For the second stage, these values are 25, A. 30.3 D. Transit-time noise
81kΩ, 19kΩ, and 1MΩ, respectively. Calculate the equivalent B. 3.03 85. The solar cycle repeats the period of great electrical
input-noise resistance of this two stage amplifier. C. 303 disturbance approximately every
A. 2,518 kΩ D. .303 A. 11 years
B. 2,518 Ω 75. A receiver connected to an antenna whose resistance is 50 Ω B. 10 years
C. 251.8 Ω has an equivalent noise resistance of 30Ω. Calculate its equivalent C. 9 years
D. 12,518 Ω noise temperature if the noise figure is equal to 1.6. D. 8 years
69. The noise output of a resistor is amplified by a noiseless A. 17.4 K 86. The square of the thermal noise voltage generated by a resistor
amplifier having a gain of 60 and a bandwidth of 20 kHz. A meter B. 174 K is proportional to
connected at the output of the amplifier reads 1mV RMS. If the C. 1.74 K A. its resistance
bandwidth of the amplifier is reduced to 5kHz, its gain remaining D. 17 K B. its temperature
constant, what does the meter read now? 76. Most internal noise comes from C. the bandwidth over which it is measured
A. 0.5 mV A. Shot noise D. All of the above
B. 0.5 µV B. Transit-time noise 87. Noise occurring in the presence of signal resulting from a
C. 5.0 mV C. Thermal agitation mismatch between the exact value of an analog signal and the
D. 5.0 µV D. Skin effect closet available quantizing step in a digital coder.
70. The front-end of a television receiver, having a bandwidth of 77. Which of the following is not a source of external noise? A. Quantizing noise
7Mhz, and operating at a temperature of 27˚C , consists of an A. Thermal agitation B. Thermal noise
amplifier having a gain of 15 followed by a mixer whose gain is B. Auto ignition C. Impulse noise
D. Crosstalk D. Weather condition C. -67 dBm
88. Noise consisting of irregular pulses of short duration and 98. What do you call the noise coming from the sun and stars? D. -85 dBm
relatively high amplitude, A. Black-body noise 58. What is the reference tone level for dBrn?
A. Quantizing noise B. Space noise A. -90 dBm
B. Tone interference C. Galactic noise B. -82 dBm
C. Impulse noise D. All of these C. -67 dBm
D. Cross talk 99. The major cause of atmospheric or static noise are D. -85 dBm
89. Noise that occurs via capacitive or inductive coupling in a A. Thunderstorms 59. What is the reference tone level for dBa?
cable. B. Airplanes A. -90 dBm
A. Crosstalk C. Meteor showers B. -82 dBm
B. Quantizing noise D. All of these C. -67 dBm
C. Reference noise 100. Which of the following low noise transistors is commonly D. -85 dBm
D. Tone interference used at microwave frequencies? 60. Atmospheric noise becomes less severe at frequencies
90. Sources of impulse noise induced in communication channels. A. MOSFET A. above 30 MHz
A. Erroneous digital coding bit caused by an error on a B. GASFET B. below 30 MHz
transmission facility C. MESFET C. above 3000 kHz
B. Transients due to relay operation D. JFET D. below 3000kHz
C. Crosstalk from dc signaling systems 51. You are measuring noise at a -6 dB level point, using the 61. Indicate the noise whose sources are in category different from
D. All of these Lenkurt 601A, F1A weighting network, and a flat meter. The that of the other three?
91. Crosstalk due to incomplete suppression of sidebands or to meter reading is -59 dBm. This is _________ dBa0. A. Solar noise
intermodulation of two or more frequency-multiplexed channels A. 24 B. Cosmic noise
which is unintelligible is classified as B. 12 C. Atmospheric noise
A. Impulse noise C. 23 D. Galactic noise
B. Thermal noise D. 32 62. Indicate the false statement.
C. Quantizing noise 52. A measurement of -75 dBm, C-message weighted, would be A. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type
D. Miscellaneous noise _________ dBrnc. B. Static is caused by lightning discharges in thunderstorms and
92. ___________ is device that measures the internal open circuit A. 8 other natural electric disturbances occurring in the atmosphere
voltage of an equivalent noise generator having an impedance of B. 7 C. Distant stars are another source of man-made noise
600Ω and delivering noise power to a 600 Ω load. C. 9 D. Flourescent lights are another source of man-made noise
A. Psophometer D. 15 63. Which of the following is not a source of industrial noise?
B. Barometer 53. Your Western Electric 3A test set meter reading is -23 dBm at A. Automobile ignition
C. Reflectometer at test point level of -8 dB. This is ______ dBrnc0. B. Sun
D. Voltmeter A. 75 C. Electric Motors
93. External noise originating outside the solar system B. 29 D. Leakage from high voltage line
A. Cosmic noise C. 30 64. Indicate the false statement
B. Solar noise D. 31 A. The noise generated in a resistance or the resistive component
C. Thermal noise 54. At what power level does a 1 KHz tone cause zero interference of any impedance is random.
D. Lunar noise (144 weighted)? B. Random noise power is proportional to the bandwidth over
94. A noise whose source is within the solar system. A. 90 dB which is measured
A. Solar noise B. 90 dBm C. A random voltage across the resistor does not exist
B. Thermal noise C. -90 dBm D. All formula referring to random noise are applicable only to the
C. Cosmic noise D. -90 dBm value of such noise.
D. Johnson Noise 55. Reference noise is ___________. 65. The value of the resistor creating thermal noise is doubled. The
95. The total noise power present in a 1-Hz bandwidth . A. a 1000 Hz, -90 dBm tone noise power generated is therefore.
A. Noise density B. a noise that creates the same interfering effect as a 1000Hz, - A. halved
B. Noise figure 90dBm tone B. quadrupled
C. Noise limit C. a noise that creates zero dBrn in a voice channel C. doubled
D. Noise intensity D. B and C above D. unchanged
96. Which of the following is not a way of minimizing if not 56. A practical dBrn measurement will almost always in a _______ 66. Indicate the false statement.
eliminating noise? number. A. HF mixer are generally noisier than HF amplifiers.
A. Use redundancy A. positive B. Impulse noise voltage is dependent on bandwidth
B. Increase transmitted power B. negative C. Thermal noise is independent of the frequency at which is
C. Reduce signaling rate C. imaginary measured.
D. Increase channel bandwidth D. fractional D. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type.
97. What is the primary cause of atmospheric noise? 57. What is the reference level for noise measurement, F1A 67. An amplifier operating over the frequency range of 455 to 460
A. Thunderstorm weighted? kHz has a 200 kΩ input resistor. What is the RMS noise voltage at
B. Lightning A. -90 dBm the input to this amplifier if the ambient temperature is 17˚C ?
C. Thunderstorm and lightning B. -82 dBm A. 40 µV
B. 4.0 µV 74. Calculate the noise figure of the receiver whose RF amplifier D. 5.4 µV
C. 400 µV has an input resistance of 1000Ω and an equivalent shot-noise 84. Which of the following types of noise becomes of great
D. 4.0 mV resistance of 2000Ω, a gain of 25 and load resistance of 125 kΩ. importance at frequencies?
68. The first stage of a two-stage amplifier has a voltage gain of Given that the bandwidth is 1.0MHz and the temperature is 20˚C, A. Shot noise
10, a 600 Ω input resistor, a 1600Ω equivalent noise resistance and and that the receiver is connected to an antenna with an impedance B. Random noise
27kΩ output resistor. For the second stage, these values are 25, of 75Ω. C. Impulse noise
81kΩ, 19kΩ, and 1MΩ, respectively. Calculate the equivalent A. 30.3 D. Transit-time noise
input-noise resistance of this two stage amplifier. B. 3.03 85. The solar cycle repeats the period of great electrical
A. 2,518 kΩ C. 303 disturbance approximately every
B. 2,518 Ω D. .303 A. 11 years
C. 251.8 Ω 75. A receiver connected to an antenna whose resistance is 50 Ω B. 10 years
D. 12,518 Ω has an equivalent noise resistance of 30Ω. Calculate its equivalent C. 9 years
69. The noise output of a resistor is amplified by a noiseless noise temperature if the noise figure is equal to 1.6. D. 8 years
amplifier having a gain of 60 and a bandwidth of 20 kHz. A meter A. 17.4 K 86. The square of the thermal noise voltage generated by a resistor
connected at the output of the amplifier reads 1mV RMS. If the B. 174 K is proportional to
bandwidth of the amplifier is reduced to 5kHz, its gain remaining C. 1.74 K A. its resistance
constant, what does the meter read now? D. 17 K B. its temperature
A. 0.5 mV 76. Most internal noise comes from C. the bandwidth over which it is measured
B. 0.5 µV A. Shot noise D. All of the above
C. 5.0 mV B. Transit-time noise 87. Noise occurring in the presence of signal resulting from a
D. 5.0 µV C. Thermal agitation mismatch between the exact value of an analog signal and the
70. The front-end of a television receiver, having a bandwidth of D. Skin effect closet available quantizing step in a digital coder.
7Mhz, and operating at a temperature of 27˚C , consists of an 77. Which of the following is not a source of external noise? A. Quantizing noise
amplifier having a gain of 15 followed by a mixer whose gain is A. Thermal agitation B. Thermal noise
20. The amplifier has a 300 Ω input resistor and a shot noise B. Auto ignition C. Impulse noise
equivalent resistance of 500Ω; for the mixer, these values are C. The sun D. Crosstalk
2.2kΩ and 13.5kΩ respectively, and the load resistance of the D. Fluorescent lights 88. Noise consisting of irregular pulses of short duration and
mixer is 470 kΩ. Calculate the equivalent noise resistance for this 78. Noise can be reduced by relatively high amplitude,
television receiver. A. widening the bandwidth A. Quantizing noise
A. 8760 Ω B. narrowing the bandwidth B. Tone interference
B. 875 Ω C. increasing temperature C. Impulse noise
C. 8.76 Ω D. increasing transistor current levels D. Cross talk
D. 0.876 Ω 79. Noise at the input to the receiver can be as high as several 89. Noise that occurs via capacitive or inductive coupling in a
71. One of the following is not a useful quantity for comparing the A. microvolts cable.
noise performance receivers. B. milivolts A. Crosstalk
A. Input noise voltage C. volts B. Quantizing noise
B. Equivalent noise resistance D. kilo volts C. Reference noise
C. Noise temperature 80. Which circuit contributes most of the noise in a receiver? D. Tone interference
D. Noise figure. A. IF amplifier 90. Sources of impulse noise induced in communication channels.
72. Indicate the false statement. Noise figure is defined as B. Demodulator A. Erroneous digital coding bit caused by an error on a
A. the ratio of the S/N power supplied at the input terminal of a C. AF amplifier transmission facility
receiver or amplifier to the S/N power supplied to the output or D. Mixer B. Transients due to relay operation
load resistor 81. Which noise figure represents the lowest noise in receiver? C. Crosstalk from dc signaling systems
B. noise factor expressed in decibels A. 1.6 dB D. All of these
C. an unwanted form of energy tending to interfere with the proper B. 2.1 dB 91. Crosstalk due to incomplete suppression of sidebands or to
and easy reception and reproduction of wanted signals C. 2.7 dB intermodulation of two or more frequency-multiplexed channels
D. S/N of an ideal system divided by S/N at the output of the D. 3.4 dB which is unintelligible is classified as
receiver or amplifier under test, both working at the same 82. The transistor with the lowest noise figure in the microwave A. Impulse noise
temperature over the same bandwidth and fed from the same region is a B. Thermal noise
source A. MOSFET C. Quantizing noise
73. Calculated the noise figure of the amplifier whose Req equals B. Dual-gate MOSFET D. Miscellaneous noise
2518Ω (RT=600Ω) if its driven by a generator whose output C. JFET 92. ___________ is device that measures the internal open circuit
impedance is 50Ω. D. MESFET voltage of an equivalent noise generator having an impedance of
A. 39.4 83. What is the noise voltage across a 300Ω input resistance to a 600Ω and delivering noise power to a 600 Ω load.
B. 3.94 TV set with a 6MHz bandwidth and temperature of 30˚C? A. Psophometer
C. 394 A. 2.3 µV B. Barometer
D. 0.394 B. 3.8 µV C. Reflectometer
C. 5.5 µV D. Voltmeter
93. External noise originating outside the solar system c. Distant stars d. Thunderstorms
A. Cosmic noise d. Industrial electrical discharges 114. Background noise is the same as the following EXCEPT
B. Solar noise 104. One of the following type of noise becomes of great a. Impulse noise
C. Thermal noise importance in high frequencies. It is the b. Thermal noise
D. Lunar noise a. Shot noise c. White noise
94. A noise whose source is within the solar system. b. Random noise d. Gaussian noise
A. Solar noise c. Impulse noise 115. Noise is caused by the thermal agitation of electrons in
B. Thermal noise d. Transit-time noise resistance
C. Cosmic noise 105. Indicate the false statement a. White noise
D. Johnson Noise a. HF mixers are generally noisier than HF amplifiers b. Thermal noise
95. The total noise power present in a 1-Hz bandwidth . b. Impulse noise voltage is independent of bandwidth c. Johnson’s noise
A. Noise density c. Thermal noise is independent of the frequency at which it is d. All of these
B. Noise figure measured 116. The unit of noise power of psophometer
C. Noise limit d. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type a. dBa
D. Noise intensity 106. The value of a resistor creating noise is doubled. The noise b. pWp
96. Which of the following is not a way of minimizing if not power generated is therefore c. dBm
eliminating noise? a. Halved d. dBm0
A. Use redundancy b. Quadrupled 117. Extra-terrestrial noise is observable at frequencies from
B. Increase transmitted power c. Doubled a. 0 to 20 KHz
C. Reduce signaling rate d. Unchanged b. Above 2 GHz
D. Increase channel bandwidth 107. One of the following is not useful for comparing the noise c. 8 MHz to 1.43 GHz
97. What is the primary cause of atmospheric noise? performance of receivers d. 5 to 8 GHz
A. Thunderstorm a. Input noise voltage 118. What signal-to-noise ratio is required for satisfactory
B. Lightning b. Equivalent noise resistance telephone services?
C. Thunderstorm and lightning c. Noise temperature a. 50 dB
D. Weather condition d. Noise figure b. 30 dB
98. What do you call the noise coming from the sun and stars? 108. Indicate the noise whose source is in a category different from c. 40 dB
A. Black-body noise that d. 20 dB
B. Space noise a. Solar noise 119. A diode generator is required to produce 12 micro V of noise
C. Galactic noise b. Cosmic noise in a receiver with an input impedance of 75 ohms and a noise
D. All of these c. Atmospheric noise power bandwidth of 200 KHz. Determine the current through the
99. The major cause of atmospheric or static noise are d. Galactic noise diode in milliamperes.
A. Thunderstorms 109. Considered as the main source of an internal noise a. 0.4 A
B. Airplanes a. Flicker b. 298 mA
C. Meteor showers b. Thermal agitation c. 0.35 A
D. All of these c. Device imperfection d. 300 mA
100. Which of the following low noise transistors is commonly d. Temperature change 120. The equivalent noise temperature of the amplifier is 25 K.
used at microwave frequencies? 110. Convert noise factor of 4.02 to equivalent noise temperature. What is the noise figure?
A. MOSFET Use 300 K for environmental temperature a. 0.4 A
B. GASFET a. 876 K b. 298 mA
C. MESFET b. 900 K c. 0.35 A
D. JFET c. 906 K d. 300 mA
101. An amplifier operating over a 2 MHz bandwidth has a 80 d. 875 K 121. The resistor R1 and R2 are connected in series at 300 K and
ohms input resistance. It is operating at 27 degree Celsius, has a 111. Atmospheric noise is less severe at frequencies above 400 K temperature respectively. If R1 is 200 ohms and R2 is 300
voltage gain of 200 and input signal of 6 microvolts rms. Calculate a. 10 GHz ohms, find the power produced at the load (RL = 500 ohms) over a
the output rms noise. b. 30 MHz bandwidth of 100 KHz.
a. 325.6 millivolts c. 1 GHz a. 0.05 nanowatts
b. 0.326 millivolts d. Audio level b. 0.2 nanowatts
c. 32.55 microvolts 112. The most common unit of noise measurement in white noise c. 0.5 femtowatts
d. d. 0.3255 microvolts voltage testing d. 2.0 femtowatts
102. Man-made noise is caused by a. NPR 122. The random unpredictable electric signals from natural
a. Lightning discharge b. dBrn causes, both internal and external to the system is known as
b. Solar eruptions c. dBW a. Distortion
c. Distant stars d. dBm b. Noise
d. Arc discharges in electrical machines 113. What is the major cause of atmospheric or static noise? c. Distortion
103. Cosmic noise is produced by a. Meteor showers d. Interference
a. Lightning discharge b. Sunspots 123. Given a factor of 10, what is the noise figure in dB?
b. Solar eruption c. Airplanes a. 20 dB
b. 10 dB a. 70 deg F 141. Determine the shot noise for a diode with a forward bias of
c. 50 dB b. 30 deg C 1.40 mA over an 80 kHz bandwidht. (q = 1.6×10 raised to minus 9
d. 40 dB c. 290 Kelvin C)
124. The signal in a channel is measured to be 23 dBm while noise d. 25 deg C a. 6 nA
in the same channel is measured to be 23 dBm while noise in the 133. Industrial noise frequency is between b. 3 mA
same channel is measured to be 9 dBm. The signal to noise ratio a. 200 to 3000 MHz c. 12 nA
therefore is b. 15 to 160 MHz d. 15 nA
a. 32 dB c. 0 to 10 kHz 142. The total noise power present in a 1 – Hz bandwidth
b. 5 dB d. 20 GHz a. Noise density
c. -14 dB 134. Noise from random acoustic or electric noise that has equal b. Noise figure
d. 14 dB per cycle over a specified total frequency band c. Noise limit
125. If voltage is equal to twice its original value, what is its a. Thermal noise d. Noise intensity
corresponding change in dB? b. White noise 143. An amplifier with an overall gain of 20 dB is impressed with
a. 3 dB c. Gaussian noise a signal whose power level is 1 watt. Calculate the output power in
b. 6 dB d. All of these dBm.
c. 9 dB 135. A transistor amplifier has a measured S/N power of 100 at its a. 50 dBm
d. 12 dB input and 20 at its output. Determine the noise figure of the b. 150 dB
126. NIF stand for transistor. c. 80 dBm
a. Non-intrinsic noise figure a. 14 dB d. 100 dBm
b. Narrow interference figure b. 7 dB 144. What is the effect on the signal to noise ratio of a system (in
c. Noise improvement factor c. -6 dB dB) if the bandwidth is doubled considering all other parameters to
d. Noise interference figure d. -3 dB remain unchanged except the normal thermal noise only. The S/N
127. Two resistors rated 5 ohms and 10 ohms are connected in 136. What does the noise weighing curve show? will be
series and are at 27 degrees Celsius. Calculate their combined a. Noise signals measured with a 144 handsets a. Increased by a factor of 2
thermal noise voltage for a 10 KHz bandwidth. b. Power levels of noise found in carrier systems b. Decreased by ½ its value
a. 0.05 millivolts c. The interfering effect of other frequencies in a voice channel c. Increased by a factor of 4
b. 0.5 millivolts compared with a reference frequency of one kilohertz d. Decreased to ¼ its value
c. 0.05 microvolts d. Interfering effects of signals compared with a 3-KHz tone 145. Express the ratio in decibels of noise power ratio 50 is to 10
d. 0.005 microvolts 137. The signal power of the input to an amplifier 100 microW and watts.
128. What is the reference frequency of CCITT psophometric the noise power is 1 microW. At the output, the signal power is 1 a. 7 dB
noise measurement? W and the noise power is 40 mW. What is the amplifier noise b. 21 dB
a. 800 Hz figure? c. 14 dB
b. 1500 Hz a. -6 dB d. 3.5 dB
c. 3400 Hz b. 9 dB 146. What do you call the noise coming from the sun and stars?
d. 1000 Hz c. 6 dB a. Black-body noise
129. A three-stage amplifier is to have an overall noise temperature d. -3 dB b. Space noise
no greater than 70 K. The overall gain of the amplifier is to be at 138. In measuring noise in a voice channel at a -4 dB test point c. Galactic noise
least 45 dB. The amplifier is to be built by adding a low-noise first level, the meter reads -70 dBm (F1A weighted), convert the d. All of these
stage with existing characteristics as follows: stage 2 has 20 dB reading into pWp. 147. A satellite has a noise figure of 1.6 dB. Find its equivalent
power gain and 3 dB noise figure. Stage 3 has 15 dB power gain a. 53 noise temperature.
and 6 dB noise figure. Calculate the maximum noise figure (in dB) b. 93 a. 139 K
that the first stage can have. c. 63 b. 192 K
a. 0.267 dB d. 83 c. 291 K
b. 0.56 dB 139. An amplifier with 20 dB gain is connected to another with 10 d. 129 K
c. 1.235 dB dB gain by means of a transmission line with a loss of 4 dB. If a 148. What is the primary cause of atmospheric noise?
d. 0.985 dB signal with a power level of -14 dBm were applied to the system, a. Thunderstorm
130. A transistor has measured S/N power of 60 at its input and 19 calculate the power output. b. Lightning
at its output. Determine the noise figure of the transistor. a. 14 dBm c. Thunderstorm and lightning
a. 5 dB b. -12 dB d. Weather condition
b. 10 dB c. -20 dB 149. In a microwave communications system, determine the noise
c. 2.5 dB d. 12 dBm power in dBm for an equivalent noise bandwidth of 10 MHz.
d. 7.5 dB 140. Two resistors, R1 and R2 have temperatures of 300 K and 400 a. -104 dBm
131. Which does not affect noise in a channel? K, respectively. What is the noise power if the two resistors are b. -114 dBm
a. None of these connected in series at 10 MHz bandwidth? c. -94 dBm
b. Bandwidth a. 96.6 fW d. -174 dBm
c. Temperature b. 55.2 fW 150. The solar cycle repeats the period if great electrical
d. Quantizing level c. 41.4 fW disturbance approximately every
132. Reference noise temperature d. 88.36 fW a. 11 years
b. 10 years c. Flicker d. 1.86
c. 9 years d. Mixer 170. A receiver connected to an antenna whose resistance is 50
d. 8 years 160. The noise figure of a totally noiseless device is ohms has an equivalent noise resistance of 30 ohms. What is the
a. Unity receiver’s noise temperature?
151. A current change that is equal to twice its original value will b. Infinity a. 464°K
correspond to a change of c. Zero b. 754°K
a. 3 dB d. 100 c. 400°K
b. 9 dB 161. Indicate the noise whose source is in a category different from d. 174°K
c. 10 dB that of the other three. 171. A theoretical antenna has a gain of 1dB. Its gain in nepers is
d. 6 dB a. Solar a. 8.686
152. What does a power difference of –3 dB mean? b. Cosmic b. 0.1151
a. A loss of one third of the power c. Atmospheric c. 6.868
b. A loss of one-half of the power d. Galactic d. 0.5111
c. A loss of 3 watts of power 162. The ratio(in dB) of the power of a signal at point to the power 172. What is the equivalent output of a circuit in dBm, if it has an
d. No significant change of the same signal at the reference point. output of 10 watts?
153. A gain of 60 dB is the same as a gain of a. Transmission Level Point a. 10 dBm
a. 10 volts/volt b. Noise Figure b. 30 dBm
b. 100 volts/volt c. S/N Ratio c. 20 dBm
c. 1000 volts/volt d. Neper d. 40 dBm
d. 10,000 volts/volt 163. A network has a power gain of –3 dB. If the input power is 173. An amplifier with an input resistance of 1000 ohms is
154. ______ is mathematically equal to the logarithm to the base 100 watts, the output power is operating over a 4 MHz bandwidth. Calculate the rms voltage if
ten of the power ratio P1 over P2. a. 50 watts the amplifier is operating at 27 °C.
a. bel b. 55 watts a. 8.14 nV
b. dB c. 60 watts b. 8.14 uV
c. bel/10 d. 62 watts c. 6.6 nV
d. dB/2 164. Which of the following types of noise becomes of great d. 6.6 uV
155. Noise that is produced by the active components within the importance at high frequencies? 174. The value of a resistor creating thermal noise is doubled. The
receiver. a. Shot noise power generated is therefore
a. Thermal b. Random a. Halved
b. External c. Impulse b. Quadrupled
c. Internal d. Transmit time c. Doubled
d. White 165. The input current of a network is 190 µA and the output is 1.3 d. Unchanged
156. Noise due to random variation in the arrival of charge carriers µA. The loss in decibels is 175. One of the following is not a useful quantity for comparing
at the output electrode of an active device a. 20.2 the noise performance of receivers.
a. Shot b. 21.6 a. Input noise voltage
b. Impulse c. 28.6 b. Equivalent noise resistance
c. Thermal d. 43.3 c. Noise temperature
d. Dynamic 166. If a network connected in series have a gain of -0.5 dB, - d. Noise figure
157. A network has a loss of 20 dB. What power ratio corresponds 0.3dB, -2dB and 6.8dB, the overall gain is 176. Any unwanted form of energy that tends to interfere with the
to this loss a. 2 dB wanted signal is called
a. 0.01 b. –2 dB a. Noise
b. 0.1 c. 4 dB b. Spectrum
c. 10 d. –4 dB c. Radiation
d. 100 167. What is the gain, in dB, if the output to input ratio is 1000. d. Absorption
158. A receiver connected to an antenna whose resistance is 60 a. 20 177. The correct symbol for decibel is
ohms has an equivalent noise resistance of 40 ohms. Calculate the b. 30 a. DB
receiver’s noise figure in decibels and its equivalent noise c. 40 b. dB
temperature. d. 10 c. Db
a. 1.67 & 194°K 168. The following characteristics of noise except d. db
b. 2.23 & 194°K a. Unwanted energy 178. _____ is the noise created outside the receiver.
c. 1.67 & 174°K b. Predictable in character a. Internal
d. 2.23 & 194°K c. Present in the channel b. External
159. _____ Noise is the most prevalent noise found in urban areas d. Due to any cause c. Shot
and is normally caused by the arc discharge from automobile or 169. The equivalent noise temperature of the amplifier is 25 °K d. Industrial
aircraft ignition systems, induction motors, switching gears, high what is the noise figure? 179. _____ is the noise created by man.
voltage lines and the like. a. 10.86 a. Solar
a. Industrial b. 1.086 b. Industrial
b. Johnson c. 0.1086 c. Extraterrestrial
d. Galactic a. Temperature a. Noise figure
180. A voltage change that is equal to twice its original value b. Bandwidth b. S/N ratio
correspond to a change of c. a and b c. Signal Figure
a. 3 dB d. NOTA d. Figure of Meri
b. 6 dB 191. Thermal noise is also known as 201. A power level of 50 µW could be expressed as:
c. 9 dB a. Gaussian Noise a. 1.39 dBm
d. 10 dB b. White Noise b. -4.3 dBm
181. Indicate the voltage level in dB with reference to one volt. c. Johnson noise c. 1 dBm
This unit is used in video or TV measurement d. All of the above d. -13 dBm
a. dBW 192. This type of noise has a power spectrum which decreases with 202. If a power of 0.25 mW is launched into a fiber system with an
b. dBk increasing frequency. It is most important at low frequencies from overall loss of 15 dB the output power would be:
c. dBm 0 to about 100 Hz). a. 250 µ/W
d. dBV a. Shot noise b. 31.6 µW
182. which of the following is not an actual amount of power? b. Flicker noise c. 7.9 µW
a. dB c. Diode noise d. 15 dBm
b. dBm d. BJT noise 203. A system having an input power of 2 mW an output power of
c. dBw 193. Industrial noise extends up to what frequency? 0.8mW has a loss of:
d. dBk a. 500 MHz a. 2.98 dBm
183. In noise analysis, the reference temperature is b. 500 GHz b. 3.98 dB
a. 75 K c. 500 THz c. 3.98 µW
b. 250 K d. 500 KHz d. 1.98 mW
c. 290 K 194. Impulse Noise is 204. An output of -10 dB means that the power has been
d. 300 K a. A function of current a. Halved in value
184. Noise from distant panels, stars, galaxies and other celestial b. A shot duration pulse b. Increased by a factor of 10
objects are called c. Dependent of frequency c. Reduced by a factor of 10
a. Cosmic d. Dependent of temperature d. Doubled
b. Extraterrestrial 195. When the power ratio of the output to input of a circuit is 200. 205. Any unwanted form of energy interfering the reception of
c. Galactic What is the gain in dB? wanted signal is called
d. Black body a. 23 a. Noise
185. Indicate which one of the following types of noise does not b. 46 b. Sideband
occur in transistors c. –23 c. Harmonics
a. Shot noise d. –46 d. Modulation
b. Flicker noise 196. What is the reference level for random noise measurement, 206. Is the reduction of signal amplitude as it passed over the
c. Partition noise FIA weighted? transmission medium.
d. Resistance noise a. –82 dBm a. Noise
186. Which of the following is not a source of space noise b. –90 dBm b. Distortion
a. Sun c. –85 dBm c. Attenuation
b. Star d. – 77 dBm d. Interference
c. Lightning 197. A 10 dB pad has an output level of -3 dBm. The level at the 207. Signal waveform perturbation or deviation caused by
d. Black body input is: imperfect response of the system to the desired signal
187. Noise that is due to the random and rapid motion of the a. 13 dBm a. Noise
charge carriers inside a resistive component. b. -7 dBm b. Aliasing
a. Johnson c. 1 dBm c. Distortion
b. Thermal Agitation d. 7 dBm d. Interference
c. White 198. The sum of three signals of 45dBm each is ______ dBm. 208. Signal attenuation can be corrected by
d. All of the above a. 45 a. Filtering
188. Indicate the false statement. The square of the thermal noise b. 135 b. Modulation
voltage generated by a resistor is proportional to c. 20 c. Equalization
a. Its resistance d. 50 d. Amplification
b. Its temperature 199. It is characterized by high amplitude peaks of short duration 209. Distortion in a waveform can be corrected by
c. Boltzmann’s Constant in the total noise spectrum a. Filtering
d. The bandwidth over which it is measured a. Intermodulation voice b. Modulation
189. In a communication system, noise is likely to affect the signal b. Impulse noise c. Equalization
a. At the transmitter c. Dropout d. Amplification
b. In the channel d. Phase hits 210. Signal contamination by extraneous or external sources, such
c. In the information source 200. Originally was determined by measuring the interfering effect as, other transmitters, power lines, and machinery.
d. At the destination of noise in a Type 144 handset. A tone of 1 kHz, having a power a. Noise
190. The noise power generated by a resistor is proportional to level of 90 dBm was selected as the reference level. b. Distortion
c. Harmonics d. pWp a. S/N
d. Interference 221. The extent of noise referred to a test tone level of zero dBm. b. VSWR
211. Man-made or industrial noise is also known as a. dBa c. Noise factor
a. Noise b. dBm d. Noise margin
b. Distortion c. dBa0 231. NIF stands for
c. Interference d. pWp a. Non-intrinsic figure
d. Thermal Noise 222. An amplifier operating over a 4 MHz bandwidth has a 100 Ω b. Noise interference figure
212. The noise performance of a receiver or circuit. It is expressed input resistance and is operating at 300°K. Determine the noise c. Noise improvement factor
as ratio of the S/N power at the output. power generated. d. Narrow intermediate frequency
a. Noise figure a. 1.656 x 10-14 Watts 232. External noise fields are measured in terms of
b. S/N ratio b. 1656 nW a. Dc values
c. Signal figure c. 1.656 pW b. Rms values
d. Figure of merit d. 1.656 uW c. Peak values
213. Noise that is caused by natural disturbances such as lightning 223. Generally used when noise readings are measured using the d. Average values
discharge. C-message weighting network. The reference level was 1 kHz 233. Form of interference caused by rain, hail, snow or dust storms
a. Static noise tone, set at -90 dBm a. Shot noise
b. Space noise a. dBa b. Galactic noise
c. Atmospheric noise b. dBm c. Impulse noise
d. A or C c. dBaO d. Precipitation static
214. Atmospheric or static noise becomes less severe at d. dBmC 234. Extra-terrestrial noise is observable at frequencies from
frequencies 224. The measurement of noise was made with a C-message filter, a. 0 to 20 KHz
a. Below 30 KHz and the reading is taken at a test point where the level is zero dBm. b. 8 MHz to 1.43 GHz
b. Between 30 KHz and 300 KHz a. dBaO c. 5 to 8 GHz
c. Between 300 KHz and 30 MHz b. dBmCo d. 15 to 160 MHz
d. Above 30 MHz c. dBa 235. Industrial noise is observable from
215. Considered as space noise or extraterrestrial noise d. dBmC a. 15 to 160 MHz
a. Solar noise 225. Which of the following is not an important cause of distortion b. 200 to 3000 MHz
b. Cosmic noise in DC signaling c. 0 to 10 kHz
c. Black-body noise a. line resistance d. 8 Mhz to 1.43 GHz
d. All of the above b. line inductance 236. Noise that becomes significant at VHF range and above
216. Which statement is true c. line capacitance a. Atmospheric
a. Industrial noise is usually of impulse type d. all of the above b. Transit-time
b. Distant stars produce atmospheric noise 226. There are a number of different sources of radio noise, the c. Galactic
c. Active switches are sources of man-made noise most important being d. White
d. Static noise is due to lightning discharges and other natural a. Galactic noise 237. Noise figure for an amplifier with noise is always
electric disturbances occurring in the atmosphere. b. Man-made noise a. 0 dB
217. Noise performance of microwave system is usually expressed c. Atmospheric noise b. Infinite
in terms of d. All of the above c. Less than 1
a. Noise voltage, Vn = √4KTBR 227. The amount of noise power is measured using a psophometric d. Greater than 1
b. Noise power, Pn = KTB weighting network. This unit of measurement is generally used in 238. The noise generated by the tube, transistor or integrated
c. Noise temperature, Te = (F – 1)290 Europe where the standard reference tone is 800 hertz, 1 picowatt. circuit in an amplifier.
d. Noise figure, F = (S/N)I / (S/N)o a. dBa a. White noise
218. Which circuit contributes most to the noise at the receiver? b. dBm b. Amplification noise
a. RF amplifier c. dBaO c. Active noise
b. Mixer d. pWp d. Dynamic Noise
c. Detector 228. Noise produced mostly by lightning discharges in 239. Electrical noise inherent to a particular device, circuit or
d. Local Oscillator thunderstorms. system that remains when no other signal is present.
219. Which noise figure represents the lowest noise? a. White noise a. Shot noise
a. 1.5 dB b. Industrial noise b. Thermal noise
b. 2.0 dB c. Atmospheric noise c. Background noise
c. 3.7 dB d. Extraterrestrial noise d. Static noise
d. 4.1 dB 229. Propagation of man made noise is chiefly by 240. A wideband form of impulse noise generated by the electric
220. Denote the interference of noise in dB above an adjusted a. Transmission over power lines and by ground wave arc in the spark plugs of an internal combustion engine. This noise
reference noise. The adjusted reference noise level was a 1 kHz b. Space wave is a common problem in mobile radio system.
tone, set at -85 dBm c. Sky wave a. Thermal noise
a. dBa d. None of these b. Shot noise
b. dBm 230. A more precise evaluation of the quality of a receiver as far as c. Amplification noise
c. dBa0 noise is concerned d. Ignition noise
241. The amount of power in dB referred to one Kilowatt c. Circuit noise d. 45 degrees
a. dBW d. External noise 8. A changing electric field gives rise to ________.
b. dBk a. a magnetic field
c. dBm b. sound field
d. Dbv c. electromagnetic waves
242. Noise in any form of electromagnetic interference that can be d. near and far fields
traced to non-natural causes. 9. Frequencies in the UHF range propagate by means of
a. Man-made noise a. ground waves
b. Distortion b. sky waves
c. External noise c. surface waves
d. Internal noise d. space waves
243. The frequency range wherein noise is said to be intense. 10. In electromagnetic waves, polarization __________.
a. Noise equivalent bandwidth a. is caused by reflection
b. Spectral response b. is due to the transverse nature of the waves
c. Cut-off frequency c. results from the longitudinal nature of the waves
d. Noise cut-off frequency d. is always vertical in an isotropic medium
244. Refers to the temperature that corresponds to the spectral 11. Electromagnetic Waves are refracted when they ___________.
energy distribution of a noise. a. pass into a medium of different dielectric constants
a. Absolute temperature b. are polarized at right angles to the direction of propagation
b. Temperature band c. encounter a perfectly conducting surface
c. Noise-equivalent temperature d. pass through a small slot in a conducting plane
d. Critical temperature Part 4 Radiation and wave propagation 12. What is the highest layer of the atmosphere?
245. A passive circuit, usually consisting of capacitance and/or 1. ________ is the amount of voltage induced in wave by an a. ionosphere
inductance, that I inserted in series with the a-c power cord of an electro magnetic wave. b. stratosphere
electronic device which will allow the 60-Hz current to pass and a. receive voltage c. troposphere
suppressed high frequency noise components. b. magnetic induction d. ozone layer
a. Noise filter c. field strength 13. What is the thickest layer of the ionosphere?
b. Noise limiter d. power density a. F2
c. Noise floor 2. An electro magnetic wave consists of ___________. b. F1
d. Noise quieting a. both electric and magnetic fields. c. D
246. What do you call the level of background noise, relative to b. an electric field only d. E
some reference signal. c. a magnetic field only 14. Effective Earth radius to true earth radius ratio.
a. Noise figure d. non-magnetic field only a. index of refraction
b. Minimum noise 3. What is the lowest layer of the ionosphere? b. K factor
c. Reference noise a. F1 c. Fresnel zone
d. Noise floor b. F2 d. path profile
247. A circuit often used in radio receivers that prevents externally c. E 15. Fading due to interference between direct and reflected rays.
generated noise from exceeding amplitude. They are also called d. D a. atmospheric-multipath
noise clippers 4. Who propounded electro magnetic radiation theory? b. Fresnel zone
a. Noise floor a. Sir Edward Appleton c. reflection-multipath
b. Noise filter b. James Clerk Maxwell d. Rayleigh fading
c. Noise limiter c. Christian Huygens 16. The layer that reflects very low frequency waves and absorbs
d. Noise clamper d. Sir Isaac Newton medium frequency waves.
248. It is referred to as a short burst of electromagnetic energy. 5. The D, E and F layers are known as ____________. a. D Layer
a. Pulse a. Mark – space Layers b. E Layer
b. Noise pulse b. Davinson- Miller Layers c. F1 Layer
c. Spike c. Kennely – Heaviside Layers d. F2 Layer
d. Noise floor d. Appleton Layers 17. What layer is used for high-frequency day time propagation?
249. The reduction of internal noise level in a frequency- 6. Different grouping of the electromagnetic spectrum. a. D Layer
modulated (FM) receiver as a result of an incoming signal. a. band b. E Layer
a. Noise quieting b. bandwidth c. F1 Layer
b. Noise limiting c. channel d. F2 Layer
c. Noise suppression d. group 18. What is the highest frequency that can be sent straight upward
d. Noise degradation 7. What is the relation in degrees of the electric and magnetic and be returned to earth?
250. Noise generated within electronic equipment by either passive fields in an electromagnetic wave? a. MUF
or active components. a. 180 degrees b. skip frequency
a. Shot noise b. 90 degrees c. critical frequency
b. Thermal noise c. 270 degrees d. gyro frequency
19. High frequency range is from? d. horizontal wave b. horizontal
a. 0.3 to 3MHz 30. Light goes from medium A to medium B at angle of incidence c. vertical
b. 3 to 30MHz of 40 degrees. The angle of refraction is 30 degrees. The speed of d. circular
c. 30 to 300MHz light in B 40. What are the two interrelated fields considered to make up an
d. 3to 30MHz a. is the same as that in A electromagnetic wave
20. Medium frequency range is from b. is greater than that in A a. an electric field and a current field
a. 0.01 to 0.03 MHz c. maybe any of these, depending on the specific medium b. an electric field and voltage field
b. 0.03 to 0.3MHz d. is less than that in A c. an electric field and a magnetic field
c. 0.3 to 3MHz 31. In a vacuum, the speed of an electromagnetic wave d. a voltage and current fields
d. 3 to 30 MHz a. depends on its constant 41. How does the bandwidth of the transmitted signal affect
21. In tropospheric scatter propagation, the attenuation is b. depends on its wavelength selective fading?
dependent on c. depends on its electric and magnetic fields a. it is more pronounced at narrow bandwidths
a. scatter angle d. is a universal constant b. it is equally pronounced at both narrow and wide bandwidths
b. take-off angle 32. The depth of an object submerged in a transparent liquid c. it is more pronounced at wide bandwidths
c. antenna size a. always seems more that its actual depth d. the receiver bandwidth determines the selective fading
d. the troposphere b may seem less or more than its actual depth, depending on the 42. A wide-bandwidth communications systems in which the RF
22. If the transmitter power remains constant, an increase in the object carrier varies according to some predetermined sequence.
frequency of the sky wave will c. always seems less than its actual depth a. amplitude compandored single sideband
a. lengthen the skip distance d. may seem less or more than its actual depth, depending on the b. SITOR
b. increase the range of the ground wave transparent liquid c. spread spectrum communication
c. reduce the length of the skip distance 33. What is a wave front? d. time-domain frequency modulation
d. have no effect on the ground wave range a. a voltage pulse in a conductor 43. A changing magnetic field gives rise to
23. What is the unit of electric field strength? b. a current in a conductor a. sound field
a. volts per square meter c. a fixed point in an electromagnetic wave b. magnetic field
b. volt per square cm d. a voltage pulse across a resistor c. electric field
c. volts per meter 34. VHF ship station transmitters must have the capability of d. nothing in particular
d. millivolt per watt reducing carrier power to 44. When a space-wave signal passes over a mountain ridge, a
24. Velocity of a radio wave in free space. a. 1 W small part of the signal is diffracted down the far side of the
a. 186,000 miles per sec b. 10 W mountain. This phenomenon is called
b. 300×106 meters per sec c. 25 W a. discontinuity scattering
c. 162,000 nautical mile per sec d. 50 W b. troposheric ducting
d. all of the above 35. Most of the effects an electro magnetic wave produces when it c. knife-edge diffraction
25. Refers to the direction of the electric field vector in space. interacts with matter are due to its d. space-wave refraction
a. polarization a. magnetic field 45. The index of refraction of a material medium
b. directivity b. speed a. is greater than 1
c. radiation c. frequency b. is less than 1
d. ERP d. electric field c. is equal to 1
26. An TEM wave whose polarization rotates. 36. A mobile receiver experiences “dead” areas of reception as a d. maybe any of the above
a. vertically polarized result of 46. At what speed do electromagnetic waves travel in free space?
b. omnidirectional a. atmospheric absorption a. approximately 468 million meters per second
c. horizontally polarized b. tropospheric scatter b. approximately 186300 ft/s
d. circularly polarized c. sporadic E c. approximately 300 million m/s
27. velocity of light in free space d. shading of the RF signal by hills and trees d. approximately 300 million miles/s
a. 300×106 m/s 37. When the electric field is perpendicular in the surface of the 47. What is the effective earth radius when surface refractivity, and
b. 300×106 km/s earth, what is the polarization of the TEM wave? N equals 300?
c. 186,000 km/s a. elliptical a. 6370 km
d. 186,000 m/s b. vertical b.7270 km
28. What is the effective radiated power of a repeater with 200W c. horizontal c.7950 km
transmitter power output, 4dB feed line loss, 4dB duplexer and d. circular d. 8500 km
circulator loss, and 10dB feed line antenna gain? 38. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the surface of the 48. If N = 250, what is the earth radius K-factor?
a. 2000 W earth, what is the polarization of the TEM wave? a. 1.23
b. 126 W a. circular b. 1.29
c. 317 W b. horizontal c. 1.33
d. 260 W c. vertical d. 1.32
29. Radio wave that is far from its sources is called d. elliptical 49. Electric field that lies in a plane perpendicular to the earths
a. Plane wave 39. When the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the earth, surface
b. isotropic wave what is the polarization of the TEM wave? a. vertical polarization
c. vertical wave a. elliptical b. horizontal polarization
c. circular polarization d. VLF a. Amplitude
d. elliptical polarization 60. The ground wave eventually disappears as one moves away b. Resonance
50. Electric field that lies in a plane parallel to the earth’s surface from the transmitter because of c. Waveform
a. vertical polarization a. interference from the sky wave d. Pitch
b. horizontal polarization b. loss of line – of – sight conditions 71. All real images
c. circular polarization c. maximum single-hop distance limitation a. Are erect
d. elliptical polarization d. tilting b. Can appear on screen
51. Indicate which one of the following terms applies to 61. in electromagnetic waves, polarization means c. Are inverted
troposcatter propagation a. the physical orientation of magnetic field in space d. Cannot appear on a screen
a. SIDs b. the physical orientation of electric field in space 72. When a beam of light enters one medium from another, a
b. fading c. ionization quality that never changes is its
c. atmospheric storms d. the presence of positive and negative ions a. Direction
d. faraday rotation 62. an electromagnetic waves travel in free space, only one of the b. Frequency
52. VLF waves are used for some types of services because following can happen to them. c. Speed
a. of the low power required a. absorption d. Wavelength
b the transmitting antennas are of convenient size b. attenuation 73. Relative to the angle of incidence, the angle of refraction
c. they are very reliable c. refraction a. Is smaller
d. they penetrate the ionosphere easily d. reflection b. Is larger
53. Indicate which of the following frequencies cannot be used for 63. the absorption of a radio waves by the atmosphere depends on c. Is the same
reliable beyond-the-horizon terrestrial communications without a. their frequency d. Either A or B above
repeaters b. their distance from the transmitter 74. A light ray enters one medium from another along the normal.
a. 20 KHz c. the polarization of the waves The angle of refraction is
b. 15 MHz d. the polarization of the atmosphere a. 0
c. 900 MHz 64. diffraction of electromagnetic waves b. 90 degrees
d. 12 GHz a. is caused by reflections from the ground c. Equal to the critical angle
54. High-frequency waves are b. arises only with spherical wavefronts d. Dependent on the indexes of refraction of the two media
a. absorbed by the F2 layer c. will occur when the waves pass through a large slot 75. What layer aids MF surface-wave propagation a little and
b. reflected by the D layer d. may occur around the edge of a sharp object reflects some HF waves in daytime?
c. capable of use for long-distance communications on the moon 65. In an electromagnetic wave the electric field is a. E layer
d. affected by the solar cycle a. Parallel to both magnetic field and the wave direction b. D layer
55. Distances near the skip distance should be used for sky-wave b. Perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the wave direction c. F1 layer
propagation c. Parallel to the magnetic field and perpendicular to the wave d. F2 layer
a. to avoid tilting direction 76. Dispersion is the term used to describe
b. to prevent sky-wave and upper ray interference d. Perpendicular to the magnetic field and parallel to the wave a. The splitting of white light into its component colors in
c. to avoid the faraday effect direction refraction
d. so as not to exceed the critical frequency 66. The highest frequencies are found in b. The propagation of light in straight lines
56. A ship-to-ship communications system is plague by fading. a. X-rays c. The bending of a beam of light when it goes from one medium
The best solution seems to be the use of b. Radio waves to another
a. a more directional antenna c. Ultraviolet rays d. The bending of a beam of light when it strikes a mirror
b. a broadband antenna d. Radar waves 77. The depth of an objects submerged in a transparent liquid
c. frequency diversity 67. Electromagnetic waves transport a. Always seems less than its actual depth
d. space diversity a. Wavelength b. Always seems more than its actual depth
57. A range of microwave frequencies more easily passed by the b. Charge c. May seems more than its actual depth, depending on the index of
atmosphere than are the others is called a c. Frequency refraction of the liquid
a. window d. Energy d. May seem less or more than its actual depth depending on the
b. critical frequency 68. The ionosphere is a region of ionized gas in the upper angle of view
c. gyro frequency range atmosphere. The ionosphere is responsible for 78. Total internal reflection can occur when light passes from one
d. resonance in the atmosphere a. The blue color of the sky medium to another
58. frequencies in the UHF range normally propagate by means of b. Rainbows a. That has a lower index of refraction
a. ground waves. c. Long distance radio communication b. That has a larger index of refraction
b. sky waves d. The ability of satellites to orbit the earth c. That has the same index of refraction
c. surface waves 69. Light of which the following colors has the shortest d. At less than the critical angle
d. space waves wavelength 79. When the light ray approaches a glass-air interface from the
59. Tropospheric scatter is used with frequencies in the following a. Red glass side at the critical angle, the angle of refraction is
range b. Yellow a. 0
a. HF c. Blue b. 90 degrees
b. VHF d. Green c. 45 degrees
c. UHF 70. The quality in sound that corresponds to color in light is d. Equal to the angle of incidence
80. The brightness of light source is called its luminous intensity , c. 120 lx d. Satellite wave
whose unit is d. 1508 lx 100. Highest layer in the ionosphere
a. Candela 90. Microwave signals propagate by way of the a. F1
b. Lux a. Direct wave b. D
c. Lumen b. Sky wave c. F2
d. Footcandle c. Surface wave d. E
81. Luminous efficiency is least for a d. Standing wave 101. An amplifier operating over a 2 MHz bandwidth has a 80
a. Low-wattage light bulb 91. The ionosphere causes radio signals to be ohms input resistance. It is operating at 27 degree Celsius, has a
b. Mercury vapor lamp a. Diffused voltage gain of 200 and input signal of 6 microvolts rms. Calculate
c. High-wattage light bulb b. Absorbed the output rms noise.
d. Fluorescent tube c. Refracted a. 325.6 millivolts
82. The minimum illumination recommended for reading is d. Reflected b. 0.326 millivolts
a. 8000 cd 92. Ground wave communications is most effective in what c. 32.55 microvolts
b. 8000 lx frequency range? d. d. 0.3255 microvolts
c. 8000 lm a. 300 KHz to 3 MHz 102. Man-made noise is caused by
d. 800 W b. 3 to 30 MHz a. Lightning discharge
83. Light enters a glass plate whose index of refraction is 1.6 at an c. 30 to 300 MHz b. Solar eruptions
angle of incidence of 30 degrees . the angle of refraction is d. Above 300 MHz c. Distant stars
a. 18 degrees 93. The ionosphere has its greatest effect on signals in what d. Arc discharges in electrical machines
b. 48 degrees frequency range? 103. Cosmic noise is produced by
c. 19 degrees a. 300 KHz to 3 MHz a. Lightning discharge
d. 53 degrees b. 3 to 30 MHz b. Solar eruption
84. Light leaves a slab of transparent material whose index of c. 30 to 300 MHz c. Distant stars
refraction is 2 at an angle of refraction of 0 degrees. The angle of d. Above 300 MHz d. Industrial electrical discharges
incidence is 94. The type of radio wave responsible for long distance 104. One of the following type of noise becomes of great
a. 0 degrees communications by multiple skips is the importance in high frequencies. It is the
b. 45 degrees a. Ground wave a. Shot noise
c. 30 degrees b. Direct wave b. Random noise
d. 90 degrees c. Surface wave c. Impulse noise
85. Light enters a glass plate at an angle of incidence of 40 degrees d. Sky wave d. Transit-time noise
and is refracted at an angle refraction of 25 degrees. The index 95. Line of sight communications is not a factor in which 105. Indicate the false statement
refraction of the glass is frequency range? a. HF mixers are generally noisier than HF amplifiers
a. 0.625 a. VHF b. Impulse noise voltage is independent of bandwidth
b. 1.52 b. UHF c. Thermal noise is independent of the frequency at which it is
c. 0.66 c. HF measured
d. 1.6 d. Microwave d. Industrial noise is usually of the impulse type
86. An underwater swimmer shines a flash light beam upward at an 96. A microwave-transmitting antenna is 550ft high. The receiving 106. The value of a resistor creating noise is doubled. The noise
angle of incidence of 40 degrees. The angle of refraction is 60 antenna is 200ft high. The minimum transmission distance is power generated is therefore
degrees. The index of refraction of water is a. 20 mi a. Halved
a. 0.67 b. 33.2 mi b. Quadrupled
b. 1.3 c. 38.7 mi c. Doubled
c. 0.74 d. 53.2 mi d. Unchanged
d. 1.5 97. To increase the transmission distance of UHF signal, which of 107. One of the following is not useful for comparing the noise
87. The critical angle of incidence for light going from crown glass the following should be done? performance of receivers
(n=1.5) to ice (n=1.3) is a. Increase antenna gain a. Input noise voltage
a. 12 degrees b. Increase antenna height b. Equivalent noise resistance
b. 50 degrees c. Increase transmitter power c. Noise temperature
c. 42 degrees d. Increase receiver sensitivity d. Noise figure
d. 60 degrees 98. States that power density is inversely proportional to the 108. Indicate the noise whose source is in a category different from
88. The solid angle subtended by a hemisphere about its center is distance from its source. that
a. π/2 sr a. Principle of reciprocity a. Solar noise
b. 2 π sr b. Inverse square law b. Cosmic noise
c. π sr c. Huygen’s Princple c. Atmospheric noise
d. depends on the radius of the hemisphere d. Faraday’s law d. Galactic noise
89. the luminous flux emitted by a 60-cd isotropic light source is 99. gets in contact with the ionosphere and reflected by it. 109. Considered as the main source of an internal noise
concentrated on an area of 0.5m2. the illumination of the area is a. Space wave a. Flicker
a. 9.6 lx b. Sky wave b. Thermal agitation
b. 377 lx c. Surface wave c. Device imperfection
d. Temperature change 120. The equivalent noise temperature of the amplifier is 25 K. 129. A three-stage amplifier is to have an overall noise temperature
110. Convert noise factor of 4.02 to equivalent noise temperature. What is the noise figure? no greater than 70 K. The overall gain of the amplifier is to be at
Use 300 K for environmental temperature a. 0.4 A least 45 dB. The amplifier is to be built by adding a low-noise first
a. 876 K b. 298 mA stage with existing characteristics as follows: stage 2 has 20 dB
b. 900 K c. 0.35 A power gain and 3 dB noise figure. Stage 3 has 15 dB power gain
c. 906 K d. 300 mA and 6 dB noise figure. Calculate the maximum noise figure (in dB)
d. 875 K 121. The resistor R1 and R2 are connected in series at 300 K and that the first stage can have.
111. Atmospheric noise is less severe at frequencies above 400 K temperature respectively. If R1 is 200 ohms and R2 is 300 a. 0.267 dB
a. 10 GHz ohms, find the power produced at the load (RL = 500 ohms) over a b. 0.56 dB
b. 30 MHz bandwidth of 100 KHz. c. 1.235 dB
c. 1 GHz a. 0.05 nanowatts d. 0.985 dB
d. Audio level b. 0.2 nanowatts 130. A transistor has measured S/N power of 60 at its input and 19
112. The most common unit of noise measurement in white noise c. 0.5 femtowatts at its output. Determine the noise figure of the transistor.
voltage testing d. 2.0 femtowatts a. 5 dB
a. NPR 122. The random unpredictable electric signals from natural b. 10 dB
b. dBrn causes, both internal and external to the system is known as c. 2.5 dB
c. dBW a. Distortion d. 7.5 dB
d. dBm b. Noise 131. Which does not affect noise in a channel?
113. What is the major cause of atmospheric or static noise? c. Distortion a. None of these
a. Meteor showers d. Interference b. Bandwidth
b. Sunspots 123. Given a factor of 10, what is the noise figure in dB? c. Temperature
c. Airplanes a. 20 dB d. Quantizing level
d. Thunderstorms b. 10 dB 132. Reference noise temperature
114. Background noise is the same as the following EXCEPT c. 50 dB a. 70 deg F
a. Impulse noise d. 40 dB b. 30 deg C
b. Thermal noise 124. The signal in a channel is measured to be 23 dBm while noise c. 290 Kelvin
c. White noise in the same channel is measured to be 23 dBm while noise in the d. 25 deg C
d. Gaussian noise same channel is measured to be 9 dBm. The signal to noise ratio 133. Industrial noise frequency is between
115. Noise is caused by the thermal agitation of electrons in therefore is a. 200 to 3000 MHz
resistance a. 32 dB b. 15 to 160 MHz
a. White noise b. 5 dB c. 0 to 10 kHz
b. Thermal noise c. -14 dB d. 20 GHz
c. Johnson’s noise d. 14 dB 134. Noise from random acoustic or electric noise that has equal
d. All of these 125. If voltage is equal to twice its original value, what is its per cycle over a specified total frequency band
116. The unit of noise power of psophometer corresponding change in dB? a. Thermal noise
a. dBa a. 3 dB b. White noise
b. pWp b. 6 dB c. Gaussian noise
c. dBm c. 9 dB d. All of these
d. dBm0 d. 12 dB 135. A transistor amplifier has a measured S/N power of 100 at its
117. Extra-terrestrial noise is observable at frequencies from 126. NIF stand for input and 20 at its output. Determine the noise figure of the
a. 0 to 20 KHz a. Non-intrinsic noise figure transistor.
b. Above 2 GHz b. Narrow interference figure a. 14 dB
c. 8 MHz to 1.43 GHz c. Noise improvement factor b. 7 dB
d. 5 to 8 GHz d. Noise interference figure c. -6 dB
118. What signal-to-noise ratio is required for satisfactory 127. Two resistors rated 5 ohms and 10 ohms are connected in d. -3 dB
telephone services? series and are at 27 degrees Celsius. Calculate their combined 136. What does the noise weighing curve show?
a. 50 dB thermal noise voltage for a 10 KHz bandwidth. a. Noise signals measured with a 144 handsets
b. 30 dB a. 0.05 millivolts b. Power levels of noise found in carrier systems
c. 40 dB b. 0.5 millivolts c. The interfering effect of other frequencies in a voice channel
d. 20 dB c. 0.05 microvolts compared with a reference frequency of one kilohertz
119. A diode generator is required to produce 12 micro V of noise d. 0.005 microvolts d. Interfering effects of signals compared with a 3-KHz tone
in a receiver with an input impedance of 75 ohms and a noise 128. What is the reference frequency of CCITT psophometric 137. The signal power of the input to an amplifier 100 microW and
power bandwidth of 200 KHz. Determine the current through the noise measurement? the noise power is 1 microW. At the output, the signal power is 1
diode in milliamperes. a. 800 Hz W and the noise power is 40 mW. What is the amplifier noise
a. 0.4 A b. 1500 Hz figure?
b. 298 mA c. 3400 Hz a. -6 dB
c. 0.35 A d. 1000 Hz b. 9 dB
d. 300 mA c. 6 dB
d. -3 dB b. Space noise 156. Knife edge diffraction:
138. In measuring noise in a voice channel at a -4 dB test point c. Galactic noise a. Is the bending of UHF frequency radio waves around a building,
level, the meter reads -70 dBm (F1A weighted), convert the d. All of these mountain or obstruction
reading into pWp. 147. A satellite has a noise figure of 1.6 dB. Find its equivalent b. Causes the velocity of wave propagation to be different than the
a. 53 noise temperature. original wave
b. 93 a. 139 K c. Both a and b above
c. 63 b. 192 K d. Attenuate UHF signal
d. 83 c. 291 K 157. The average range for VHF communications is
139. An amplifier with 20 dB gain is connected to another with 10 d. 129 K a. 5 miles
dB gain by means of a transmission line with a loss of 4 dB. If a 148. What is the primary cause of atmospheric noise? b. 15 miles
signal with a power level of -14 dBm were applied to the system, a. Thunderstorm c. 30 miles
calculate the power output. b. Lightning d. 100 miles
a. 14 dBm c. Thunderstorm and lightning 158. A 500 kHz radiates 500 W of power. The same antenna
b. -12 dB d. Weather condition produces a field strength equal 10 1.5 mV/, If the power delivered
c. -20 dB 149. In a microwave communications system, determine the noise by the antenna is increased to 1 kW, what would be the expected
d. 12 dBm power in dBm for an equivalent noise bandwidth of 10 MHz. field intensity?
140. Two resistors, R1 and R2 have temperatures of 300 K and 400 a. -104 dBm a. 3 mV/m
K, respectively. What is the noise power if the two resistors are b. -114 dBm b. 1.732 mV/m
connected in series at 10 MHz bandwidth? c. -94 dBm c. 2.12 mV/m
a. 96.6 fW d. -174 dBm d. 1.456 mV/m
b. 55.2 fW 150. The solar cycle repeats the period if great electrical 159. The earth’s layer is struck by a meteor; a cylindrical region of
c. 41.4 fW disturbance approximately every free electron is formed at what layer of the ionosphere?
d. 88.36 fW a. 11 years a. F1 layer
141. Determine the shot noise for a diode with a forward bias of b. 10 years b. E layer
1.40 mA over an 80 kHz bandwidht. (q = 1.6×10 raised to minus 9 c. 9 years c. F2 layer
C) d. 8 years d. D layer
a. 6 nA 151. What propagation condition is usually indicated when a VHF 160. What happens to a radio wave as it travels in space and
b. 3 mA signal is received from a station 500 miles away? collides with other particles
c. 12 nA a. D-layer absorption a. Kinetic energy is given up by the radio wave
d. 15 nA b. Faraday rotation b. Kinetic energy is gained by the radio wave
142. The total noise power present in a 1 – Hz bandwidth c. Tropospheric ducting c. Aurora is created
a. Noise density d. Moonbounce d. Nothing happens since radio waves have no physical substance
b. Noise figure 152. How does the bandwidth of the transmitted signal affect 161. Find the characteristic impedance of polyethylene, which has
c. Noise limit selective fading? a dielectric constant of 2.4.
d. Noise intensity a. It is more pronounced at wide bandwidths a. 163.9 ohms
143. An amplifier with an overall gain of 20 dB is impressed with b. It is more pronounced at narrow bandwidths b. 377 ohms
a signal whose power level is 1 watt. Calculate the output power in c. It is equally pronounced in both narrow and wide bandwidth c. 243 ohms
dBm. d. The receiver bandwidth determines the selective fading effect d. 250 ohms
a. 50 dBm 153. How much farther does the radio-path horizon distance 162. What is the maximum range for signals using transequatorial
b. 150 dB exceed the geometric horizon? propagation
c. 80 dBm a. By approximately 15% of the distance a. About 1000 miles
d. 100 dBm b. By approximately twice the distance b. About 2500 miles
144. What is the effect on the signal to noise ratio of a system (in c. By approximately one-half the distance c. About 5000 miles
dB) if the bandwidth is doubled considering all other parameters to d. By approximately four times the distance d. About 7500 miles
remain unchanged except the normal thermal noise only. The S/N 154. Determine the dB gain of a receiving antenna which delivers a 163. Calculate the electric field intensity in millivolts per meter at
will be microvolt signal to a transmission line over that of an antenna that 30 kW from a 5 km source.
a. Increased by a factor of 2 delivers a 2 microvolt signal under identical circumstances. a. 190 mV/m
b. Decreased by ½ its value a. -6 b. 95.49 uV/m
c. Increased by a factor of 4 b. -3 c. 0.189 W/m
d. Decreased to ¼ its value c. 6 d. 13.416 V/m
145. Express the ratio in decibels of noise power ratio 50 is to 10 d. 3 164. What is the index of refraction of a certain substance if light
watts. 155. What is transequatorial propagation travels through the substance at 100 meters at a time it is 140 meter
a. 7 dB a. Propagation between two points at approximately the same to air?
b. 21 dB distance north and south of the magnetic equator a. 1.183
c. 14 dB b. Propagation between two points on the magnetic equator b. 1.4
d. 3.5 dB c. Propagation between two continent by way of ducts along the c. 0.714
146. What do you call the noise coming from the sun and stars? magnetic equator d. 0.845
a. Black-body noise d. Propagation between any two station at the same latitude 165. What s selective fading?
a. A fading effect caused by small changes in beam heading at the d. 6.86 GW/ sq. m 183. At what speed do electromagnetic waves travel in space?
receiving station 174. What is the knife edge diffraction? a. Approximately 300 million meters per second
b. A fading caused by phase difference between radio wave a. Allows normally line-of-sight signals to bend around sharp b. Approximately 468 million meters per second
components of the same transmission as experienced at the edges, mountain ridges, building and other obstruction c. Approximately 186, 300 feet per second
receiving station b. Arching in sharp bends of conductors d. Approximately 300 million miles per second
c. A fading caused by large changes in the height of the ionosphere c. Phase angle image rejection 184. The maximum number of free electrons in a certain
as experienced at the receiving station d. Line-of-sight causing distortion to other signals ionospheric layer is 3.256x 10 ^ 13 per cu m. the critical frequency
d. A fading effect caused by the time difference between the 175. The total power delivered to the radiator of an isotropic is
receiving and transmitting stations antenna is 200, 000 W. determine the power density at a distance a. 51.355 MHz
166. To what distance is VHF propagation ordinarily limited? of 100 meters b. 17.118 MHz
a. Approximately 100 miles a. 1.59 W/sq m c. 34.237 MHz
b. Approximately 500 miles b. 24.49 W/sq m d. 5.706 MHz
c. Approximately 1500 miles c. 3.18 W/sq m 185. What are electromagnetic waves?
d. Approximately 2000 miles d. 244.95 W/sq m a. Alternating currents in the core of an electromagnet
167. Why does the radio path horizon distance exceed the 176. The bending of radio waves passing over the top of a b. A wave consisting of two electric fields at right angles to each
geometric horizon? mountain range disperse a weak portion of the signal behind the other
a. E-layer skip mountain is c. A wave consisting of an electric field and a magnetic field at
b. D-layer skip a. Eddy-current phase effect right angles to each other
c. Auroral skip b. Knife-edge diffraction d. A wave consisting of two magnetic fields at right angles to each
d. Radio waves may be bent c. Shadowing other
168. Determine the effective radiated power of 20kW TV d. Mirror refraction effect 186. When the electric field is perpendicular to the surface of the
broadcast transmitter whose antenna has a field gain of 2. 177. A radio wave moves from air (er=1) to glass (er=7.8). Its earth, what is the polarization of the electromagnetic wave?
a. 40 kW angle of incidence is 20 degrees. What is the angle of refraction? a. Circular
b. 80 kW a. 7 degrees b. Vertical
c. 20 kW b. 29 degrees c. Horizontal
d. 10 kW c. 10.3 degrees d. Elliptical
169. What is the major cause of selective fading? d. 72.79 degrees 187. Determine the refractive index of an ionospheric layer with
a. Small changes in beam heading at the receiving station 178. A dipole antenna requires to be feed with 20 kW of power to 1.567×10^6 free electrons per cu m. The frequency of the radio
b. Large changes in the height of the ionosphere as experienced in produce a given signal strength available with an input power of 11 wave is 32 kHz.
the receiving station kW. What is the dB gain obtained by the use of the reflector? (gain a. 0.999
c. Time difference between the receiving and transmitting station referred to this particular dipole) b. 0.936
d. Phase differences between the radio waves components of the a. -2.6 dB c. 0.956
same transmission as experienced in the receiving station b. 2.6 dB d. 0.987
170. Determine the critical frequency value of an HF signal if its c. 5.19 dB 188. What is meant by electromagnetic waves as horizontally
maximum usable frequency is 7050.50 kHz at 35 degrees d. -5.19 dB polarized?
incidence. 179. What is a wavefront? a. The electric field is parallel to the earth
a. 4936.8 kHz a. A voltage pulse in a conductor b. The magnetic field is parallel to the earth
b. 5775 kHz b. A current pulse in a conductor c. Both the electric and magnetic field are horizontal
c. 4044 kHz c. A voltage pulse across a resistor d. Both the electric and magnetic field are vertical
d. 4908.75 kHz d. A fixed point in an electromagnetic wave 189. Why do electromagnetic waves not penetrate a good
171. What is the propagation effect called when phase difference 180. What is meant by referring to electromagnetic waves as conductor to any great extent?
between radio wave components of the same transmission are having circular polarization? a. The electromagnetic field induces currents in the insulator
experiences at the recovery station? a. The electric field is bent into a circular shape b. The oxide on the conductor surface acts as a shield
a. Faraday’s rotation b. The electric field rotates c. Because of eddy currents
b. Diversity reception c. The electromagnetic wave continues to circle the earth d. The resistivity of the conductor dissipates the field
c. Selective fading d. The electromagnetic wave has been generated by a quad antenna 190. A transmitter has a power output of 250 W at a carrier
d. Phase shift 181. An automobile travels at 90 km/h, find the time between fades frequency of 325 MHz. it is connected to an antenna with a gain of
172. What is the best time for transequatorial propagation? if the car uses a cellphone at 800 MHz 12 dBi. The receiving antenna is 10 km away and has a gain of 5
a. Morning a. 11.2 ms dBi. Calculate the power delivered to the receiver, assuming free-
b. Noon b. 15 ms space propagation. Assume that there are no losses or mismatches
c. Afternoon or early evening c. 7.5 ms in the system.
d. Transequatorial propagation only works at night d. 4.7 ms a. 404 nW
173. The dielectric strength of a certain medium is about 2.85 182. When the electric field is parallel to the surface of the earth, b. 2.04 nW
MV/m. what is the maximum power density of an electromagnetic what is the polarization of the electromagnetic wave? c. 960 nW
wave in this medium? a. Vertical d. 680 nW
a. 23.9 GW/ sq. m b. Horizontal 191. What is the frequency to use for skywave propagation if the
b. 67.7 GW/ sq. m c. Circular critical frequency is 15 MHZ and the angle of radiation is 60
c. 21.5 GW/ sq. m d. Elliptical degrees?
a. 17.32 MHz c. Surface wave the ground. What is the maximum communication distance
b. 30 MHz d. Standing wave between the dispatcher and a taxi?
c. 25.5 MHz 201. The cumulative sum of the direct, ground-reflected, and a. 21 km
d. 14.722 MHz surface waves is reflected to as _________. b. 30 km
192. When the magnetic field is parallel tot eh surface of the earth, a. Space wave c. 25 km
what is the polarization of the electromagnetic field? b. Ground wave d. 33 km
a. Circular c. Sky wave 211. The E layer of the ionosphere aid _________ propagation and
b. Horizontal d. Direct waves reflects _________ waves
c. Elliptical 202. The D layer of the ionosphere reflects _________ waves. a. MF, HF
d. Vertical a. MF and HF b. HF, MF
193. What is the index of refraction of a certain medium if the b. VLF and MF c. LF, MF
velocity of propagation of a radio wave in this medium is c. MF and VHF d. MF, LF
1.527×10^8 m/s? d. VLF and LF 212. When microwave signals follows the curvature of the earth, it
a. 0.509 203. A diversity scheme wherein the same radio signal is repeated is known as
b. 0.631 or transmitted more than once. a. the Faraday effect
c. 0.713 a. polarization diversity b. ducting
d. 1.965 b. field component diversity c. tropospheric scatter
194. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the surface of the c. time diversity d. ionospheric scatter
earth, what is the polarization of the electromagnetic field? d. frequency diversity 213. If the polarization vector rotates 360 degrees as the wave
a. Circular 204. The disadvantage of ground wave propagation is moves one wavelength through space and field strength is equal at
b. Horizontal a. Ground waves require a relatively high transmission power all angles of polarization, the polarization is _________.
c. Elliptical b. Ground waves are limited to very low, low and medium a. Vertically polarized
d. Vertical frequencies requiring large antennas b. Horizontally polarized
195. Frequencies most affected by knife-edge refraction are c. Ground losses very considerably with surface material c. Circularly polarized
a. Low and medium frequencies d. Any of these d. Elliptically polarized
b. High frequencies 205. A range of microwave frequencies more easily passed by the 214. _________ travels essentially in a straight line between the
c. Very high and ultra high frequencies atmosphere than the others is called a transmit and the receive antennas
d. 100 kHz to 3 MHz a. window a. Direct waves
196. The ionosphere causes radio signals to be b. critical frequency b. Sky waves
a. Diffused c. gyro frequency range c. Space waves
b. Absorbed d. resonance in the atmosphere d. Surface waves
c. Refracted 206. It is simply the orientation of the electric field vector in 215. Variations brought about the revolution of the earth around
d. Reflected respect to the surface of the Earth the sun
197. To increase the transmission distance of a UHF signal, which a. Polarization a. weather variation
of the following should be done? b. Wavefront b. cyclical variation
a. Increase antenna gain c. Rays c. diurnal variation
b. Increase antenna height d. Power density d. seasonal variation
c. Increase transmitter power 207. For an isotropic antenna radiating 100W of power, what is 216. The dielectric strength of air is about 3MV/m. Arching is
d. Increase receiver sensitivity power density 1000m from the source? likely to take place at field strengths greater than that. What is the
198. A receiver-transmitter station used to increase the a. 1.99 µW/m^2 maximum power density of an electromagnetic wave in air?
communications range of VHF, UHF and microwave signals is b. 7.96 µW/m^2 a. 40 GW/m^2
called a(an) c. 3.22 µW/m^2 b. 15.5 GW/m^2
a. Transceiver d. 9.17 µW/m^2 c. 23.9 GW/m^2
b. Remitter 208. The ground wave eventually disappears, as moves away from d. 18.9 GW/m^2
c. Repeater the transmitter, because of 217. It is a single location from which rays propagate equally in all
d. Amplifier a. interference from the sky wave directions
199. A taxi company uses a central dispatcher with an antenna at b. loss of line-of-sight conditions a. point source
the top of a 25 m tower, to communicate with the taxicabs. The c. maximum single hop distance limitations b. omnidirectional source
taxi antennas are on the roofs of the cars, approximately 1.5 m d. tilting c. ideal polarization
above the ground. Calculate the maximum communication distance 209. If the electric field is propagating parallel to the surface of the d. isotropic polarized
between the dispatcher and a taxi. Earth, the polarization is _________. 218. Diffraction of electromagnetic waves
a. 25.7 km a. Circular a. is caused by reflections from the ground
b. 8.8 km b. Vertical b. arises only with spherical waveforms
c. 21 km c. Horizontal c. will occur when the waves pass through a large slot
d. 10.1 d. Elliptical d. may occur around the edge of a sharp obstacle
200. Microwave propagate by means of 210. A taxi company uses a central dispatcher, with an antenna at 219. The critical frequency at a particular time is 11.6MHz. What
a. Direct wave the top of a 15m tower, to communicate with taxi cabs. The taxi is the MUF for a transmitting station if the required angle of
b. Sky wave antennas are on the roofs of the cars, approximately 1.5m above incidence for propagation to a desired destination is 70 degrees?
a. 34 MHz d. dispersion 238. Calculate the electric field intensity, in volts per meter, 20 km
b. 45 MHz 229. The reduction of power density with distance is equivalent to from a 1-kW source.
c. 40 MHz a power loss. a. 3.44 mW/m
d. 15.5 MHz a. absorption b. 7.65 mW/m
220. The rate at which energy passes through a given surface area b. attenuation c. 8.66 mW/m
in free space is called _________. c. distance loss d. 1.45 mW/m
a. capture power d. power dissipation 239. The absorption of radio waves by the atmosphere depends on
b. capture area 230. The signal refracted back from the ionosphere strikes the a. their frequency
c. captured power density earth and is reflected back up to the ionosphere again to be bent b. their distance from the transmitter
d. power density and sent back to earth. c. the polarization of waves
221. A radio wave moves from air (relative permittivity is 1) to a. skip transmission d. is always vertical in an isotropic medium
glass (relative permittivity is 7.8). Its angle of incidence is 30 b. multi-hop transmission 240. Calculate the radio horizon for a 500-ft transmitting antenna
degrees. What is the angle of refraction? c. multi transmission and receiving antenna of 20 ft.
a. 10.3 degrees d. hop transmission a. 23.1 mi
b. 11.2 degrees 231. Electromagnetic waves are refracted when they b. 31.2 mi
c. 20.4 degrees a. pass into a medium of different dielectric constant c. 14.8 mi
d. 0.179 degrees b. are polarized at right angles to the direction of propagation d. 37.9 mi
222. It is the intensity of the electric and the magnetic fields of the c. encounter a perfectly conducting surface 241. Calculate the power received from a 20-W transmitter, 22,000
electromagnetic wave propagating in free space d. pass through a small slot in a conducting plane miles from earth, if the receiving antenna has an effective area of
a. field intensity 232. The reduction in power density due to non free-space 1600m^2
b. field density propagation a. 4.06 x 10^-12 W
c. power intensity a. absorption b. 2.03 x 10^-12 W
d. power intensity b. attenuation c. 1.02 x 10^-12 W
223. Radio propagation was predicted mathematically by c. power dissipation d. 0.91 x 10^-12 W
a. Heinrich R. Hertz d. distance loss 242. As electromagnetic waves travel in free space, only one of the
b. Guglielmo Marconi 233. _________ is the signal that is radiated by the antenna into following can happen to them
c. James Clerk Maxwell the atmosphere where it is bent or reflected back to earth. a. absorption
d. Alexander Graham Bell a. ground wave signal b. attenuation
224. Tropospheric scatter is used with frequencies in the following b. sky wave signal c. refraction
range c. space wave signal d. reflection
a. HF d. direct waves signal 243. Electromagnetic waves travelling within Earth’s atmosphere
b. VHF 234. It is a type of fading having different effect different is called
c. UHF frequencies a. Space wave
d. VLF a. Selective fading b. Surface wave
225. A point source that radiates power at a constant rate uniformly b. Polarization fading c. Terrestrial wave
in all directions. c. Interference fading d. Sky-wave
a. isotropic source d. Absorption fading 244. Calculate the power density in watts per square meter (on
b. isotropic radiator 235. It is defined as the modulation or redistribution of energy earth) from a 10-W satellite source that is 22,000 miles from earth.
c. point source within a wave front as it passes near the edge of an opaque object. a. 3.17 x 10^ -16 W/m^2
d. any of these a. refraction b. 6.35 x 10^ -16 W/m^2
226. The transmitting distance with direct waves is limited to short b. scattering c. 2.31 x 10^ -16 W/m^2
distances and strictly a function of the _________ of the c. reflection d. 1.21 x 10^ -16 W/m^2
transmitting and receiving antenna. d. diffraction 245. It is termed used to describe variations in signal strength that
a. frequency 236. What type of modulation is primarily used in ground wave occur at the receiver during this time a signal is being received.
b. phase propagation? a. skipping
c. power a. Frequency modulation b. attenuation
d. height b. Amplitude modulation c. absorption
227. One nautical mile is equal to _________ statute miles. c. Phase modulation d. fading
a. 2.12 d. Pulse modulation 246. The constant temperature stratosphere is called _________.
b. 1.15 237. It states that every point on a given spherical wavefront can a. E-layer
c. 2.54 be considered as a secondary point source of electromagnetic b. S-layer
d. 1.90 waves from which other secondary waves or wavelets are radiated c. isothermal region
228. It is the deflection or bending of electromagnetic waves such outward. d. ionosthermal region
as radio waves, light or even sound when the waves cross the a. Hertzian principle 247. It is the tendency of the sun to have grayish-black blemishes,
boundary line between two mediums with different characteristics. b. Maxwell’s principle seemingly at random times and at random place, on its fiery
a. reflection c. Huygen’s principle surface.
b. diffraction d. Marconi’s principle a. solar intensity
c. refraction b. sunspot
c. solar flare 258. The E layer of the ionosphere is sometimes called _________ c. Huygen’s ray
d. solar flux a. Kennely-Heavisides d. Miller’s ray
248. In electromagnetic waves, polarization b. Sporadic-E layer 268. Undesired radiated energy from a radio transmitter or in
a. is caused by reflection c. E-densed layer another source.
b. is due to the transverse nature of the waves d. Kennely layer a. ESD
c. results from the longitudinal nature of waves 259. It is defined as the higher frequency that can be propagated b. EMI
d. is always vertical in an isotropic medium directly upward and still be returned to earth by the ionosphere c. RFI
249. It is an earth-guided electromagnetic wave that travels over a. critical angle d. ESI
the surface of the Earth b. maximum usable frequency 269. The area between where the surface waves are completely
a. Surface waves c. critical frequency dissipated and the point where the first sky wave returns to earth is
b. Sky waves d. virtual height called _________.
c. Direct waves 260. The maximum vertical angle at which electromagnetic waves a. skip distance
d. Space waves can be propagated and still be reflected back by the ionosphere b. skip distance zone
250. Frequencies in the UHF range normally propagate by means a. numerical aperture c. optical horizon
of b. incident angle d. quiet zone
a. Ground waves c. critical angle 270. The undesired radiated energy that may cause interference
b. Sky waves d. refracted angle with other electronic equipment in the vicinity.
c. Surface waves 261. It is defined as the plane joining all points of equal phase a. ESD
d. Space waves a. rays b. EMI
251. The curvature of the Earth presents a horizon to space wave b. electromagnetic wave c. RFI
propagation commonly called _________. c. wavefront d. ESI
a. Optical horizon d. isotropic source 271. It is defined as the loss incurred by an electromagnetic wave
b. Radio horizon 262. It is the height above Earth’s surface from which a reflected as it propagates in a straight line through a vacuum with no
c. Horizontal horizon wave appears to have been reflected. absorption or reflection of energy from nearby objects.
d. Vertical horizon a. virtual height a. free-space path loss
252. Electromagnetic waves that are directed above the horizon b. maximum height b. free space loss
level is called _________. c. vertical height c. path loss
a. direct waves d. horizontal height d. any of these
b. sky waves 263. It is the highest frequency that can be used for sky wave 272. To increase the transmission distance of a UHF signal, which
c. space waves propagation between two specific points on Earth’s surface of the following should be done?
d. surface waves a. optimum working frequency a. increase the antenna gain
253. The refracting and reflecting action of the ionosphere and the b. maximum usable frequency b. increase antenna height
ground is called c. critical frequency c. increase transmitter power
a. sliding d. maximum frequency d. increase receiver sensitivity
b. skipping 264. The polarization of electromagnetic waves can be determined 273. For a carrier frequency of 6 GHz and a distance of 50 km,
c. hopping by the direction of the determine the free-space path loss
d. boosting a. E field a. 132 dB
254. An electrical energy that is escaped in free space b. H field b. 123 dB
a. Electrical signal c. propagation c. 142 dB
b. Electromagnetic waves d. both E and H field d. 152 dB
c. Magnetic waves 265. 85 percent of the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is called 274. A microwave-transmitting antenna is 550 ft. high. The
d. Electromagnetism _________. receiving antenna is 200 ft. high. The maximum transmission
255. The layer of the ionosphere which farthest from the sun a. maximum usable frequency distance is
a. D layer b. optimum working frequency a. 20 mi
b. E layer c. critical frequency b. 33.2 mi
c. F1 layer d. maximum frequency c. 38.7 mi
d. F2 layer 266. It is defined as the minimum distance from the transmit d. 53.2 mi
256. A condition which manifest itself in the form of double-image antenna that a sky wave at a given frequency will be returned to 275. Indicate which one of the following term applies to
distortion earth. troposcatter propagation
a. running a. skip distance a. SIDs
b. fading b. skip zone b. Fading
c. ghosting c. skip frequency distance c. Atmospheric storms
d. snowing d. skip zone frequency d. Faraday’s rotation
257. The D layer of the ionosphere absorbs _________ waves. 267. At distance greater than the skip distance, two rays can take 276. Line-of-sight communications is not a factor in which
a. LF and MF different paths and still be returned to the same point on Earth. The frequency range?
b. MF and HF two rays are called lower rays and _________. a. VHF
c. HF and VHF a. Pedersen ray b. UHF
d. VHF and UHF b. Light ray c. HF
d. Microwave 287. A ship-to-ship communication system is plagued by fading. b. Dillenger fadeouts
277. VLF waves are used for some types of services because The best solution seem to use of c. Mogul-Delliger fadeouts
a. of the low powers required a. a more directional antenna d. Any of these
b. the transmitting antenna are of convenient size b. a broadband antenna 297. It is a type of fading caused by so-called Faraday effect or
c. they are very reliable c. frequency diversity Faraday rotation
d. affected by the solar cycle d. space diversity a. interference fading
278. Microwave signals propagate by way of the 288. It is defined as the ratio of the electric field intensity of the b. absorption fading
a. direct wave reflected wave to that of the incident wave c. selective fading
b. sky wave a. refractive index d. polarization fading
c. surface wave b. numerical aperture 298. Radio horizon is _________ greater than the optical horizon.
d. standing wave c. reflection coefficient a. one-third
279. Indicate which of the following frequencies cannot be used d. absorption coefficient b. four-third
for reliable beyond-the-horizon terrestrial communications without 289. It is the measure of energy received per unit time, per unit c. two-third
repeaters: area, per unit frequency interval. d. twice
a. 20 kHz a. solar intensity 299. An increase in temperature with height which gives rise to
b. 15 MHz b. sunspot superrefraction or ducting is known as _________.
c. 900 MHz c. solar flare a. height inversion
d. 12 GHz d. solar flux b. depth inversion
280. The type of radio wave responsible for long-distance 290. A long period with lack of any solar activity c. temperature inversion
communications by multiple skips is the a. El Niño d. ionospheric inversion
a. ground wave b. La Niña 300. A region in which superrefraction occurs which is formed in
b. direct wave c. Maunder period the troposphere when the layer of cool air becomes trapped
c. surface waves d. Sunspots underneath a layer of warmer air.
d. sky wave 291. As a ground-wave signal moves away from the transmitter, a. duct
281. High-frequency waves are the ground wave eventually disappears due to the b. dielectric area
a. absorbed by the F2 layer a. absorption c. gateway
b. reflected by the D layer b. tilting d. window
c. capable of use for long-distance communications on the moon c. refraction 301. Whether or not polarization of an antenna is linear depends on
d. affected by the solar cycle d. diffraction changes in direction in which:
282. The ionosphere has its greatest effect on signals in what 292. It is the lowest layer of the atmosphere where all weather a. The direction in which the electric plane is radiated.
frequency range? disturbances takes place b. The horizontal or vertical plane of the electric wave.
a. 300 kHz to 3 MHz a. D layer c. The direction in which magnetic wave is radiated.
b. 3 to 30 MHz b. Stratosphere d. None of these
c. 30 to 300 MHz c. Ionosphere 302. The D, E and F layers of the ionosphere are called
d. above 300 MHz d. Troposphere a. Mark-Space Layers
283. Distances near the skip distance should be used for sky-wave 293. It is the lower limit of the range of frequencies that provide b. Davidson-Miller Layers
propagation useful communication between two given points by the way of the c. Kenelly Heaviside Layers
a. to avoid tilting ionosphere. d. Maxwell Layer
b. to prevent sky-wave and upper ray interference a. MUF 303. ________ refers to the ratio of an electric field component to
c. to avoid Faraday effect b. LUF a magnetic field component at the same point of the wave.
d. so as not to exceed the critical frequency c. OWF a. Characteristics impedance
284. Ground-wave communications is most effective in what d. MMF b. Load impedance
frequency range? 294. It is the area that lies between the outer limit of the ground- c. Intrinsic impedance
a. 300 kHz to 3 MHz wave range and the inner edge of energy return from the d. Wave impedance
b. 3 to 30 MHz ionosphere 304. The field strength of a radio signal varies according to the
c. 30 to 300 MHz a. skip distance output or transmitted power and the distance of the receiver from
d. above 300 MHz b. skip zone the transmitter. This wave behavior is described by
285. The ionosphere causes radio signals to be c. virtual height a. The field strength
a. diffused d. optical horizon b. Huygen’s Principle
b. absorbed 295. Variations brought about by the rotation of the earth around c. Faraday’s Law
c. refracted its axis. d. Inverse Square Law
d. reflected a. cyclical rotation 305. The antenna theory states that reception and transmission
286. Helical antenna are often used for satellite tracking at VHF b. seasonal variation functions are interchangeable is
because of c. diurnal variation a. Poynting Theorem
a. troposcatter d. weather variation b. Snell’s Law
b. superrefraction 296. Ionospheric irregularity caused by solar flares, which are c. Huygen’s Principle
c. ionospheric refraction gigantic emissions of hydrogen from the sun. d. Law of Reciprocity
d. the Faraday effect a. Sudden ionospheric disturbances
306. The frequency band where electromagnetic waves travel in a. Fibonacci number d. Baseband frequency
straight path or in a direct line of sight between the transmitter and b. Fermat’s number 324. The distant at which sky-wave signals are reflected back to
receiver antenna is c. Velocity factor earth depend on
a. ELF d. K-factor a. Height of the reflecting layer
b. HF 316. The ability of a radio wave to be bent slightly over the edge of b. The takeoff angle of the waves
c. VLF a sharp obstacle such as a steep hill or mountain top is c. Both a and b
d. VHF and above a. Diffraction d. Conductivity of the soil
307. This mode of electromagnetic wave propagation uses the b. Reflection 325. Perfect reflection of waves occur when
earth’s surface or curvature as a guide to transmit vertically c. Refraction a. The magnitude of the incident is equal to the reflected waves
polarized waves d. Attenuation b. The magnitude of the incident is less than the reflected waves
a. Sky wave 317. A space wave is c. The magnitude of incident is greater than reflected waves
b. Tropospheric wave a. Sky wave d. Both and b
c. Transionospheric wave b. Radio wave 326. The process by which a radio wave is bent and returned to
d. Ground wave c. Surface wave earth from one medium to another after striking them is
308. Frequencies in the UHF range propagate by means of d. Line of sight propagation wave a. Reflection
a. Ground waves 318. It is a diagram indicating the intensity in volts/meter, in all b. Refraction
b. surface waves directions, of the radiated filed of an antenna as it would occur c. Diffraction
c. sky waves under actual operating conditions. d. Absorption
d. space waves a. Constellation diagram 327. An incident, traveling obliquely from one medium to another,
309. the ground wave eventually disappear as it moves farther b. Argand diagram will undergo a change in direction if the velocity of the wave in
away from the transmitter, because of c. Funicular diagram one medium is different from that in the other and the ratio of the
a. tilting d. Radiation pattern sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction
b. reflection 319. Equivalent to capacitance in electrical circuits is the same ratio of respectively wave velocities in these media.
c. refraction a. Inductance This law is called
d. diffraction b. Permittivity a. Snell’s Law
310. as electromagnetic waves travel in free space, only one of the c. Permeability b. Fisher’s Law
following can happen d. Power density c. Hooke’s Law
a. absorption 320. All of these cause attenuation except d. Newton’s Law
b. attenuation a. Tilting 328. The lowest layer of the ionosphere which exists between 50 to
c. refraction b. Ground absorption 90 km from the earth’s surface and reflects VLF and LF waves
d. reflection c. Atmospheric absorption while absorbing MF and HF waves during daytime is the
311. In polarization diversity, two signals are d. Surface wave propagation a. D layer
a. Both polarized at one specific location 321. The transmission of radio waves far beyond line of sight b. E layer
b. Vertically and horizontally polarized separately distances by using high power and large transmitting antennas to c. F layer
c. Polarized in the same manner beam the signal upward into the atmosphere and a similar large d. Vantress layer
d. Vertically and horizontally polarized using a common antenna receiving antenna to pick up a small portion of the signal scattered 329. This phenomenon occurs when the thicker air is on top
312. If the direction of the electric field of a radio wave is by the atmosphere is called instead of being at the bottom when the temperature of water vapor
horizontal. That wave is known to be _____ polarized. a. Forward scatter propagation gradient is lesser or greater than the standard rate.
a. Negatively b. Beyond the horizon propagation a. Thermal inversion
b. Vertically c. Either a or b b. Horizontal ducting
c. Positively d. Meteoric Scatter Propagation c. Elevated ducting
d. Horizontally 322. The apparent height of an ionized layer of the atmosphere; as d. Sporadic E
313. The property of a material that determines how much change determined from the time interval between the transmitted signal 330. An ionospheric layer, which exists between 90 to 120 km
electrostatic energy can be stored per unit volume when voltage is and the ionospheric echo at vertical incidence. This height is the above the earth’s surface and is about 25 km thick. It aids MF
applied maximum height reached if the actual paths are projected forming surface propagation while reflecting some HF during daytime
a. Miller effect straight lines from the ascent to the descent of waves. a. D-layer
b. Permeability a. Optimum height b. E-layer
c. Capacitance b. Virtual height c. F layer
d. Permitivity c. Complex height d. Vantress layer
314. According to this law or principle, a wavefront may be d. Critical height 331. Atmospheric condition is controlled by
considered to consist of an infinite number of isotropic radiators, 323. The highest frequency whereby a wave will be returned back a. Pressure
each one sending out wavelets, always away from the source. to earth by an ionospheric layer having been beamed up at it and b. Temperature
a. Snell’s Law ranges from 5 to 12 MHz. For F2 layers. This frequency is directly c. Humidity
b. Maxwell’s Law proportional to the secant function of the smallest angle, which d. All of these
c. Huygen’s Principle allows reflection of sky waves. 332. This ionospheric layer forms at night at about 300 km from
d. Archimedes Principle a. Apex frequency the earth’s surface and is responsible for long distance HF wave
315. A number, which when multiplied by the speed of light in free b. Critical frequency propagation due to reflection and refraction. It splits during
space gives the speed of light in the medium in question is c. Carrier frequency daytime due to the ionizing energy from ultraviolet rays of the sun.
a. D layer b. Transverse waves a. RF propagation
b. E layer c. Longitudinal waves b. Radio propagation
c. F layer d. Fraunhoffer waves c. Wave propagation
d. Vantress layer 341. Indicate which one of the following terms applies to d. All of these
333. When the transmitting and receiving antennas are line-of- troposcatter propagation: 352. Electromagnetic waves are
sight of each other, the mode of propagation is _____ wave. a. SIDs a. Consist of electric and magnetic component that are parallel to
a. Space or direct b. Fading each other
b. Sky c. Atmospheric storms b. Oscillations that propagate through free space
c. surface d. Faraday rotation c. Irregular oscillations
d. ground 342. VLF waves are used for some types of services because d. Oscillations that are produced by an oscillating circuit
334. Power density is inversely proportional to the square of the a. Of the low power required 353. The region around an electrically charged body in which other
distance from the source or transmitter to the destination or b. The transmitting antennas are of convenient size charged bodies are acted by an attracting or repelling force.
receiver. This law is called: c. They are very reliable a. Electric field
a. Coulomb’s law d. They penetrate the ionosphere easily b. Radiation field
b. Law of Universal Gravitation 343. High frequency waves are c. Magnetic field
c. Inverse Square Law a. Absorbed by the F2 layer d. Electromagnetic field
d. Lenz’s Law b. Reflected by the D layer 354. What are the two components of electromagnetic field?
335. A one-hop, full duplex, microwave system is in a space c. Capable of use for long-distance communications on the moon a. Ray and wavefront
diversity arrangement. Determine how many receivers in all are d. Affected by the solar cycle b. Magnet and electricity
used? 344. Distances near the skip distance should be used for sky-wave c. Polar electrons and magnetic field
a. 6 propagation d. Electric field (E-field) and magnetic field
b. 2 a. To avoid tilting 355. Shows a surface of constant phase of a wave and is formed
c. 8 b. To prevent sky-wave and upper ray interference when points of equal phase on rays propagated from the source are
d. 4 c. To avoid the faraday effect joined together.
336. ________ is the extra ionization of the E-layer resulting to d. So as not to exceed the critical frequency a. Ray
irregular and intermittent reflection of frequencies of up to 80 MHz 345. The ground wave eventually disappears, as one moves away b. Wavefront
in temperate and lower latitudes of frequencies of up to 80 MHz in from the transmitter, because of c. Point source
temperate and lower latitudes. It is variable in time of occurrence, a. Interference from the sky wave d. Isotropic source
height. Geographical distribution, penetration frequency and b. Loss of line of sight conditions 356. It is a line drawn along the direction of propagation of an
ionization density. c. Maximum single-hop distance limitation electromagnetic wave used to show the relative direction of
a. Sporadic E d. Tilting electromagnetic wave propagation.
b. Dillinger Effect 346. In electromagnetic waves, polarization a. Ray
c. Faraday rotation a. Is caused by reflection b. Wavefront
d. Scintillations b. Is due to the transverse nature of the waves c. Point source
337. The decrease in signal strength as a result of absorption or c. Results from the longitudinal nature of the waves d. Isotropic source
scattering of energy along a transmission path is called: d. Is always vertical in an isotropic medium 357. Refers to the rate at which energy passes through a given
a. Attenuation 347. Radio fading resulting from obstruction losses. surface area in free space
b. Microbending a. Log normal fading a. Field intensity
c. Dispersion b. Rayleigh Fading b. Power density
d. Multipath fading c. Multi-path fading c. Refractive index
338. The transfer of electromagnetic waves or acoustical energy d. None of these d. Absorption coefficient
from one place to another through a suitable transmission medium 348. The absorption of radio waves by the atmosphere depends on 358. It it’s the intensity of the electric and magnetic fields of an
is a. Their frequency electromagnetic wave propagating in free space
a. Wave propagation b. Their distance from the transmitter a. Field intensity
b. RF induction c. The polarization of the waves b. Power density
c. Radio Frequency Interference d. The polarization of the atmosphere c. Refractive index
d. Forward Scatter 349. Electromagnetic waves are refracted when they d. Absorption coefficient
339. The upper limit of frequencies that can be used at a specified a. Pass into a medium of different dielectric constant 359. In a lossless transmission medium, _______ of free space is
time for radio transmission between two points and involving b. Are polarized at right angles to the direction of propagation equal to the square root of the ratio of its magnetic permeability to
propagation by reflection from regular ionized layers of the c. Encounter a perfectly conducting surface its electric permittivity
ionosphere is d. Pass through a small slot in a conducting plane a. Resistance
a. Maximum usable frequency 350. Diffraction of electromagnetic waves b. Field intensity
b. Optimum traffic frequency a. Is caused by reflection from the ground c. Characteristic impedance
c. Minimum usable frequency b. Arises only with spherical wavefronts d. A or C is correct
d. Carrier frequency c. Will occur when the waves pass through a large slot 360. Electromagnetic wave measures all except
340. Waves whose oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of d. May occur around the edge of a sharp obstacle a. Inductance
propagation are called 351. What do you call of the travel of electromagnetic waves b. Power density
a. Huygen’s waves through a medium at the speed of light? c. Magnetic field intensity
d. Permittivity of the medium b. Huygen’s principle b. Electric field intensity
361. A reduction in power density due to the inverse square law c. Linear superposition c. Absorption coefficient
presumes free-space propagation is called d. Reflection coefficient d. Magnetic field intensity
a. Absorption 370. Energy that has neither been radiated into space nor 380. Which of following of must be taken into consideration to
b. Wave attenuation completely transmitted ensure proper ground-wave propagation?
c. Space attenuation of the wave a. Modulated waves a. Power
d. B or C is correct b. Captured waves b. Terrain
362. Which of the following are optical effects of radio waves? c. Standing waves c. Frequency
a. Refraction and reflection d. Incident waves d. B and C
b. Diffraction and interference 371. What property of radio waves occurs whenever two or more 381. What are the applications of ground–wave propagation?
c. Induction and diffraction waves simultaneously occupy the same point in space? a. Ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communications
d. A and B a. Reflection b. Maritime mobile communications
363. What is diffraction? b. Refraction c. Radio navigation
a. Is the change in direction of a ray as it passes obliquely from one c. Diffraction d. All of these
medium to another with different velocities or propagation d. Interference 382. The curvature of the earth presents a horizon to space wave
b. Refers to the modulation or redistribution of energy within a 372. Pertains to a source which radiates equally in all directions propagation which is approximately 4/3 that of the optical horizon
wavefront when it passes near the edge of an opaque object a. Isobaric source a. Standard atmosphere
c. Is the phenomenon that allows light or radio waves to travel b. Isotropic source b. Optical horizon
(peek) around corners of an obstacle. c. Isentropic source c. Radio horizon
d. A or C is right d. Isothermal source d. All of these
364. A rare refracting medium has 373. Electromagnetic waves travel at _____ in free space 383. Refraction is caused by what factors?
a. Smaller value of dielectric constant a. 300,000 km/sec a. Changes in troposphere’s density and temperature
b. Higher value of dielectric constant b. 200 km/sec b. Water vapor content
c. Variable value for dielectric constant c. 400,000 km/sec c. Relative conductivity
d. A dielectric constant dependent on the medium d. 100,000 km/sec d. All of the above
365. Refractive index refers to 374. Any space or region wherein a magnetic force is exerted on 384. Any of the flowing can be caused to lengthen radio horizon:
a. The ratio of velocity of light in free space to the velocity of light moving electric charges a. Elevating the transmit or receive antennas above Earth’s surface
in a given material a. Electric field b. Elevating both antennas
b. The ratio of the light in free space towards the light in a given b. Radiation field c. Installing the transmit and/or receive antennas on top of
medium c. Magnetic field mountains or high buildings
c. The ratio of the angle of refraction d. Electromagnetic field d. All of these
d. The amount of bending or refraction that occurs at the interface 375. Which of the following is a characteristic of electromagnetic 385. A special condition which occurs when the density of the
of two material of different densities wave? lower atmosphere is such that electromagnetic waves are trapped
366. Why is it that rays traveling near the top of the medium travel a. Measures power, voltage, capacitance and impedance of a between it and earth’s surface
faster than those at the bottom? system a. Duct propagation
a. The medium is more dense near the bottom b. Measures power density, voltage, and inductance b. Sky wave propagation
b. The medium is less dense at the top c. Measures power density, magnetic field intensity, and electric c. Space wave propagation
c. The medium is less dense near the bottom and more dense at the field intensity d. Ground wave propagation
top d. All of the above 386. The vibrating electrons at the ionosphere decrease current
d. A and B are incorporated 376. Reflection waves which is equivalent to reducing the dielectric constant, which in
367. When does reflection if wave occur? a. Should take place at one medium turn, will also cause the velocity of propagation to______.
a. When an incident wave strikes a boundary of two media, and b. Does not necessarily take place at one medium a. Increase
some of the incident power does not enter the second material c. Occurs at any other medium at the same time b. Decrease
b. When the reflective surface is irregular or rough d. Is not possible c. Remain constant
c. When two or more electromagnetic waves combine in such a 377. Way(s) of propagating electromagnetic waves: d. Decrease by a factor of 2
way that the system performance is degraded. a. Ground-wave propagation 387. Increasing the velocity of propagation causes a/an _____ of
d. A and B b. Space wave propagation the electromagnetic waves.
368. What is meant by specular reflection? c. Sky-wave propagation a. Increasing refraction
a. Is a reflection from a perfectly smooth surface d. All of these b. Decreasing reflection
b. Is an incident wavefront striking an irregular surface, randomly 378. At frequencies below 1.5 MHz, what propagation provides the c. Increasing diffraction
scattered in many directions best coverage? d. Decreasing interference
c. Reflection of surfaces that fall between smooth and irregular a. Ground wave 388. What layer has its maximum density at approximately 70 mi a
d. Is a combination of diffused and semirough surfaces b. Space wave noon, when the sun is at its highest point?
369. ________ states that a semirough surface will reflect as if it c. Sky wave a. D layer
were a smooth surface whenever the cosine of he angle of d. All of these b. E layer
incidence is greater than 1/8d, where d is the depth of the surface 379. Which of these causes the wavefront to tilt progressively c. Kennelly-Heaviside layer
irregularity and I is the wavelength of the incident wave. forward? d. B or C
a. Rayleigh criterion a. Gradient density
389. The sporadic E layer is a thin layer with a very high ionization d. Diversity
density. It is considered separately from the other layers and when 398. Gradual variation in the field strength of a radio signal is
it appears, gives an unexpected improvement in long distance radio compensated by
transmissions. What cause(s) its unpredictable appearance? a. Fading techniques
a. Sunspot activity b. Diversity techniques
b. Sunspot cycle c. Transverse techniques
c. Solar flares d. Transmission techniques
d. A and C 399. A modulation of two different RF carrier frequencies with the
390. The region in the ionosphere with a very high ionization same IF intelligence, then transmitting both RF signals to a given
density at roughly 55 to 90 miles and is used for frequencies up to destination.
about 20 MHz. It is gone completely at midnight. a. Diversity
a. D layer b. Space diversity
b. E layer c. Frequency diversity
c. F layer d. Polarization diversity
d. G layer 400. To increase the availability of the system, a method in which
391. A layer in the ionosphere which is the most important the output of a transmitter is fed to two or more antennas that are
reflecting medium fir HF radio waves. It has 2 sublayers, at 90 to physically separated by an appreciable number of wavelengths.
250 mi height a. Space diversity
a. A layer b. Frequency diversity
b. D layer c. Polarization diversity
c. E layer d. Space wave propagation
d. F layer
392. The apparent height of the ionized layer and is always greater
than the actual height
a. Critical height
b. Virtual height
c. Maximum height
d. Imaginary height
393. Refers to the shortest distance in which a sky-wave signal will
be returned to the earth. It includes the maximum ground-wave
range and the width of the skip zone.
a. Hop
b. Skip distance
c. Actual distance
d. Critical distance
394. Concerns to the highest frequency that is able to return to
earth when beamed at a certain angle of incidence
a. Relative frequency
b. Optimum frequency
c. Resonant frequency
d. Maximum usable frequency, MUF
395. In ________, the distant of each succeeding hop from earth to
ionosphere and back is also the skip distance.
a. Hop transmission
b. Single transmission
c. Unihop transmission
d. Multihop transmission
396. Concerns to the single reflection of a radio wave form the
ionosphere back to earth.
a. Jog
b. Hop
c. Skip
d. Fading
397. The fluctuation of signal strength at the receiver that are
caused by changes in the transmission medium
a. Fading
b. Hopping
c. Skipping