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Back ground

1 UE off
2 UE on- Now it will search the networks

Frequency seach- There is a possibility that there are many networks or to put in other words , there are ma
in the air to which UE (user equipment) can connect. Therefore, UE needs to synchronize to each frequen
3 right operator to which it wants to connect to. UE does this by going through very initial synchronisation pro
information block and System information blocks to check whether this is the right PLMN. The next step is k
network for the first time knows that some UE is trying to get acc

4 MIB
5 SIB: to check whether it is a right PLMN or Not. If right it will proceed for SIB1 and SIB 2
Random Access procedure: to uplink synchronization b/w UE and eNB . Network knows first time that some
trying to get access

Rach preamble: when UE send a very first message of RACH procedure to some network, it is
basicaly send some specific pattern or signaturewhich is called RACH preamble. The rach
preamble value differentiate the request coming from different UEs.There are 64 rach preamble
are used for synchornization which is used by every UEs.

Types of RACH

1 contention Based Rach:if two UEs uses same RACH preambles at same time then there can be collis
contenation based rach
2 contention free rach: in this Rach procedure network willl inform the UE which preamble is to be use .

Steps of Random Access procedure


step-1
1 UE select one available 64 rach preamble.

2 Now UE also needs to give its own identity to the network so that network can address it in next step. The
UE will use is called RA-RNTI (Random access radio network temporary identity).
3 If UE does not receive any response from the network, it increases its power in fixed step and sends RACH
Step-2
1 eNodeB sends "Random Access Response" to UE on DL-SCH

2 Temporary C-RNTI: Now eNB gives another identity to UE which is called temporary C-RNTI (cell radio
network temporary identity) for further communication

3 Timing Advance Value: eNodeB also informs UE to change its timing so it can compensate for the round trip
UE distance from the eNodeB
Uplink Grant Resource: Network (eNodeB) will assign initial resource to UE so that it can use UL-SCH (Uplin
4 channel)
Step-3
1 UE identity TMSI is send . TMSI is used if UE connected to the same network
2 Random value is used if UE is connecting for the very first time to network.
3 Connection establishment cause: The shows the reason why UE needs to connect to network
Step-4
1 eNB respond with contention resolution message

In contention-based RACH, it is possible that more than one UE could select


the same preamble
signature, and the eNB would assign the same PRB to both UEs for UL
transmission of a
message. A contention resolution procedure is hence needed to resolve
possible collisions. A
result of this contention resolution is that only one UE is allowed to continue
with the RACH
process. It is typically used at call set-up when the UE is preparing to access
the system. This
type of RACH allows more preamble indexes which eases the PRACH
congestion.
An open loop power control process is used
as the UE sends preambles to the eNB with a
certain power. When the eNB acknowledges
the
preamble, the RACH procedure is successful
and the UE thus accesses the cell to establish
the
RRC connection.
In LTE, the RACH procedure can also be
performed in different parts of the call, during
handover, or after unsuccessful uplink grant
request by the UE. This is different than
UMTS. Therefore, LTE defines two different
RACH procedures: contention-based RACH, or
contention-free RACH.
Back ground

ity that there are many networks or to put in other words , there are many frequencies from different operators available
nt) can connect. Therefore, UE needs to synchronize to each frequency and check whether this is frequency from the
nnect to. UE does this by going through very initial synchronisation process. Once synchronized UE reads the master
tion blocks to check whether this is the right PLMN. The next step is known as Random Access Procedure in which the
network for the first time knows that some UE is trying to get access.

t PLMN or Not. If right it will proceed for SIB1 and SIB 2


ynchronization b/w UE and eNB . Network knows first time that some UE
trying to get access

ry first message of RACH procedure to some network, it is


rn or signaturewhich is called RACH preamble. The rach
uest coming from different UEs.There are 64 rach preamble
chornization which is used by every UEs.

UEs uses same RACH preambles at same time then there can be collision and such type of Rach called
contenation based rach
rocedure network willl inform the UE which preamble is to be use .

mble.
ntity to the network so that network can address it in next step. The identity which
access radio network temporary identity).
om the network, it increases its power in fixed step and sends RACH preamble again

se" to UE on DL-SCH
other identity to UE which is called temporary C-RNTI (cell radio
er communication
nforms UE to change its timing so it can compensate for the round trip delay caused by

deB) will assign initial resource to UE so that it can use UL-SCH (Uplink shared

if UE connected to the same network


ing for the very first time to network.
shows the reason why UE needs to connect to network
on message

is possible that more than one UE could select


In the contention-free RACH procedure,
random access
assign the same PRB to both UEs for UL
preambles index to use. This avoids mor
signature sequence and
tion procedure is hence needed to resolve
eliminates resource contention while se
this RACH procedureis typically used in
ution is that only one UE is allowed to continue
faster to complete when the preamble i
reserved for handover. The choice of ea
call set-up when the UE is preparing to access
dependent. Chapter 3
explains the performance comparison a
amble indexes which eases the PRACH
RACH types.
t operators available synchroni
frequency from the zation
E reads the master process:
ocedure in which the PSS and
SSS
free RACH procedure, the eNB explicitly signals which

o use. This avoids more than one UE using the same


e and
e contention while sending data on the uplink. Hence,
reis typically used in handover. This is because it is
e when the preamble is
over. The choice of each procedure is network vendor
er 3
rmance comparison and optimization process for the
(To look for the complete IE contents and explanation of SIB1 click here)
SIB-1

SIB-2
SIB-3
SIB-4
SIB-5
SIB-6
SIB-7
SIB-8
SIB-9
SIB-10
SIB-11
SIB-12
SIB-13

Query_1: Why SIBs are needed?

Query_2
:

Query_3
:

Query_4
:

Information regarding SIB2-SIB13 are carried in SI messages and are included in schedulingInfoList which is part of

Scheduling of SIBs:
·         SIB1 uses a fixed schedule with a periodicity of 80 ms and repetitions made within 80 ms.
·         The first transmission of SIB1 is scheduled in subframe #5 of radio frames for which the SFN mod 8 = 0, and
·         Repetitions are scheduled in subframe #5 of all other radio frames for which SFN mod 2 = 0.
·         Scheduling of other SIB's i.e. SIB-2 to SIB-9 is defined by si-Periodicity and si-WindowLength. Both these IEs are explaine
Scenarios where UE acquire SIBs:
UE will initiate the SIB acquisition procedure in any of the following criteria's:
·         UE is powered on (selecting a cell)
·         Cell re-selection
·         After HO completion
·         After entering E-UTRAN from another RAT
·         coming out of OUT OF COVERAGE situation
·         receiving a notification that SYSTEM INFORMATION has changed
·         receiving an indication about the presence of ETWS (Primary/Secondary), CMAS notification
·         receiving a request from CDMA 2000 upper layers
·         exceeding the maximum validity duration of SIBs

HOW and WHEN UE start acquiring SIBs (other than SIB1):


There are two IE's which help the UE to calculate when to read SI messages. They are:
a. schedulingInfoList
b. si-WindowLengthd

schedulingInfoList informs the UE regarding the presence of SIB type; other than SIB1. It carriers two more parame
i. si_Periodicity
ii. sib_MappingInfo
· si_Periodicity tells about the period in terms of radio frames which helps the UE to read the required SIB. The valu
· sib_MappingInfo carries the type of SIBs mapped
si-WindowLength specifies that a SIB should be transmitted somewhere within the specified window length. Value is
Example:
SIB1 is received by UE with the following information:
schedulingInfoList[0]

schedulingInfoList[1]

schedulingInfoList[2]

si_WindowLength

The above table states the following:


The first e

The seond e

The third e

Now, UE needs two information to read SI.


a. One is on which which Radio frame UE will receive the SIB. To determine which Radio frame, the formula is:

SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10)

b. on which sub-frame will the SI window start. To determine the start of the SI window at sub-frame, the formula is:

a = x mod 10

Query: How to determine the value of x?

x = (n – 1)*w

where,
x

n
w
T

io frame and SI starting sub frame for SIB3, SIB4 and SIB5
Subframe from which the SI Window starts

For SIB-3

For SIB-4

For SIB-5

Radio frame on which the UE will acquire designated SI

For SIB-3

For SIB-4

For SIB-5
For SIB-5
(To look for the complete IE contents and explanation of SIB1 click here)
Cell access related parameters and scheduling of other SIBs, PLMN id,cellid, TAC, MCC , MNC
Common and shared channel configuration, RACH related configuration are present, information of uplinnk cha
PUCCH. It also carries the info of uplink power control, preamble power ramping, uplink Cyclic Prefix Length, su
hopping, uplink EARFCN
Parameters required for intra-frequency, inter-frequency and I-RAT cell re-selections
Information regarding INTRA-frequency neighboring cells (E-UTRA)
Information regarding INTER-frequency neighboring cells (E-UTRA)
Information for re-selection to INTER-RAT (UTRAN cells)
Information for re-selection to INTER-RAT (GERAN cells)
Information for re-selection to INTER-RAT (CDMA2000)
Information related to Home eNodeB  (FEMTOCELL)
ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) information (Primary notification)
ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) information (Secondary notification)
Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) information.
Contains the information required to acquire the MBMS control information associated with one or more MBSFN ar

Query_1: Why SIBs are needed?


SIBs carry relevant information for the UE, which helps UE to access a cell, perform cell re-selection, information
INTRA-frequency, INTER-frequency and INTER-RAT cell selections.

How many types of SIBs are there?


In LTE there are 13 types of SIBs. Each SIB has its own job to do, which means, they are meant to carry informa
are related to perform their assigned job.

On which channels SIBs are transmitted?


All SIBs are transmitted on BCCH->DL-SCH->PDSCH.

Query_4: Minimum of how many SIBs are required for the UE to initiate Attach procedure?
In LTE, for a UE to access the eNB, at the most minimum 2 SIBs are required (SIB1 and SIB2).

Information regarding SIB2-SIB13 are carried in SI messages and are included in schedulingInfoList which is part of SIB1.

Scheduling of SIBs:
·         SIB1 uses a fixed schedule with a periodicity of 80 ms and repetitions made within 80 ms.
·         The first transmission of SIB1 is scheduled in subframe #5 of radio frames for which the SFN mod 8 = 0, and
·         Repetitions are scheduled in subframe #5 of all other radio frames for which SFN mod 2 = 0.
·         Scheduling of other SIB's i.e. SIB-2 to SIB-9 is defined by si-Periodicity and si-WindowLength. Both these IEs are explained below. Fo
Scenarios where UE acquire SIBs:
UE will initiate the SIB acquisition procedure in any of the following criteria's:
·         UE is powered on (selecting a cell)
·         Cell re-selection
·         After HO completion
·         After entering E-UTRAN from another RAT
·         coming out of OUT OF COVERAGE situation
·         receiving a notification that SYSTEM INFORMATION has changed
·         receiving an indication about the presence of ETWS (Primary/Secondary), CMAS notification
·         receiving a request from CDMA 2000 upper layers
·         exceeding the maximum validity duration of SIBs

HOW and WHEN UE start acquiring SIBs (other than SIB1):


There are two IE's which help the UE to calculate when to read SI messages. They are:
a. schedulingInfoList
b. si-WindowLengthd

schedulingInfoList informs the UE regarding the presence of SIB type; other than SIB1. It carriers two more parameters:
i. si_Periodicity
ii. sib_MappingInfo
· si_Periodicity tells about the period in terms of radio frames which helps the UE to read the required SIB. The value of this pa
· sib_MappingInfo carries the type of SIBs mapped
si-WindowLength specifies that a SIB should be transmitted somewhere within the specified window length. Value is in ms. Thi
Example:
SIB1 is received by UE with the following information:
schedulingInfoList[0]
si_Periodicity
sib_MappingInfo[0]
schedulingInfoList[1]
si_Periodicity
sib_MappingInfo[0]
schedulingInfoList[2]
si_Periodicity
sib_MappingInfo[0]
si_WindowLength

The above table states the following:


Periodicity= 16 radio frames
or 160ms

Periodicity= 32 radio frames


or 320ms

Periodicity= 64 radio frames


640ms

Now, UE needs two information to read SI.


a. One is on which which Radio frame UE will receive the SIB. To determine which Radio frame, the formula is:

SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10)

b. on which sub-frame will the SI window start. To determine the start of the SI window at sub-frame, the formula is:

a = x mod 10

Query: How to determine the value of x?

x = (n – 1)*w

Integer value
a number which corrosponds to the order of entry in schedulingInfoList.For sib3 n is 1,
for sib4 n is 2 and
for sib5 n is 3
si-WindowLength
si-Periodicity of the concerned SI message

nd SI starting sub frame for SIB3, SIB4 and SIB5


Subframe from which the SI Window starts

x = (n – 1)*w

x=(1-1)*20

x=0

x = (n – 1)*w

x=(2 - 1)*20

x=20

x = (n – 1)*w

x=(3 - 1)*20

x=40

Radio frame on which the UE will acquire designated SIB

SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10)

SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10)

SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10)


SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10)
the rest of the SIBs, Paging is received by UE in RRC_IDLE or RRC_CONNECTED mode for notification of an in-coming SI message.
rameter is used for calculating the Radio frame where SI will be received.

s window starts at the starting sub-frame of the mentioned si_periodicity. SIBs can be received in any of the sub-frame as menti

SchedulingInfo
SchedulingInfosi_Periodicity_rf16
SIB_TypeSIB_Type_sibType3
SchedulingInfo
SchedulingInfosi_Periodicity_rf32
SIB_TypeSIB_Type_sibType4
SchedulingInfo
SchedulingInfosi_Periodicity_rf64
SIB_TypeSIB_Type_sibType5
ms20
Window length= 20ms

Window length= 20ms

Window length= 20ms


a = x mod 10

a= 0 mod 10

a=0 The SI Window

a = x mod 10

a= 20 mod 10

a=0 The SI Window

a = x mod 10

a= 40 mod 10

a=0 The SI Window

SFN mod 16 = FLOOR (0/10)

SFN mod 16 = 0 Whenever SFN mod 16 will be 0. UE is expecting SIB3 and it will start looking from sub frame 0 till the end of the men

SFN mod 32 = FLOOR (20/10)

SFN mod 32 = 2 Whenever SFN mod 32 will be 2. UE is expecting SIB4 and it will start looking at sub frame 0 till the end of the mentio

SFN mod 64 = FLOOR (40/10)

Whenever SFN mod 64 will be 4. UE is expecting SIB5 and it will start looking at sub frame 0 till the end of the mentio
SFN mod 64 = 4 Whenever SFN mod 64 will be 4. UE is expecting SIB5 and it will start looking at sub frame 0 till the end of the mentio
-coming SI message.
he sub-frame as mentioned in the WindowLength.
Basics of scheduling in LTE

Scheduling is the process through which eNB decides for which UEs , the resources should be given to send or re
Before getting into basics of scheduling, it is important to understand following key terms:
CQI:
CQI (Channel quality indicator) is a four digit value sent to eNB by UE as a feedback for downlink channel.CQI infor
BSR:
BSR (Buffer Status Report) is a UE way of informing network that it has certain data in its buffer and it requires gran
QoS:
QoS (Quality of Service) defines how a particular user data should be treated in the network. QoS is im
compared to web browser traffic.

Now let's see how the scheduling works


UE computes the CQI value from downlink channel and sends it to the eNB
UE sends BSR reports to eNodeB
Based on BSR, CQI and UE QoS, eNodeB computes MCS value and PRB mapping information and send it to the U

Factors that affects scheduling:


Traffic Volume: Schedules those UEs with bearers waiting data in buffer
QoS Requirement: Schedules and allocates resources to UE to meet its QoS requirement
Radio Conditions: Schedules resources for UE that best suits its radio environment

Scheduler Types In LTE


A variety of scheduling strategies is available in LTE. The scheduling strategy is based on a certain metric.

- Round-Robin.
No quality indication is taken into consideration. The resources are mainly shared in an equal manner.

- Max C/I.
The UE with the best channel conditions gets the highest priority. The cell throughput is maximized. Starv
- Proportional Fair.
This algorithm defines priorities based on the quality and the averaged scheduled rate. I.e.:
Ci = R(Q)i/{Ri} (2).

- QoS
Different strategies exist to get QoS related information integrated.
E.g. Depending on the priority of the service and/or the UE, RT/NRT service type. a scheduling weight can
Ci = Pi (3).

Combinations of the different types can also be applied.


ce block) for UE
LTE Network Reference Model
Figure 1 shows an LTE network reference model, consisting of LTE entities (UE and eNB) and EPC entities (S

eNB 1 Receive and send radio signal to/from the antenna


2 Schedued uplink and downlink data to /from the UE
3 Provide Ethernet links to EPC and and other eNB
4 taking care of Admission control funtion
5 Ho between one cell to another cell of eNB

MME 1 Location traking and paging the Ues


2 Seclection of SGW and PGW
3 UE authentication through HSS
4 Assigning temporary id to UE
5 Perfoms session control and bearer management funtion(create modify and Delete)

SGW 1 Packet routing and forwarding


2 Serves as a local mobility anchor for inter-eNB HO and inter 3GPP HO
3 Performs session supervision of eNB avaialibility
4 Accountion of user and QoS QCI for iner-operator charging
5 Uplink and downlink charging per UE and Per PGW

PGW 1 Provide the IP to the UE


2 Connect UE to PDN
3 Facilitates Flow based Charging
4 Serves as a cross technology Mobility anchor
5 Serves as a Enforcement point for policy decieson coming from PCRF
nd eNB) and EPC entities (S-GW, P-GW, MME, HSS, PCRF, SPR, OCS and OFCS). A PDN is an internal or external IP domain

Table 3. LTE interfaces

and Delete)
internal or external IP domain of the operator that a UE wants to communicate with, and provides the UE with services su
ovides the UE with services such as the Internet or IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). In the following, Table 1 and Table 2
ollowing, Table 1 and Table 2 show the functions of the LTE and EPC entities. Table 3 lists the reference points of the LTE n
e reference points of the LTE network reference model and gives a description of interfaces between EPS entities.
between EPS entities.
LTE Protocol Stacks
Based on the EPS entities and interfaces defined in Chapter II, the LTE protocol stacks for the user plane an
3.1 User plane protocol stacks
Figure 2 shows the user plane protocol stacks for the LTE network reference model shown in Figure 1. The

Control plane protocol stacks


Figure 3 shows the control plane protocol stacks for the LTE network reference model. The functions of the

Figure
3. LTE
control
plane
protocol
stacks
Traffic Flow on the LTE Network
Figure 4 shows the flow of user plane traffic accessing the Internet in the LTE network reference architectur
More than one EPS bearer is established on each of the S1-U and S5 interfaces. So, in order to identify thes
Here, however, for convenience of description, only a TEID is used for this purpose). The receiving end side
When a GTP tunnel is established on the S1-U interface, the S-GW assigns a TEID (UL S1-TEID in Figure 4(a)) f
Likewise when a GTP tunnel is established on the S5 interface, the P-GW assigns a TEID (UL S5-TEID in Figure
When a user IP packet is delivered through a GTP tunnel on the S1-U and S5 interfaces, the eNB, S-GW and P-
Likewise in downlink direction, the S-GW builds a one-to-one mapping between a S5 GTP tunnel (DL S5-TEID) a

a) Traffic flow in uplink direction: from UE to the Internet


1. A UE transfers user IP packets to an eNB over LTE-Uu interface.
2. The eNB encapsulates the user IP packets with the S1 GTP tunnel header and forwards the resulting outer IP
3. After receiving the outer IP packets, the S-GW strips off the S1 GTP tunnel header, encapsulates the user IP
4. After receiving the outer IP packets, the P-GW gets the user IP packets by stripping off the S5 GTP tunnel he

b) Traffic flow in downlink direction: from the Internet to UE


1. A P-GW receives IP packets destined for a UE over the Internet.
2. The P-GW encapsulates the user IP packets with the S5 GTP tunnel header and forwards the resulting outer
3. After receiving the outer IP packets, the S-GW strips off the S5 GTP tunnel header, encapsulates the user IP
4. After receiving the outer IP packets, the eNB gets the user IP packets by stripping off the S1 GTP tunnel heade

IV. Closing
The LTE network architecture has been presented as the first document of the “LTE” technical document series.

To be able to move on to other LTE technical documents that follow, fundamental understanding of the entities

The next technical document, consisting of three companion documents, is another basic LTE document and wil
ol stacks for the user plane and control plane are described in Chapter III.

model shown in Figure 1. The functions of the key layers of the protocol stacks are briefly described below.

1) LTE-Uu interface
PDCP: The PDCP protocol supports in efficient transportation of IP packets over the radio link. It perf
RLC: In the transmitting side, the RLC protocol constructs RLC PDU and provides the RLC PDU to the
MAC: The MAC layer lies between the RLC layer and PHY layer. It is connected to the RLC layer throu
2) S1-U/S5/X2 interface
GTP-U: GTP-U protocol1 is used to forward user IP packets over S1-U, S5 and X2 interfaces

e model. The functions of the key layers of the protocol stacks are briefly described below.

) LTE-Uu Interface
NAS2: NAS protocol performs mobility management and bearer management functions.
RRC: RRC protocol supports the transfer of the NAS signaling. It also performs functions required for
Broadcasting of system information
Setup, reconfiguration, reestablishment and release of the RRC connection
Setup, modification and release of the radio bearer
Same as in user plane
Same as in user plane
Same as in user plane

2) X2 interface
X2AP: X2AP protocol supports UE mobility and SON functions within the E-UTRAN. To support UE mo
3) S1-MME interface
S1AP: S1AP protocol supports functions such as S1 interface management, E-RAB management, NAS
4) S11/S5/S10 interfaces
GTP-C: GTP-C protocol supports exchange of control information for creation, modification and termi
5) S6a interface
Diameter: Diameter protocol supports exchange of subscription and subscriber authentication inform
6) Gx interface
Diameter: Diameter protocol supports delivery of PCC rules from the PCRF to the PCEF (P-GW).
7) Gy interface
Diameter: Diameter protocol supports exchange of real-time credit control information between the
8) Gz interface
GTP’: GTP’ protocol supports CDR transfer from the P-GW to the OFCS.

network reference architecture. Figure 4 (a) shows the traffic flow from a UE to the Internet and Figure 4 (b) shows one f
es. So, in order to identify these bearers, a Tunnel Endpoint Identifier (TEID) is assigned to the end points (UL and DL) of e
rpose). The receiving end side of the GTP tunnel locally assigns the TEID value the transmitting side has to use. The TEID
D (UL S1-TEID in Figure 4(a)) for uplink traffic and the eNB assigns a TEID (DL S1-TEID in Figure 4(b)) for downlink traffic
a TEID (UL S5-TEID in Figure 4(a)) for uplink traffic and the S-GW assigns a TEID (DL S5-TEID in Figure 4(b)) for downlin
rfaces, the eNB, S-GW and P-GW forward the user IP packet by encapsulating with the TEID assigned by the receiving pee
S5 GTP tunnel (DL S5-TEID) and a S1 GTP tunnel (DL S1-TEID) to terminate the S5 GTP tunnel and forward the user IP p

orwards the resulting outer IP packets to the S-GW. Here, the eNB selected a “TEID” value (i.e. UL S1-TEID), “Destination
ader, encapsulates the user IP packets (the inner IP packets) with the S5 GTP tunnel header and forwards the resulting ou
pping off the S5 GTP tunnel header and transfers them to the Internet through IP routing.

d forwards the resulting outer IP packets to the S-GW. Here, the P-GW selected a “TEID” value (i.e. DL S5-TEID), “Destina
ader, encapsulates the user IP packets (the inner IP packets) with the S1 GTP tunnel header and forwards the resulting ou
ng off the S1 GTP tunnel header and transfers them to the UE through the Data Radio Bearer (DRB) over the radio link3.

TE” technical document series. The LTE network architecture explained in this document applies to a LTE only network prov

understanding of the entities and interfaces of the EPS system is required.

er basic LTE document and will discuss the LTE identification applied to the LTE network reference model. These basic docu
scribed below.

kets over the radio link. It performs header compression, Access Stratum (AS) security (ciphering and integrity protection)
d provides the RLC PDU to the MAC layer. The RLC protocol performs segmentation/concatenation of PDCP PDUs during co
nnected to the RLC layer through logical channels, and to the PHY layer through transport channels. Therefore, the MAC pr

S1-U, S5 and X2 interfaces. When a GTP tunnel is established for data forwarding during LTE handover, an En

management functions.
erforms functions required for efficient management of the radio resources. The main functions are as follows:
e E-UTRAN. To support UE mobility, the X2AP protocol provides functions such as user data forwarding, transfer of SN sta

ment, E-RAB management, NAS signaling transport and UE context management. It delivers the initial UE context to the eN

eation, modification and termination for GTP tunnels. It creates data forwarding tunnels in case of LTE handover.

ubscriber authentication information between the HSS and MME.

PCRF to the PCEF (P-GW).

ntrol information between the P-GW and OCS.

t and Figure 4 (b) shows one from the Internet to a UE. IP packets are forwarded through the GTP tunnel over S1-U and S
he end points (UL and DL) of each GTP tunnel (When identifying a GTP tunnel, a TEID, IP address and UDP port number a
ing side has to use. The TEID values are exchanged between tunnel endpoints using control plane protocols
gure 4(b)) for downlink traffic. The TEID values of the S1 GTP tunnel are exchanged between the eNB and the S-GW using
EID in Figure 4(b)) for downlink traffic. The TEID values of the S5 GTP tunnel are exchanged between the S-GW and the P-
assigned by the receiving peer GTP entity. In uplink direction, the S-GW builds a one-to-one mapping between an S1 GTP
nnel and forward the user IP packet into the S1 GTP tunnel. In figure 4, the procedure through which each EPS entity forw

(i.e. UL S1-TEID), “Destination IP Address” (i.e. S-GW IP address), and “Source IP Address” (i.e. eNB IP address) to make
and forwards the resulting outer IP packets to the P-GW. Here the S-GW selected a “TEID” value (i.e. UL S5-TEID), “Dest

ue (i.e. DL S5-TEID), “Destination IP Address” (i.e. S-GW IP address), and “Source IP Address” (i.e. P-GW IP address) to m
and forwards the resulting outer IP packets to the eNB. Here, the S-GW selected a “TEID” value (i.e. DL S1-TEID), “Destin
DRB) over the radio link3.

lies to a LTE only network provided by a single operator and thus has covered the most basic components of the EPS syste

rence model. These basic documents would be helpful in better understanding of subsequent documents, which will discus
ering and integrity protection) and packet re-ordering/retransmission during handover.
nation of PDCP PDUs during construction of the RLC PDU. In the receiving side, the RLC protocol performs reassembly of th
annels. Therefore, the MAC protocol supports multiplexing and de-multiplexing between logical channels and transport cha

during LTE handover, an End Marker packet is transferred as the last packet over the GTP tunnel.

ons are as follows:


forwarding, transfer of SN status and UE context release. For SON functions, eNBs exchange resource status information,

the initial UE context to the eNB to setup E-RAB(s) and manages modification or release of the UE context thereafter.

ase of LTE handover.

e GTP tunnel over S1-U and S5 interfaces. These GTP tunnels are established per EPS bearer when a user is attached to t
dress and UDP port number are used in general.
plane protocols
n the eNB and the S-GW using S1AP and GTP-C messages.
between the S-GW and the P-GW using GTP-C protocol.
e mapping between an S1 GTP tunnel (UL S1-TEID) and an S5 GTP tunnel (UL S5-TEID) to terminate the S1 GTP tunnel an
gh which each EPS entity forwards Internet traffic flow is as follows:

(i.e. eNB IP address) to make the S1 GTP tunnel header.


value (i.e. UL S5-TEID), “Destination IP Address” (i.e. P-GW IP address), and “Source IP Address” (i.e. S-GW IP address) t

ss” (i.e. P-GW IP address) to make the S5 GTP tunnel header.


alue (i.e. DL S1-TEID), “Destination IP Address” (i.e. eNB IP address), and “Source IP Address” (i.e. S-GW IP address) to

c components of the EPS system.

t documents, which will discuss more advanced functions of the LTE architecture including LTE interworking and roaming.
ocol performs reassembly of the RLC PDU to reconstruct the PDCP PDU. The RLC protocol has three operational modes (i.e
cal channels and transport channels. Higher layers use different logical channels for different QoS metrics. The MAC proto

he GTP tunnel.
e resource status information, traffic load information and eNB configuration update information, and coordinate each othe

he UE context thereafter.

r when a user is attached to the LTE network.


erminate the S1 GTP tunnel and forward the user IP packet into the S5 GTP tunnel.

dress” (i.e. S-GW IP address) to make the S5 GTP tunnel header.

ss” (i.e. S-GW IP address) to make the S1 GTP tunnel header.

TE interworking and roaming.


s three operational modes (i.e. transparent mode, acknowledged mode and unacknowledged mode), and each offers differ
t QoS metrics. The MAC protocol supports QoS by scheduling and prioritizing data from logical channels. The eNB schedule
ion, and coordinate each other to adjust mobility parameters using the X2AP protocol.
d mode), and each offers different reliability levels. It also performs packet (the RLC PDU) re-ordering and retransmission.
al channels. The eNB scheduler makes sure radio resources are dynamically allocated to UEs and performs QoS control,to
-ordering and retransmission.
s and performs QoS control,to ensure each bearer is allocated according toappropriate QoS.
Handover events:
A1 Serving cell becomes better than threshold
A2 Serving cell becomes Worse than threshold
A3 Neighbour becomes an offset better than serving cell
A4 Neighbour cell becomes better than thershold

A5 serving cell becomes worse than threshold-1 while a neighbouring cell becomes better than
threshold-2.
B1 neighbouring inter-system cell becomes better than a threshold

B2 serving cell becomes worse than threshold-1 while a neighbouring inter-system cell becomes
better than threshold-2

There are three ways of optimizing handovers in LTE:

a) Via the modification of the parameters a3offset and hysteresisa3


b) By changing the parameter timetotriggereventa3
c) Via the modification of the parameter filtercoefficient for event a3.

These set of blogs will dealt with parameter setting for Periodic Reporting of Event A3 only. The intention is
Definitions:
Event A3 is defined as a triggering event when a neighbour cell becomes an offset better than the servin
triggering details and sends the message to the serving cell. The parameters
a3offset: The role of the offset in Event A3 is to make the serving cell look better than its current measureme
Hysteresisa3: The role of the hysteresis in Event A3 is to make the measured neighbor look worse th
decides to send a measurement report to initiate a ha
timetoTriggera3: The role of ttt in Event A3 is to avoid a ping-pong effect.
CellIndividualoffsetEutran: This parameter is applied individually to each neighbor cell with load manag
“more attractive” it will be. This parameter can only be used if the neighbor list is broadc
Based on the picture above, event A3 will trigger when:
RSRP(target) > RSRS(Serving) +a3offset + hysteresisa3 – cellindividualoffsetEutran
And this condition is valid for timetotriggera3.
At the expiration of timetotriggera3, if the UE does not receive an RRC connection reconfiguration messa
Examples:
The table below assumes that cellindividualoffsetEutran is not used and shows when the eventa3offset
As it can be seen from the table, eventa3 triggers at a3offset+hysteresisa3

However!!! After the first measurement result, subsequent measurement results can be sent if the RSRP
Therefore, it is recommended to follow the optimization rules:
a) a3offset should always be larger than hysteresisa3 if we want UE to handover to cells with an RSRP a

b) Ensuring a3offset > hysteresisa3 avoids ping-pongs


c) The higher the value of a3offset+hysteresisa3 the more we drag the calls to neighboring cells. This is
d) The smaller the value of a3offset+hysteresisa3 the faster we release the calls to neighboring cells. Th
e) The higher the value of a3offset+hysteresisa3 the more difficult we make it for calls do handover to oth
Remember, eventa3 triggers at a3offset+hysteresisa3. Subsequent message reports are sent when the R
l
LTE intra/inter frequency HO

ecomes better than

eshold
system cell becomes
IRAT

Event A3 only. The intention is to deal with each of the cases mentioned above, one at a time. Hence, this blog will co

offset better than the serving cell. The UE creates a measurement report, populates the
serving cell. The parameters that define the trigger include:
r than its current measurement in comparison to the neighbor.
ured neighbor look worse than measured to ensure it is really stronger before the UE
urement report to initiate a handover.

eighbor cell with load management purposes. The higher the value allocated to a neighbor cell, the
if the neighbor list is broadcast in SIB4 or in an RRC connection reconfiguration.

Hysteresis: Range: (0 to 10 db on step size of 0.5db). For E.g ATT it is 1


db and RJIL it is 0db.

Offset: 4 db for ATT


time to triggered (5s)
ection reconfiguration message (handover command) from the eNodeB, then it will start a timer called

ows when the eventa3offset is triggered and when the UE ceases sending measurement reports.

ults can be sent if the RSRP of the neighbor cell is only a3offset-hysterisisa3 dB stronger! Hence, weaker neighbor

dover to cells with an RSRP at least equal to the RSRP value of its serving cell.

to neighboring cells. This is very useful where we have coverage holes (not a one to one deployment scenario on to
calls to neighboring cells. This is useful in those scenarios where a large number of LTE cells exists in a given geogra
it for calls do handover to other cells.
e reports are sent when the RSRP of the neighbor cell is a3offset-hysteresisa3 (See figure below).
me. Hence, this blog will concentrate in case a).
timer called reportingintervala3. At the expiration of this timer, if the conditions for event A3 are still met and the eN

r! Hence, weaker neighbors could be reported in the measurements sent by the UE (this case is very rare but it exist

deployment scenario on top of 3G cells)


ells exists in a given geographical area.

ure below).
nt A3 are still met and the eNodeB has not responded, then another measurement report will be sent to the eNodeB.

case is very rare but it exists in real systems).


t will be sent to the eNodeB. This process will continue until the eNodeB responds or until a number of measuremen
ntil a number of measurement reports given by the parameter reportingamount have been sent.
How to calculate throughput
For any system throughput is calculated as symbols per second. Further it is converted into
bits per second

suppose in LTE for 20 Mhz


RB=100, and each RB have 12*7=84 in 0.5ms and 84*2=168 in 1 ms. So for 100 RB it will be
16800 symbol per milisec OR 16800,000 symbol per sec = 16.8 Msps.
Now we are using 64QAM (6 bit per symbol) , then throughput will be 16.8Msps*6 bit per
symbol = 100.8 Mbps. For single chain
now in Lte system with 4*4 mimo(4T,4R), the system tpt will be 100.8*4=403.2 Mbps. But
25% overhead in network. So max theoratical tpt will be 300 Mbps.
for cat3 we have 4*2 in DL and 4*1 in UL so in DL throughput will be 150 Mbps and in UL
tpt=75 Mbps.

USE OF 3GPP SPECIFICATION 36.213 FOR


THROUGHPUT CALCULATION
MCS and TBS is consider for the throughput

for 64 QAM , MCS in DL 28 indicates to transport block size index is ITBS=26 which crossponds
to TBS=75376 bits per sec and in Uplink higher MCS is 22 , Indicates I TSB=21 which crossponds
to TBS=51024

Tpt= No of Chain *tbs, so tpt will be for 4*2 Mimoin DL 2*75376=150 Mbps and in UL will be
1*51024 = 50 Mbps
Reason of affecting for DLthroughput

1 Rf condition(BLER, SINR,CQI, TBS)


2 Modulation tech(64QAM, 16 QAM, QPSK)
3 Mimo(4*4, 4*2, 4*1, 2*2 , 2*1)
4 UE category(3 to 5)

5 Scheduling of RB

6 DL and UL configration for TDD

7 High or Low RSSI mainly for UL throghput.

8 Transmission Mode
9 PHR( power reamaing after transmission)
10 coding rate(Ratio of transmitted TB and total no of TB which can be transmitted)
11 Sctp packet loss
12 PRB Utillization
Call flow Reason of volte Call Failure
1 PDN connectivity 1 Attach Failure
2 Attach Authentication 2 Authentication failure
3 Create bearer 3 inability to register with IMS N
4 P-CSCF discovery 4 inability to setup voice bearer
ims connection
5 SIP registration 5 QCI 5 is not assigned
procedure
6 Event subscription Reason of volte Drop call
7 Volte Volte Call (Sip protocol started) 1 RTP packet loss
2 insufficient network coverage
Attach procedure UE power on 3 incompatible softwareload
Radio connection established 4 cell to cell Handover
UE Authenticated 5 time out in new hybrid Scenar
UE IP address Assigned(But yet not delivered to UE) Reason of volte call quality
EPC bearer created 1 packet delivery
responsible issues
for translation of
Radio bearer Created 2 domains.
UE receive IP address 3 one way RTP session- one way
UE can now access PDN

IMS connection procedure P-CSCF discovery Before sending any SIP request, UE must perform P
SIP registration The IMS client attempts to register by sending a RE
Event subscription it is the essential part of IMS since it enables the c

Volte SIP call flow UE INVITE SDP


100 Trying
180 ringing
PRACK
200 ok
200 OK (SDP Answer)
ACK
Reason of volte Call Failure
Attach Failure
Authentication failure
inability to register with IMS Network
inability to setup voice bearer- Failed before RTP media session Started
QCI 5 is not assigned 6. RACH failure
Reason of volte Drop call
RTP packet loss
insufficient network coverage (RF condition must be good for volte)
incompatible softwareload
cell to cell Handover
time out in new hybrid Scenario(call between Volte device and PSTN) 6.PCI Collision 7. PCI confussion
Reason of volte call quality
packet delivery
responsible issues
for translation of the codecs to ensure quality across the disparate
domains.
one way RTP session- one way Audio

IP request, UE must perform P-CSCF discovery,"the process of identifying the correct call -session proxy funtion)
pts to register by sending a REGISTER request to P-CSCF
rt of IMS since it enables the concept of subscriber persence.

EPC &IMS

The first step in a volte call is a SIP INVITE request initiated by the Calling UE.
Following this step ,Agreement is made on Media specific parameter like codec ( AMR
or WB-AMR). After some Ringing, trying and ok messaging, the calling UE may respond
with a provisional ACK(PRACK).This PRACK also forwaded to called UE . When the
called subscriber answer the call , the called UE will respond with 200 ok before RTP
(media) messaging begins.
proxy funtion)

y the Calling UE.


ter like codec ( AMR
ling UE may respond
ed UE . When the
200 ok before RTP
In order that data can be transported across the LTE radio interface, various "channels" are used.

there are 3 types of Channel in Lte


1 Logical channel:(B/w RLC and MAC)-What type of information is transmitted over air interface, eg-cont
2 Transport Channel:(B/W MAC to Physical Lyer): How the information is tansmitted over air interface
3 Physical Channel:(B/w different level of physical Layer)-Where is something transmitted over Air

RLC layer

Physical channel
1 PBCH(physical broadcast channel) :it carries system information of UE for required for
PDCCH(Physical downlink control chaneel): it mainly caaries the information of 1.Downlink resourece
2 4.indication for paging of system informati
3 PUCCH(physical uplink control channel): it is used to carry resource request from U
4 PHICH(Physical Hybrid indicator channel):it is used for ACK/NACK of uplin
PCFICH(Phyical control formate indicator):It is used to indicate how much resource in a subframe is re
5 of first symbol of first time slot.
6 PRACH(Physical random Access channel):It is used to uplink transmission of pream

PDSCH(Physical downlink Shared channel):These are the main scheduled resource on the cell. They ar
7 signalling,service related signalling and user t

PUSCH(Physical Uplink Shared channel):These are the main scheduled resource on the cell. They are
8 signalling,service related signalling and user t
els" are used.

ted over air interface, eg-control or traffic


ansmitted over air interface
hing transmitted over Air

rmation of UE for required for Access the networks. Only carries MIB
ation of 1.Downlink resourece scheduling 2.uplink power instruction 3.uplink resourse Grant
for paging of system information
carry resource request from UE which is furher processed by MAC layer.
t is used for ACK/NACK of uplink transmission from UE in PUSCH
ch resource in a subframe is received for the downlink control chnnel. It may be either 1,2,3
t symbol of first time slot.
to uplink transmission of preambles as part of random access procedure

d resource on the cell. They are used to transport all higher layer information including RRC
ce related signalling and user traffic.

resource on the cell. They are used to transport all higher layer information including RRC
ce related signalling and user traffic.
Parameter related to cell selection/ reselection
Name Discription
1 qrxlevlmin Min level of rsrp that is required for cell selection and reselection.e.g-(-124), (-128)
2 UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH Max Tx power level, an UE may use when accessing the cell on RACH
3 Sintraserch if Srxlevl<=SintraSearch, perform intrafrequency measurment.
4 Sintrserch If Srxlevl<=SintrSearch, perform intrfrequency measurment.
5 SserchRAT,m perform measurment of cell of Other RAT 'm'
Rank criteria
1 Rs=Qmeas,s+ Qhyst,s (for serving cell 's')
2 Rn=Qmeas,n+Qhyst,n ( for Neighbour cell 'n')

This is specify the offset b/w the cell .it is used for TDD and GSM. And for FDD
6 Qoffset 1s,n cell ,in case of quality measurment for cell selection and reselection is set to
CPICH RSRP

This is specify the offset b/w the cell .it is used for TDD and GSM. And for FDD
7 Qoffset 2s,n cell ,in case of quality measurment for cell selection and reselection is set to
CPICH RSRQ

7 Qhyst1s, and Qhyster Hysteesis value

PRACH Configuration

rootSequenceIndex RA preambles are generated from Zadoff Chu sequence which consists of series o
1 preamble sequence. Range of rootSeq
2 prach-ConfigIndex
ion.e.g-(-124), (-128)
cell on RACH
asurment.
surment.

GSM. And for FDD


selection is set to

GSM. And for FDD


selection is set to

hich consists of series of root sequences. Each root sequence can be cyclic shifted to obtain
ence. Range of rootSequenceIndex is 0 to 837.
Question

1 What is TA(Traking area)?

2 what is tracking Area Code (TAC)

3 What is TAI(Tracking area identity)

4 what is TAU( tracking area update)

5 what is the difference between FDD and TDD

6
Reason of poor Throughput.

7
scheduling in LTE

8 types of HO in LTE
9 Events of HO

10
What is RACH procedure

11

What is Rach preamble?

12 What is the difference between Re-driction


and HO?

13 Difference among Volte call , CSFB and SRVCC


14
what is PCI plannng?
What is the Difference between PCI collision
and PCI confusion?

15
What is RSI(root sequence index)

16
What is CQI?

16
What is PMI?

17 what is Rank indicator?

18
what is MCS(Modulation and coding scheme).

19 what is ARQ and HARQ?

20 What is Sounding reference signals(SRS)?

21
what is CP ?

22
What is the use of normal and extended CP

23

LTE HO event A3 and A5 comparison

What is the diiference between timer T301


24
and T311?
What is the diiference between timer T301
24
and T311?

why special subframe is used only for


25 downlink to uplink not for Uplink to
Downlink?

26 What is the difference B/w CSFB and SRVCC.

27 What is offset?

28 What is Hysterisis?

29 What is thershold?

what is the difference between s3 and S4


30
interface?

31 What is NAS(Non Acess stratum)?

32 What is the funtionality of NAS message?

33 What is AS?
34 What is SRB(Signalling radio bearer)

35 What is QoS?

36 Types of QoS?

37 What is QCI?

38 Tell us about LTE Frame Structure?

39 What are the Bandwidths used for LTE deployment?

40 How Many subcarriers/RBs are there in 5/10/20 MHz channel

41 What is Subcarrier Bandwidth in LTE?


42 How can we calculate LTE DL/UL throughput?

43 What Maximum LTE throughput can be achieved in the field?

44 How many states a UE can have ?

45 What is difference between Idle & Connected Mode

46 Message flow during LTE Call?

47 What is RRC Reconfiguration?


48 What is difference between HO , Redirection, Cell Selection / Re-Selection?

49 Can you tell us about Prach/PCI/Pusch/Pucch Planning?

50 What is Difference between MIB and SIB?

51 Handover types in LTE

52 What is difference between X2 and S1 HO?

53 Explain Handover signalling messages?


54 Explain Events measurements in LTE
55 Which event trigger during the reselection from LTE to 3G and vice versa

56 What is ANR?

57 What are the types of ANR? Which one is better?

58 What is QCI?

22. What is LTE modulation?AMC?

23. What is MIMO?

24. What is TM? TM1? TM2? TM3? TM4?

25. What is close loop MIMO?

26. Mapping of MIB and SIB messages?

27. Explain SIB messages?

What is purpose of SIB19?


What Message will be observed on layer-3 During handover stage?

Which channel carries CQI information to enodB?

31. What other info PUCCH carries?

32. What is DRX?

33. What is  UE disconnection Timer?

34. What is the Location of PUCCH in the UL Spectrum?

35. CS Fall back criteria and event?


36. Explain CSFallback signalling?

37. What basic parameters are required from Planning to configure a site?

38. Explain PCI (Physical Cell id) Planning?


39. How do you deal with Interference issues during PCI planning
40. How do we do optimization of site?
41. What are the Features available to
improve accessibility, retainability?

42. What is BLER? What’s Target value?

How to investigate low throughput?


44. What major KPIs have you been analyzing
most?
Answer

when UE is in Active state,its location is known by LTE network at cell level. E.g-in cell2,cell3. However
when UE is in ideal mode its location is known by LTE network at TA level instead of cell level. So TA is a
group of neighbour definred by operator.

A TAC is the unique code that each operator assigns to each of their TAs
A TAI consists of a PLMN ID and a TAC. Here, a PLMN ID, a combination of a Mobile Country Code (MCC) and a
Mobile Network Code (MNC), is the unique code assigned to each operator in the world
LTE network (the MME) has to have updated location information about UEs in idle state to find out in which TA
a particular UE is located. For this, the UE notifies the MME of its current location by sending a TAU message
(TAU Request message) every time it moves between TAs. when UE moves from one TA to another TA , TAU
message send to MME.

1. In TDD transmitter and recevier operates on same frequency but in different time slot. But in FDD uplink
and downlink operates on different frequency at same time instance. 2.FDD use where UL & DL tpt required
in equal proportion. While in TDD we can use UL and DL according to need as per UL/DL configration

1. Poor RF condition(Sinr & BLER) 2. Mimo 3. Modulation tech. 4. Schedular type. 5.UE category. 6. UL and DL
configration for TDD 7. High RSSI for UL throughput 8. PHR 9. Carrier aggregation, 10. SCTP packet loss

Scheduling is the process through which eNB decides for which UEs resources should be given to send or
receive data. There are 4 types of scheduler in LTE. 1.round robin 2. Max C/I 3. propotional fair. 4. QoS

Hard HO in LTE. TYPES: X2 based HO( enb to enb) 2. S1 based: enb to enb through MME(when MME change)
5 events(A1, A2, A3, A4, A5) for LTE intra/inter frequency HO and two events(B1, B2) for IRAT HO

To acheave Uplink synchronization b/w UE and eNB RACH procedure is used. Network knows first time that
some UE trying to get access

when UE send a very first message of RACH procedure to some network, it is basicaly send some specific
pattern or signature which is called RACH preamble. The rach preamble value differentiate the request
coming from different UEs.There are 64 rach preamble are used for synchornization which is used by every
UEs.

In redrection UE goes connected mode to ideal mode. E.g-CSFB call. While in HO UE change the cell in
connected mode.

1.volte call is pure PS call which is done using IMS through SIP protocol. 2. when we have to do voice or SMS
our call fall back to legecy network(3G and 2G) use redriction from LTE to Legecy ntworks. 3. SRVCC: It is a
feature of LTE which enable the HO from LTE to legecy network when LTE networks moved out (PS and CS
call both)
there are 504 PCI in LTE. Physical identity PSS (0 to3) and Physical idetity group SSS(0 to 167). PCI=
3SSS+PSS.
PCI collision: two cell that are adjacent to each other do not have same PCI. PCI confusion: Cell may not
have neighbour with same PCI other wise UE get confused during HO and Measurment report.
Each cell, must have a different RootSequenceIndex to avoid the reception of false preambles in adjacent
eNodeBs and the planning could be linked to the PCI planning..

Channel quality indicator: It describes the quality of channel in DL. It shows how good OR bad our channel
quality is? Range: 0 to 15. Higher the CQI higher the modulation Scheme and High TBS and get high tpt. It is
based on PMI and RI. 0to 6-QPSK, 7 to 9:- 16 QAM, 10 to 15 : 64QAM

PMI(Precoding matrix indicator) : UE indicates to eNB , which precoding matrix should be used for downlink
transmission which is determined by RI. It shows which data will be transmitted on which antenna port?

UE indicates eNB ,numbers of layer that should be used for downlink transmission is determined by RI.

How many bits are transmitted in TBS it depends upon MCS. In DL 28, and UL 22 MCS used. 0 to 9- QPSK, 10to
16: 16QAM, 17to 28:64QAM

Automatic repeat request (ARQ) is a acknoledge which is send by receiver to transmitter. when receiver
receives bad package or corrupted pakets it is simply discarded by system and ask for retransmission.
HARQ: HARQ use of coventional ARQ along with an eroor correction technique called soft combining. With
the 'Soft Combining' data packets that are not properly decoded are not discarded anymore. The received
signal is stored in a 'buffer', and will be combined with next retransmission.

It is sounding reference signals UE detects from whole BW to find out which portion having good CQI.

Cyclic prefix is nothing but guard timer. It is used to make successful receiving of OFDM symbol at receiver
side. It is of 2 types: Normal CP(7 ofdma symbol of 4.9microsec) and extended CP( 6 Ofdma Symbol of
16.7micro sec)

Usually normal cyclic prefix is sufficient to suppress the multi-path delay spread. But some places(hilly areas)
multi-path delay is significantly high. So to suppress multi-path delay in hilly area's extended cyclic prefix is
being used.

event A3:neighbour cell become an offset better than serving cell & A5:Serving becomes worse than
threshold1 & neighbor becomes better than threshold2 . In bad coverage conditions, Event A5 makes sure
that the target cell is better than a certain value of RSRP. but Event A3, we can't regulate the target's
absolute value. Its value is relative to the serving cell.

1. Both can not start at same time. If one of them is running then other timer will be stopped.
2. If ue detects ho failure, RLF etc..then it needs to perform the rrc reestablishment. For performing
reestablishment first UE needs to select suitable cell so it starts t311 timer.
3. Before expiring t311 if UE finds suitable cell then it proceeds to rrc reestablishment procedure so it stop
t311 and starts t301 timer.
4. If UE gets rrc reestablishment from eNB then UE stop the t301 time.
1. Both can not start at same time. If one of them is running then other timer will be stopped.
2. If ue detects ho failure, RLF etc..then it needs to perform the rrc reestablishment. For performing
reestablishment first UE needs to select suitable cell so it starts t311 timer.
3. Before expiring t311 if UE finds suitable cell then it proceeds to rrc reestablishment procedure so it stop
t311 and starts t301 timer.
4. If UE gets rrc reestablishment from eNB then UE stop the t301 time.
5. If any of the time expire before next step as explained above or ue gets rrc reestablishment reject then UE
leaves the rrc connected mode with release cause as rrc connection failure.

At the UE side, the UL transmission must start before the end of DL reception because of the TA. That's why
the special subgrame is needed to to switch DL to Ul but there is no SF is required for UL to DL because DL
transmission is seamless transmission. when UE stop Uplink it receive DL transmission automatically.

both are the feature of LTE. CSFB: UE intaite CS call on Lagecy network even LTE network is persent. Which
SRVCC is a feater of LTE that enable the HO when LTE network is degraded or move out. 2. In CSFB
redirection occur(connected to ideal) while in SRVCC HO occur from LTE to Lgecy network. 3. CSFB done
through SGs interface between MME to MSC while in SRVCC Sv interface is used. 4. CSFB is slow as terminal
needs to establish the voice call session with CS network while in SRVCC, time is required only when the
trminals moves out the LTE coverage network
Offset is the parameter that make serving cell look better than the actual measurment of it compare to
neighbour cell.

 There can be a delay between action and reaction of a measurement and handover takes place. So there is a
small time interval included in the measurement reporting to minimise the effect of the delay. In short
measured neighbor look worse than measured to make sure it is really stronger before the UE decides to send
a measurement report to initiate a handover.
Thershold is used when measurment of both the cell is not compared and while taking decision to triggred
measurment report, both or one cell is measured independently. E.g: event A1 and A2.

S3 and S4 both interfaces are necessary to support handover from LTE to UMTS. SGSNs have support for S3/S4
interfaces. S3 between SGSN to MME for control plane and S4 is between SGSN and SGW for user plane. S3 is
GTPv2 based and S4 is GTPv1 Based

 It is a protocol for messages passed between the User Equipment, also known as mobiles, and Core Nodes
(e.g. Mobile Switching Center, Serving GPRS Support Node, or Mobility Management Entity) that is passed
transparently through the radio network. Examples of NAS messages include Update or Attach messages,
Authentication Messages, Service Requests and so on.

1.maintaining connectivity and active sessions with user equipment as the user moves 2.Call control
management 3.Session management: establishing, maintaining and terminating communication links,
4.Identity management

The purpose of AS security is to securely deliver RRC messages between a UE and an eNB in the control plane
and IP packets in the user plane using AS security keys
It is used to transfer the RRC and NAS signalling message. RRC message used for signalling b/w UE and eNB
and NAS message are used as signalling b/w UE and MME.

QoS (Quality of Service) defines how a particular user data should be treated in the network. QoS is
implemented between UE and PDN Gateway and is applied to a set of bearers.  e.g. VoIP packets
are prioritized by network compared to web browser traffic.

two Types: 1. Dedicated bearer and 2 Default bearer. Dedicated bearer is further classified as Non GBR and
GBR and Defaul contains Non GBR.

Qality class indicator: Which service bearer is assingned on which priority. It is Based on packet delay and
Packet loss rate.( E.g QCI 5, priority 1 is IMS signalling with 100ms packet deley and 10^-6 packet loss rate..).
QCI 1-4:GBR and QCI 4 to 9: Non GBR

TDD same bandwith used for both DL, UL but seperated by time & FDD different bands used for UL,DL
Frame Length 10 ms
Subframes per Frame 10
Subframe Length (ms) 1
Slots per Subframe 2
Symbols/Slot, normal CP 7
Symbols/Slot, extended CP 6

1.4, 5, 10, 15, 20 Mhz

25 50 75 100Rb's
15Khz
hroughput?

Practical :-
10Mhz FDD DL-60+Mbps
10Mhz TDD DL-40+Mbps
Theoritical :- LTE provides downlink peak rates of at least 100Mbit/s, 50 Mbit/s in the uplink (For Category 3
Ues) and RAN (Radio Access Network) round-trip times of less than 10 ms.

EMM- registered & de-registered,


ECM-idle & connected and
RRC-idle & connected States

Idle mode mobility relies on UE measurements and UE decisions whether to make a cell reselection or not.
The MME keeps track of the UEs on a TA level.
Connected mode mobility relies on UE measurements and eNB decisions whether to make Handover or not.
The UE position is known on cell level by the eNB.

when Sreving cell is changed re-config occurs


HO-connected state to cannected state, Redirection-Connected to ideal mode, Cell selection- when UE camp
on the first time there is a cell selection, Cell- reselection- in idal mode cell change
sch/Pucch Planning?
1Master Information Bit(updated) is sent 40ms once and System Information Bit(updated) is sent 20ms once.
2. MIB is static while SIB is dynamic .
Hard HO X2- between eNb of same MME & S1- between eNb of diff MME (or) Enode B - MME - S1C and Enode B
- SGW - S1U
Hard HO X2- between eNb of same MME & S1- between eNb of diff MME (or) Enode B - MME - S1C and Enode B
- SGW - S1U

A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, B1 and B2


B1 B2
Automatic neighbour realtion which is the new feature of LTE where the neighbors can be added/removed on
need basis both by eNb and UE.

Automatic neighbour realtion


LTE724(LTE Automatic Neighbor Cell configuration)
LTE539(Central ANR)
LTE492(ANR with OAM extension)
LTE782(Fully UE based)

QoS Class Identifier which is allocated to the UE by the eNb depending upon the service requested. It ranges
from 1-9 for GBR and non-GBR service requests.it is also prioritized on basis of paket loss rate and itd paket
deley time.
DL-OFDMA UL-SCFDMA

Multiple Input and Multiple Output.


Types:- Singletx,
TxDiv: Same data over Multiple Antenna's & Spatial Multiplexing: Different Data over different Antenna's

Transmission Modes for MIMO


TM1-Single antenna, port 0
TM2-Tx diversity
TM3-Tx diversity if RI=1 else large delay
TM4-closed loop spatial diversity
Multiple Input and Multiple Output
Two diversity modes viz Spatial diversity and

The MIB is mapped to BCCH logical channel and then carried on BCH, while all other types of SI messages are
mapped on the BCCH and then dynamically carried on DL-SCH where they can be identified through the SI-
RNTI (SystemInformationRNTI).
System Information Bits which carry information which are required for any process to take place in a
network. In LTE we have 13 SIB's.
WCDMA SIB19 contains Inter-RAT frequency and priority information to be used in the cell for the absolute
RAT priority cell reselection algorithm. In other words, this is UTRAN-, not LTE - specific SIB.
PUCCH

CQI, SR, Ack Nack


Discontinuous Receive Cycle where the UE is in idle/sleep mode and will wake up to check if it has any input
and goes back to idle if no request.

Edges of the Bandwidth to allocate RB's continuosly to the UE

clutter, pops density, beamwidth, bandwidth, height, capacity


PSS-0,1,2 SSS-0-167 total PCI-504
nce issues during PCI planning
Swap sectors, alarms, snr, rsrp, load balancing, parameters.

Block Error Rate (BLER) is a ratio of the number of erroneous blocks to the total number of blocks received on
a digital circuit. Block error rate (BLER) is used for W-CDMA performance requirements tests (demodulation
tests in multipath conditions, etc.).
in-sync- 0.2% and out-sync 10%
BW, MIMO, Modulation, Coding Rate, Cyclic Prefix, UE Category

Mobility, Throughput, Cell Not latching..etc


RRC Timer
Timer 300 T300(After UE sending RRC_connection_Requiest but no
Timer 301 T301 (After UE sending RRC_connection_Reestablishment_Requiest but no
Timer 304 T304(After Receiving RRC_Reconfiguration for Handover but not gone to RRC-Connected(successfu
T303303
Timer and&305
T305( Access barred while performing RRC connection establishment for mobile originating callsT303 an
Timer 310 T310(After Receiving N310 out of sync orders but not received N311 in sync orders w
Timer 311 T311(After UE initiating RRC_Restablishment procedure but not selected su
Timer
ection_Requiest but not received set up within T300)
hment_Requiest but not received set up within T300 so UE will go to idle)
RC-Connected(successful Handover) with in T304 so UE initiates RRC_re_estblishment Procedure)
originating callsT303 and mobile origination signallingT305 but not gone to connected state within T303&T305)
ed N311 in sync orders with in T310 So UE will go to idle if security is not activated)
dure but not selected suitable EUTRA cell with in T311 so UE will go to idle)