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and Helical Involute Gears

Alexander L. Kapelevich and Roderick E. Kleiss

This paper presents an alternative method of

Nomenclature

analysis and design of spur and helical involute bw face width in the mesh

gears. da outside circle diameter, mm (in.)

Introduction db base circle diameter, mm (in.)

Modern gear design is generally based on d∆ tip circle diameter, mm (in.)

standard tools. This makes gear design quite sim- ma proportional top land tooth thickness

ple (almost like selecting fasteners), economical, mb proportional base tooth thickness

and available for everyone, reducing tooling pb base pitch, mm (in.)

expenses and inventory. At the same time, it is Sa top land tooth thickness, mm (in.)

well known that universal standard tools provide Sb base tooth thickness, mm (in.)

gears with less than optimum performance and— u gear ratio

in some cases—do not allow for finding accept- z number of teeth

αa outside circle profile angle, degrees

able gear solutions. Application specifics, includ-

αp profile angle in the bottom contact point, degrees

ing low noise and vibration, high density of

αw operating pressure angle, degrees

power transmission (lighter weight, smaller size)

βb base circle helix angle, degrees

and others, require gears with nonstandard para-

εα contact ratio

meters. That’s why, for example, aviation gear

εβ axial contact ratio

transmissions use tool profiles with custom pro- ν tip circle profile angle, degrees

portions, such as pressure angle, addendum, and

whole depth. The following considerations make Subscript

application of nonstandard gears suitable and 1 pinion

cost-efficient: 2 gear

• CNC cutting machines and CMM gear inspec-

tion equipment make production of nonstandard

gears as easy as production of standard ones.

• Cost of the custom cutting tool is not much

higher than that of the cutting tool for standard

gears and can be amortized if production quantity

is large enough. Dr. Alexander L.

Kapelevich

• The custom gear performance advantage makes is an owner of the consult-

a product more competitive and justifies larger ing firm AKGears of

tooling inventory, especially in mass production. Shoreview, MN, and princi-

pal engineer for Kleiss

• Gear grinding is adaptable to custom tooth

Gears Inc. of Centerville,

shapes. MN. He has more than 20

• Metal and plastic gear molding cost largely does years of experience in

not depend on tooth shape. development of aviation

and commercial gear trans-

This article presents the direct gear design missions in Russia and the

method, which separates gear geometry definition United States.

from tool selection, to achieve the best possible per-

formance for a particular product and application.

Roderick E. Kleiss,

professional engineer, is

The direct design approach that is commonly owner and president of

used for most parts of mechanisms and machines Kleiss Gears Inc. His com-

(for example, cams, linkages, compressor or tur- pany engineers and manu-

factures high precision,

bine blades, etc.) determines their profiles accord- plastic molded gears using

ing to the operating conditions and desired per- Figure 1—The zone allowed by the standard 20° the direct gear design

formance. Ancient engineers used the same rack for a gear pair z1 = 14, z2 = 28. approach.

w w w. p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n . c o m • w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y. c o m • G E A R T E C H N O L O G Y • S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 2 29

approach for gear design, developing the tooth ting tool (generating rack) were standardized.

shape first and then figuring out a way to get it. This has made modern involute gear design indi-

During the technological revolution in the 19th rect because the gear tooth profiles depend on a

century, the highly productive gear generating preselected, usually standard set for parameters of

process was developed. New machine tools the generating rack (diametral pitch or module,

required complicated and expensive tools, hobs pressure angle, addendum and dedendum propor-

or gear shapers. Common parameters of the cut- tions, tip radii, etc.) and its location (addendum

modification or x-shift), relative to a standard

Table 1

pitch diameter of the gear.

Drawing Specification Generating Process Parameter Gear Parameter

Number of Teeth X Table 1 shows a typical helical gear specifica-

Standard Normal Pitch X tion, where gear parameters and the generating

Normal Pressure Angle X process (rack and its location) parameters are sep-

Standard Pitch Diameter X arated. The gear as a part does not have a pressure

Helix Angle X angle, pitch diameter, diametral pitch or module,

Hand of Helix X helix angle, addendum or addendum modifica-

Helix Lead X tion. All these parameters are related to the tool

Base Diameter X and generating process. The involute gear has a

Form Diameter X number of teeth, base diameter, outside diameter,

Root Diameter X helical lead, and base tooth thickness.

Outside Diameter X

The generating rack method of gear design

Tooth Thickness on

does not guarantee sufficient gear design. The

Standard Pitch Diameter X

minimum number of pinion teeth is limited to

Addendum X

Whole Depth X avoid undercut. The addendum modification or x-

shift of the generating rack is introduced to bal-

Table 2 ance bending fatigue stresses and specific sliding

Parameter Symbol Equation Value for pinion and gear, and to reduce undercut for

Number of teeth (given) z1 14 pinions with small numbers of teeth.

z2 28 Why must tooth profiles be modified or cor-

Proportional top land thicknesses (given) ma1 0.075 rected at the very earliest stages of the gear

ma2 0.075 design? The modification must occur so early

Center distance, in. (given) aw 3.000 because the traditional approach is limited by its

Proportional base tooth thicknesses mb1 0.755 own arbitrary selection of generating rack para-

(chosen from area of existence) mb2 0.645 meters. The zone depicted (Ref. 1) in x-shift coef-

Profile angle in the involute intersection point, deg. ν1 (4a) 42.14 ficient coordinates x1 and x2, for a pair of spur

ν2 32.85 gears z1 = 14, z2 = 28 formed by a standard gen-

Profile angles on outside diameters, deg. αa1 (5a) 41.23 erating rack with 20° pressure angle is shown in

αa2 31.83 Figure 1. The zone shown contains all gear com-

Operating pressure angle, deg. αw (10) 24.98 binations that can be produced using this particu-

Transverse contact ratio εa (12) 1.60 lar generating rack. Its area is limited by the min-

Profile angles in the bottom contact points, deg. αp1 (13) 8.87 imum contact ratio for spur gears εα = 1.0 (iso-

αp2 (14) 14.61 gram A), the sharp tip of the pinion (isogram B),

Base diameters, in. db1 (11a) 1.813 and the tip-fillet interference (isograms C and D).

db2 db2 = db1• u 3.626 The undercut isograms E and F put additional

Base pitch, in. pb (3) 0.407 limitations on the zone area. Other available gear

pw (7) 0.449 combinations exist outside the zone borders, but

Operating pitch, in.

dw1 (8) 2.000 in order to realize them, the generating rack para-

Operating pitch diameters, in.

dw2 4.000 meters would have to be changed. In other words,

Sw1 (9) 0.279 a range of possible gear combinations is limited

Operating tooth thicknesses, in.

Sw2 0.170 by the cutting tool (generating rack) parameters

da1 (2a) 2.410 and the machine tool setup (x-shift).

Outside diameters, in.

da2 4.267 Direct gear design is the way to obtain all pos-

Sa1 (5b) 0.030 sible gear combinations by analyzing their prop-

Outside diameter tooth thicknesses, in.

Sa2 0.030 erties without using any of the generating process

parameters. Those parameters can be defined

30 S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 2 • G E A R T E C H N O L O G Y • w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y. c o m • w w w. p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n . c o m

Page 30 - 35 8/1/02 12:53 PM Page 32

There were attempts to use the base circle as a

foundation for the involute gear theory, separat-

ing the gear analysis from the gear generating

process. Professor E.B. Vulgakov developed the

so-called theory of generalized parameters for

involute gears (Ref. 2). J.R. Colbourne (Ref. 3)

described an alternative definition of the involute

without using the generating rack. The self-gen-

erating method “gear forms gear” was proposed

for plastic molded gears (Refs. 4 and 5).

According to this method, the top land of the

tooth of one of the gears forms the fillet of the

mating gear and vice versa. At a glance, it looks

similar to a gear shaping or gear rolling process,

but the fact that both gears are described without

Figure 2—The involute tooth parameters’ defini-

the generating rack parameters makes a differ- tion.

ence in their geometry and characteristics.

Involute Tooth Parameters

An involute tooth is formed by two involutes

unwound from the base circle db, outside circle

diameter da and fillet (Ref. 2) (see Fig. 2). Unless

otherwise stated, the following equations are cor-

rect for spur gears and for helical gears in the

transverse section (the section perpendicular to

the axis of the gear). Equation numbers with

alphabetic modifiers are given for use in the

numeric examples listed in Tables 2, 3 and 4.

The profile angle in the intersection point of

the two involutes (tip angle) is

ν = acos(db/d∆) (1)

where d∆ is the sharp tip circle diameter.

The profile angle on the outside diameter da is

αa = acos(db/da) (2) Figure 3—The involute mesh parameters’ defini-

da = db/cos(αa) (2a) tion.

The base pitch is zero). The close mesh condition is

pb = π • db/z (3) pw = Sw1 + Sw2 (6)

where z is the number of teeth. where

The proportional base tooth thickness is pw = π • dw1/z1 = π • dw2/z2 (7)

mb = Sb/pb = z • inv(ν)/π (4) is operating circular pitch,

inv(ν) = π • mb/z (4a) dw1 = db1/cos(αw), dw2 = db2/cos(αw) (8)

where Sb is the base thickness. are the pinion and the gear operating pitch diame-

The proportional top land thickness is ters, and

ma = Sa/pb = z • (inv(ν) – inv(αa))/(π • cos(αa)) (5) Sw1 = (inv(ν1) – inv(αw)) • db1/cos(αw), (9)

cos(αa) + zinv(αa)/(π • ma) = mb/ma (5a) Sw2 = (inv(ν2) – inv(αw)) • (db2/cos(αw)

Sa = pb • ma (5b) are the pinion and the gear operating tooth thick-

inv(ν) = (π • macos(αa) + zinv(αa))/z (5c) nesses.

where Sa is the top land thickness. The recom- The operating pressure angle can be found by

mended value of ma should be between 0.06 and substitution of Equation 6 with 7, 8, and 9:

0.12 to avoid a sharp tooth tip and provide suffi- inv(αw) = (inv(ν1) + u • inv(ν2) – π/z1)/(1 + u) (10)

cient contact ratio in the mesh. where u is the gear ratio u = z2/z1.

Involute Gear Mesh Parameters The operating pressure angle is a gear mesh

Figure 3 shows the zone of tooth action of the parameter and it cannot be defined for one sepa-

pinion and the gear in close mesh (backlash is rate gear.

w w w. p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n . c o m • w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y. c o m • G E A R T E C H N O L O G Y • S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 2 31

Page 30 - 35 8/1/02 12:53 PM Page 33

aw = db1 • (1 + u)/(2 • cos(αw)) (11)

db1 = aw • (2 • cos(αw))/(1 + u) (11a)

The contact ratio (for spur gears and for helical

gears in the transverse section) is

εα = z1 • (tan(αa1) + u • tan(αa2) (12)

– (1 + u) • tan(αw))/(2 • π).

The profile angle in the bottom contact point

must be larger than or equal to zero to avoid invo-

lute undercut:

for the pinion

Figure 4—The angular shift of the transverse sec-

tions for a helical gear. αp1 = atan((1 + u) • tan(αw) – u • tan(αa2)) ≥ 0, (13)

for the gear

αp2 = atan((1 + u) • tan(αw)/u – tan(αa1)/u) ≥ 0. (14)

The axial contact ratio for helical gears is

εβ = z1•φ1/(2•π) (15)

where φ (in radians) is the angular shift between

the opposite transverse sections in the helical

mesh (see Fig. 4), and

φ = (2 • bw) • tan(βb)/db, (16)

where bw is the width of the helical mesh and βb is

the helix angle on the base circle.

The fillet profile must provide a gear mesh with

sufficient radial clearance to avoid tip-fillet interfer-

ence. The fillet also must provide necessary tooth

bending fatigue resistance and mesh stiffness. The

direct gear design approach allows selection of any

fillet profile (parabola, ellipsis, cubic spline, etc.)

that would best satisfy those conditions. This profile

is not necessarily the trochoid formed by the rack or

shaper generating process.

Tool geometry definition is the next step in

Figure 5—The area of existence for the gear pair direct gear design. This will depend on the actual

z1 = 14, z2 = 28. manufacturing method. For plastic and metal gear

molding, gear extrusion, and powder metal gear

processing, the entire gear geometry—including

correction for shrinkage—will be directly applied

to the tool cavity. For cutting tools (hobs, shaper

cutters), the reverse generating approach “gear

forms tool” can be applied. In this case, the tool-

ing pitch and profile (pressure) angle are selected

to provide the best cutting conditions.

Area of Existence of Involute Gears

Figure 5 shows an area of existence for a pinion

and gear with certain numbers of teeth z1, z2, and

proportional top land thicknesses ma1, ma2 (Ref. 2).

Unlike the zone shown in Figure 1, the area of exis-

tence in Figure 5 contains all possible gear combina-

tions and is not limited to restrictions imposed by a

generating rack. This area can be shown in propor-

Figure 6—Involute gear meshes: 6a, at point A of Figure 5 (αwmax = 39.5°, εα = tional base tooth thicknesses mb1 – mb2 coordinates

1.0); 6b, at point B of Figure 5 (αw = 16.7°, εαmax = 2.01); 6c, at point C of or other parameters describing the angular distance

Figure 5 (αwmax = 29.6°, εα = 1.0); 6d, at point D of Figure 5 (αw = 15.9°, εαmax

between two involute flanks of the pinion and gear

= 1.64).

teeth, like αa1 – αa2 or ν1 – ν2. A sample of the area

32 S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 2 • G E A R T E C H N O L O G Y • w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y. c o m • w w w. p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n . c o m

of existence for a pair of gears z1 = 14, z2 = 28, ma1

= ma2 = 0.075 is shown in Figure 5. The area of exis-

tence includes a number of isograms reflecting con-

stant values of different gear parameters, such as

operating pressure angles αw, contact ratios εα, etc.

The area of existence of spur gears (thick line 1) is

limited by isogram εα = 1.0, and undercut isograms

αp1 = 0⬚, αp2 = 0⬚. Helical gears can have a trans-

verse contact ratio less than 1.0 because the axial

contact ratio can provide proper mesh. The area of

existence of helical gears is therefore much greater.

Each point on the area of existence reflects a pair of

gears with dimensionless properties that can fit a par-

ticular application. These properties are pressure

angles, contact ratios, pitting resistance geometry

factor I, specific sliding ratio, etc.

The absolute area of existence includes spur gear Figure 7—Involute meshes for the gear pair z1 = 14,

combinations with any values of proportional top z2 = 28 (at point E of the area of existence shown in

Figure 5, αw = 25⬚) 7a, direct designed gears (εα =

land thicknesses between ma1 = ma2 = 0 to ma1 = mb1 1.47); 7b, standard designed gears (εα = 1.16).

and ma2 = mb2 (phantom line 2). This area is sub-

stantially larger than the area with given values of

proportional top land thicknesses. The zone for a

standard generating rack with 20⬚ pressure angle (as

shown in Fig. 1) is only a fractional part of the avail-

able area of existence as shown by hidden line 3 in

Figure 5. An application of a traditional gear gener-

ating approach for gear pairs outside the zone out-

lined by hidden line 3 requires selection of a gener-

ating rack with different parameters. The generation

of some gear combinations (top left and bottom right Figure 8—A helical gear pair with high operating

corners of the area of existence shown in Fig. 5) will pressure angle: z1 = 9, z2 = 12, αw = 68.8⬚, εα =

0.504, β = 30⬚, εβ = 0.55.

require different generating racks for the pinion and

for the gear.

Analysis of the area of existence shows how

many gear solutions could be left out of considera-

tion if a traditional approach based on a predeter-

mined set of rack dimensions is applied. For exam-

ple, spur gears with a high operating pressure angle

(point A on the Figure 5, where the operating pres-

sure angle αw = 39.5⬚, contact ratio εα = 1.0), or with

a high contact ratio (point B on the Figure 5, where

contact ratio εα = 2.01, operating pressure angle αw

= 16.7⬚) could not be produced with standard rack Figure 9—A spur gear with a high contact ratio: z1

dimensions. Figures 6a and 6b show these gears. = 55, z2 = 55, αw = 12.9⬚, εα = 4.0, ma1 = ma2 = 0.075.

Figures 6c and 6d are the gears that are achievable

using a standard generating rack that are presented standard designed gear pair has a contact ratio of

by points C (αw = 29.6⬚, εα = 1.0) and D (αw = 15.9⬚, only εα = 1.16 in close mesh. In an actual application

εα = 1.64) in Figure 5. Even gears with the same with real manufacturing tolerances and operating

operating pressure angle (point E in Fig. 5) look conditions, the contact ratio of a standard designed

quite different (Fig. 7). The standard designed gear gear pair could be reduced to an unacceptable level

pair (Fig. 7b) has almost sharp-pointed pinion teeth εα < 1.0.

and short and stubby gear teeth with excessive top Synthesis of Gearing: Numerical Examples

land tooth thickness. The direct designed gear pair There are several ways to define gear parame-

shown in Figure 7a has a contact ratio εα = 1.47. The ters using the direct gear design approach. This

w w w. p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n . c o m • w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y. c o m • G E A R T E C H N O L O G Y • S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 2 33

Table 3 article considers some of them.

Parameter Symbol Equation Value Area of existence is known. The initial data for

Number of Teeth (given) z 1 14 the synthesis of a pair of gears (z1, z2, ma1, ma2)

z2 28 could be taken from the area of existence at some

Proportional top land thicknesses (given) ma1 0.075 particular point. The coordinates of this point and

ma2 0.075 center distance aw describe all operating gear

Center distance, in. (given) aw 3.000 parameters. This calculation procedure and

Operating pressure angle, deg. (chosen) αw 33 numerical example are presented in the Table 2.

Profile angles on outside diameters, deg αa1 (10) & (17) 40.02 Area of existence is not known. Typical prob-

αa2 38.84 lems could be finding the maximum pressure

Transverse contact ratio (maximum) εα max (12) 1.246 angle if the transverse contact ratio is chosen or

Profile angle in the involute intersection point, deg. ν1 (5c) 41.03 finding the maximum transverse contact ratio if

ν2 40.36 the pressure angle is chosen. Both of these cases

Proportional base tooth thicknesses mb1 (4) 0.687 require finding the point of area of existence

mb2 1.296 where isograms αw and εα have the same tangent.

Use Table 2 to identify remaining equations. This condition is described (Ref. 2) as:

cos(αa1)2 • (1 + π • ma1 • sin(αa1)/z1) =

Table 4 cos(αa2)2 • (1 + π • ma2 • sin(αa2)/z2) (17)

Parameter Symbol Equation Value and allows solution of these problems without

Number of teeth (given) z1 14 knowing the area of existence. The calculation

z2 28 procedures and numerical examples are presented

Proportional top land thicknesses (given) ma1 0.075 in Tables 3 and 4.

ma2 0.075 The fillet between teeth is not involved in gear

Center distance, in. (given) aw 3.000 mesh operation, but its shape greatly affects gear

Transverse contact ratio (chosen) εα 1.05 performance and durability. In traditional gear

Profile angles on outside diameters, deg. αa1 (10), (12) 43.29 design, the fillet profile is a function of the cutter

αa2 & (17) 43.12 shape and the machine tool setup. It typically has

Operating pressure angle, deg. (maximum) αw max (10), (12) & (17) 37.97 excessive radial clearance resulting in high bend-

Profile angle in the involute intersection point, deg. ν1 (5c) 44.06 ing stresses. Direct gear design does not limit fil-

ν2 43.52 let shape definition. One possibility is to describe

Proportional base tooth thicknesses mb1 (4) 0.886 the fillet profile as a trace of the top part of the

mb2 1.693 mating gear tooth (with corresponding minimum

Use Table 2 to identify remaining equations radial clearance) (Refs. 4 and 5). Application of

finite element analysis allows for forming the fil-

Table 5 let profiles to balance and minimize bending

Pinion z1

αwA/εαB stresses.

5 10 20 30 40 50

Extreme Parameters of Involute Gears

5 31.5°/1.0 35.0°/1.14 37.8°/1.21 39°/1.23 39.6°/1.24 40°/1.24

Point A (tangent point of isograms εα = 1.0 and

10 35.0°/1.14 36.8°/1.43 38.5°/1.66 39.4°/1.72 39.9°/1.75 40.8°/1.76

Gear z2

20 37.8°/1.21 38.5°/1.66 39.4°/2.14 39.9°/2.37 40.2°/2.48 40.4°/2.54 αw = max) of the area of existence describes gears

30 39°/1.23 39.4°/1.72 39.9°/2.37 40.2°/2.74 40.4°/2.97 40.6°/3.1 with the maximum achievable operating pressure

40 39.6°/1.24 39.9°/1.75 40.2°/2.48 40.4°/2.97 40.6°/3.28 40.7°/3.49 angle. There is no such limit for helical gears

50 40°/1.24 40.8°/1.76 40.4°/2.54 40.6°/3.1 40.7°/3.49 40.8°/3.78 because a lack of the transverse contact ratio (εα <

1.0) is compensated by the axial contact ratio εβ.

A sample of a helical gear with high operating

pressure angle (Ref. 6) is shown in Figure 8. In

Figure 5, the point B (intersection point of inter-

ference isograms αp1 = 0⬚ and αp2 = 0⬚) of the

area of existence describes the gears with the

maximum achievable transverse contact ratio.

Table 5 presents maximum values for operating

pressure angle αwA (Point A of the area of exis-

tence) and transverse contact ratio εαB (Point B of

Figure 10—Spur gears with minimum number of teeth: a) z1 = 5, z2 = 5, αw =

33.1⬚, εα = 1.04; b) z1 = 4, z2 = 6, αw = 32.6⬚, εα = 1.02; c) z1 = 3, z2 = 11, αw the area of existence) for gear pairs with different

= 24.3⬚, εα = 1.01. numbers of teeth and the proportional top land

34 S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 2 • G E A R T E C H N O L O G Y • w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y. c o m • w w w. p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n . c o m

thicknesses ma1 = ma2 = 0.075. An example of a

spur gear mesh with a high contact ratio is shown

in Figure 9.

Spur gears (contact ratio εα ≥ 1.0) with a min-

imum possible number of teeth (Ref. 2) are

shown in Figure 10. The minimum possible num-

ber of teeth for helical gears is not limited by

transverse contact ratio and could be as few as

one (Ref. 6). An example of a helical gear with the

number of teeth z1 = z2 = 1 is shown in Figure 11.

Involute Gears with Asymmetric Tooth Profile

Opposite flanks (profiles) of the gear tooth are

functionally different for most gears. The work-

load on one profile is significantly higher and/or

is applied for longer periods of time than on the Figure 11—Helical gears with one tooth: z1 = 1, z2

opposite one. The asymmetric tooth shape accom- = 1, αw = 68.8⬚, εα = 0.56, b = 34.9⬚, εβ = 0.92.

modates this functional difference.

The design intent of asymmetric teeth is to

improve performance of main contacting profiles

by degrading opposite profiles. These opposite pro-

files are unloaded or lightly loaded, and usually

work for a relatively short period. The improved

performance could mean increasing load capacity

or reducing weight, noise, vibration, etc.

Degree of asymmetry and drive profile selec- Figure 12—Spur gears with asymmetric teeth: 12a)

a generator gear drive with αw = 41⬚, εα = 1.2 for

tion for these gears depends on the application. drive flanks and αw = 18⬚, εα = 1.64 for coast flanks;

Asymmetric profiles make it possible to manage 12b) a plastic gear pump with αw = 45.7⬚, εα = 1.01

tooth stiffness and load sharing while keeping a for drive flanks and αw = 10.3⬚, εα = 1.09 for coast

flanks.

desirable pressure angle and contact ratio on the

drive profiles. Direct gear design for asymmetric tooth profiles For more information

Direct design of gears with asymmetric teeth is opens additional reserves for improvement of

about AKGears, or to

contact the company,

considered in detail in other articles (Refs. 7 and gear drives with unidirectional load cycles that visit its website at

8), covering topics such as analysis and synthesis are typical for many mechanical transmissions. r www.akgears.com.

of asymmetric gearing, area of existence, and Acknowledgments

applications. Examples of gears with asymmetric The authors express deep gratitude to Gear Technology For more information

technical editors Robert Errichello of Geartech, located in about Kleiss Gears, or

tooth profiles are shown in Figure 12. Gears with Townsend, MT, and Dan Thurman for their help in prepar-

asymmetric teeth should be considered for gear ing this article. to contact the compa-

ny, visit its website at

systems that require extreme performance, like References

www.kleissgears.com.

1. Groman, M.B. “The Zones of Involute Mesh,” Vestnik

aerospace drives. They are also applicable for Mashinostroeniya, 1962, Issue 12, pp. 12–17 (in Russian).

mass production transmissions where the share of 2. Vulgakov, E.B. Theory of Involute Gears,

Mashinostroenie, Moscow, 1995 (in Russian).

the tooling cost per one gear is relatively insignif- 3. Colbourne, J.R. The Geometry of Involute Gears,

Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987. Tell Us What

icant. The most promising application for asym- 4. ANSI/AGMA 1006-A97, “Tooth Proportions for Plastic You Think . . .

metric profiles is with molded gears and powder Gears,” Appendix F “Generating Gear Geometry Without Visit

Racks,” AGMA, Alexandria, VA, 1997.

metal gears. Molded gear tooling usually requires 5. Kleiss, R.E., A.L. Kapelevich, and N.J. Kleiss. New www.geartechnology.com

a custom shape, so the asymmetric profile does Opportunities with Molded Gears, AGMA Fall Technical to

Meeting, Detroit, October 3–5, 2001, (01FTM9)

not significantly affect cost. 6. Vulgakov, E.B. and A.L. Kapelevicich. “Expanding the • Rate this article

Summary range of involute helical gearing,” Vestnik • Request more

Mashinostroeniya, 1982, Issue 3, pp. 12–14 (in Russian). information

Direct gear design is an alternative approach to Translated to English, Soviet Engineering Research, Vol. 2,

• Contact the authors

Issue 3, 1982, pp. 8–9.

traditional gear design. It allows analysis of a 7. Kapelevich, A.L. “Geometry and design of involute or companies men-

wide range of parameters for all possible gear spur gears with asymmetric teeth,” Mechanism and • tioned

Machine Theory, 2000, Issue 35, pp. 117–130.

combinations in order to find the most suitable 8. Litvin, F.L., Q. Lian, and A.L. Kapelevich. • Make a suggestion

solution for a particular application. This opti- “Asymmetric modified gear drives: reduction of noise, Or call (847) 437-6604 to

localization of contact, simulation of meshing and stress

analysis,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and talk to one of our edi-

mum gear solution can exceed the limits of tradi-

Engineering, 2000, Issue 188, pp. 363–390. tors!

tional rack generating methods of gear design.

w w w. p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n . c o m • w w w. g e a r t e c h n o l o g y. c o m • G E A R T E C H N O L O G Y • S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 0 2 35

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