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Pure Mathematics doi: 10.5373/jarpm.243.102109

Online ISSN: 1943-2380

S. Maragathavalli1 , M. Sheik John1 , D. Sivaraj2,∗

1

Department of Mathematics, N.G.M College, Pollachi, Tamil Nadu, India.

2

Department of Computer Science, D.J. Academy for Mangerial Excellence,

Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract. We define gµ −closed sets in generalized topological spaces and Igµ −closed

sets in generalized topological spaces with a hereditary class and give characterizations

and properties of these sets.

Keywords: µ−closed and µ−open sets; Generalized topology; Hereditary class; Quasi-topology.

1 Introduction

A generalized topology or simply GT [1] µ on a nonempty set X is a collection of

subsets of X such that ∅ ∈ µ and µ is closed under arbitrary union. Elements of µ are

called µ−open sets. A subset of A of X is said to be µ−closed if X − A is µ−open. The

pair (X, µ) is called a generalized topological space (GTS). By a space (X, µ), we will

always mean a GTS (X, µ). A space (X, µ) is said to be a quasi-topological space [4],

if µ is closed under finite intersection. Clearly, every topological space as well as a

quasi-topological space is a GTS. If A is a subset of a space (X, µ), then cµ (A) is the

smallest µ−closed set containing A and iµ (A) is the largest µ−open set contained in A.

A subset A of a space (X, µ) is said to be α−open [3] (resp., semiopen [3], preopen [3],

b−open [8], β−open [3] ) if A ⊂ iµ cµ iµ (A) (resp., A ⊂ cµ iµ (A), A ⊂ iµ cµ (A), A ⊂

iµ cµ (A) ∪ cµ iµ (A), A ⊂ cµ iµ cµ (A)). We will denote the family of all α−open sets by α,

the family of all semiopen sets by σ, the family of all preopen sets by π, the family of

all b−open sets by b and the family of all β−open sets by β. If κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β}

and A is a subset of a space (X, κ), then cκ (A) is the smallest κ−closed set containing

A and iκ (A) is the largest κ−open set contained in A. Note that the operator cκ is

∗

Correspondence to: D. Sivaraj, Department of Computer Science, D.J. Academy for Mangerial Excel-

lence, Coimbatore- 641 032, Tamil Nadu, India. Email: ttn− sivaraj@yahoo.co.in

†

Received: 21 October 2009, revised: 26 November 2009, accepted: 10 December 2009.

http://www.i-asr.com/Journals/jarpm/ 57 ⃝2010

c Institute of Advanced Scientific Research

58 On g−closed sets in generalized topological spaces

monotonic, increasing and idempotent and the operator iκ is monotonic, decreasing and

idempotent. Clearly, A is κ−open if and only if A = iκ (A) and A is κ−closed if and only

if A = cκ (A). Also, for every subset of A of a space (X, κ), X − iκ (A) = cκ (X − A). In

section 2, we define a new class of sets, called gκ −closed sets and give its characterizations

and properties. If κ = τ, a topology on X, then gκ −closed sets are nothing but g−closed

[7] sets in topological spaces. In section 3, we define another new class of subsets of

a space (X, κ) which contains properly the family of all gκ −closed sets and give its

characterizations and properties.

2 gκ −closed sets

Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β}. A subset A of X is said to be

gκ −closed if cκ (A) ⊂ M whenever A ⊂ M and M ∈ κ. Clearly, every κ−closed set is

gκ −closed and cκ (A) is gκ −closed for every subset A of X. The following Example 2.1

shows that the converse is not be true for κ = µ. Theorem 2.1 gives a characterization of

gκ −closed sets. Theorem 2.2 shows that a gκ −closed set A is a κ−closed set, if cκ (A)−A

is κ−closed.

Example 2.1. Let X = {a, b, c} and µ = {∅, {a} }. Since there is no µ−open set

containing {b}, {b} is gµ −closed but not µ−closed.

Theorem 2.1. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β}. Then a subset A

of X is gκ −closed if and only if F ⊂ cκ (A) − A and F is κ−closed imply that F = ∅.

Proof. Let F be a κ−closed subset of cκ (A) − A. Since A ⊂ X − F and A is gκ −closed,

cκ (A) ⊂ X − F and so F ⊂ X − cκ (A). Therefore, F = ∅. Conversely, suppose the

condition holds and A ⊂ M and M ∈ κ. If cκ (A) ̸⊂ M, then cκ (A) ∩ (X − M ) is a

nonempty κ−closed subset of cκ (A) − A, a contradiction to the hypothesis. Therefore,

cκ (A) ⊂ M which implies that A is gκ −closed.

Theorem 2.2. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β}. Then a gκ −closed

subset A of X is a κ−closed set if cκ (A) − A is a κ−closed set.

Proof. By Theorem 2.1, cκ (A) − A = ∅ and so cκ (A) = A which implies that A is

κ−closed.

The proof of the following Lemma 2.3 follows from Theorem 2.2 of [6]. Theo-

rem 2.4 below shows that in a quasi-topological space (X, µ), the union of two gµ −closed

sets is again a gµ −closed set. Example 2.2 shows that the condition quasi-topology on

the space cannot be replaced by generalized topology. Example 2.3 below shows that

the intersection of two gµ −closed sets need not be a gµ −closed set even in a topological

space. Theorem 2.5 shows that, the intersection of a gκ −closed set with a κ−closed is a

gκ −closed set where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β}.

Lemma 2.3. Let (X, µ) be a quasi-topological space. Then cµ (A ∪ B) = cµ (A) ∪ cµ (B)

for every subsets A and B of X.

S. Maragathavalli, M. Sheik John and D. Sivaraj 59

Theorem 2.4. Let (X, µ) be a quasi-topological space. Then the following hold.

(a) If A and B are gµ −closed subsets of X, then A ∪ B is also a gµ −closed set.

(b) If A and B are gα −closed subsets of X, then A ∪ B is also a gα −closed set.

Proof. (a) Suppose A and B are gµ −closed. Let M ∈ µ such that A ∪ B ⊂ M. Since A

and B are gµ −closed sets, cµ (A) ⊂ M and cµ (B) ⊂ M and so cµ (A) ∪ cµ (B) ⊂ M. By

Lemma 2.3, it follows that cµ (A ∪ B) ⊂ M and so the proof follows.

(b) The proof follows from (a) and Theorem 2.3 of [6], since (X, α) is a quasi-topological

space.

Example 2.2. Let X = {a, b, c} and µ = {∅, {b}, {c}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, X}. Then µ

is a GT but not a quasi-topology. If A = {b} and B = {c}, then A and B are gµ −closed

sets but their union is not a gµ −closed set.

Example 2.3. Consider the topological space (X, τ ) where X = {a, b, c} with the topol-

ogy µ = {∅, {a}, X}. If A = {a, b} and B = {a, c}, then A and B are gµ −closed sets.

But A ∩ B = {a}, is not a gµ −closed set.

and B is κ−closed, then A ∩ B is a gκ −closed set.

gκ −closed, cκ (A) ⊂ (M ∪ (X − B)) and so cκ (A) ∩ B ⊂ M and so cκ (A ∩ B) ⊂ M which

implies that A ∩ B is a gκ −closed set.

The following Theorem 2.6 shows that every subset of a space (X, κ) is a gκ −closed

set if and only if the family of all κ−open sets coincides with the family of all κ−closed

sets. Theorem 2.7 below gives a property of gκ −closed sets.

X − A ∈ κ} if and only if every subset of X is a gκ −closed set.

of X such that A ⊂ M where M ∈ κ, then cκ (A) ⊂ cκ (M ) = M and so A is gκ −closed.

Conversely, suppose that every subset of X is a gκ −closed set. If M ∈ κ, since M is

gκ −closed, then cκ (M ) ⊂ M and so M is κ−closed and so κ ⊂ {A | X − A ∈ κ}. If

B ∈ {A | X − A ∈ κ}, then (X − B) ∈ κ and so cκ (X − B) ⊂ X − B. Therefore,

X − B is κ−closed and so B is κ−open. Hence {A | X − A ∈ κ} ⊂ κ which implies that

κ = {A | X − A ∈ κ}.

subsets of X. If A ⊂ B ⊂ cκ (A) and A is gκ −closed, then B is gκ −closed.

A is gκ −closed, by Theorem 2.1, F = ∅ and so B is gκ −closed.

60 On g−closed sets in generalized topological spaces

if its complement X −A is gκ −closed. Clearly, every κ−open set is gκ −open and iκ (A) is

gκ −open for every subset A of X. The following Theorem 2.8 follows from the definition

of gκ −closed sets. Since by Example 2.3, the intersection of two gµ −closed sets need

not be a gµ −closed set, the union of two gµ −open sets need not be a gµ −open set.

Theorem 2.9 below shows that the union of two gκ −open sets is a gκ −open set if they

are κ−separated. Two subsets A and B of a space (X, κ) are said to be κ−separated [2]

if A ∩ cκ (B) = cκ (A) ∩ B = ∅.

whenever F is κ−closed and F ⊂ A.

Theorem 2.9. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β}. If A and B are

κ−separated, gκ −open sets, then A ∪ B is a gκ −open set.

Proof. Let F be a κ−closed set such that F ⊂ A ∪ B. Since A and B are κ−separated

sets, F ∩ cκ (A) ⊂ A and F ∩ cκ (B) ⊂ B. By Theorem 2.8, F ∩ cκ (A) ⊂ iκ (A) and

F ∩ cκ (B) ⊂ iκ (B) respectively. Now F = F ∩ (A ∪ B) = (F ∩ A) ∪ (F ∩ B) ⊂

(F ∩ cκ (A)) ∪ (F ∩ cκ (B)) ⊂ iκ (A) ∪ iκ (B) ⊂ iκ (A ∪ B). Therefore, again by Theorem 2.8,

A ∪ B is gκ −open.

The following Theorem 2.10 gives a characterization of gκ −open sets and The-

orem 2.11 below gives a property of gκ −open sets. Theorem 2.12 below gives a charac-

terization of gκ −closed sets in terms of gκ −open sets.

is gκ −open if and only if M = X whenever M is κ−open and iκ (A) ∪ (X − A) ⊂ M.

X − M ⊂ (X − iκ (A)) ∩ A = cκ (X − A) ∩ A = cκ (X − A) − (X − A). Since X − M is

κ−closed, by Theorem 2.1, X −M = ∅ and so X = M. Conversely, suppose the condition

holds. Let F be a κ−closed set such that F ⊂ A. Since iκ (A)∪(X −A) ⊂ iκ (A)∪(X −F )

and iκ (A) ∪ (X − F ) is κ−open, by hypothesis, X = iκ (A) ∪ (X − F ) and so F ⊂ iκ (A).

By Theorem 2.8, A is gκ −open.

subsets of X. If iκ (A) ⊂ B ⊂ A and A is gκ −open, then B is gκ −open.

Theorem 2.12. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β}. Then a subset A

of X is gκ −closed if and only if cκ (A) − A is gκ −open.

(X − M ) ⊂ cκ (A) ∩ (X − A) = cκ (A) − A, cκ (A) − A is gκ −open and cκ (A) ∩ (X − M ) is

κ−closed, by Theorem 2.8, cκ (A) ∩ (X − M ) ⊂ iκ (cκ (A) − A) ⊂ iκ (cκ (A)) ∩ iκ (X − A) =

iκ (cκ (A)) ∩ (X − cκ (A)) = ∅. Therefore, cκ (A) ⊂ M which implies that A is gκ −closed.

S. Maragathavalli, M. Sheik John and D. Sivaraj 61

Theorem 2.1, F = ∅ and so F ⊂ iκ (cκ (A) − A). Again, by Theorem 2.8, cκ (A) − A is

gκ −open.

Remark 2.13. Since every topology and quasi-topology are generalized topologies, all

the above theorems are valid in any topological as well as quasi-topological spaces.

Let X be any nonempty set and µ be a GT of subsets of X. A nonempty family I of

subsets of X is said to be a hereditary class [5] if A ∈ I and B ⊂ A, then B ∈ I. Given

a space (X, µ) with a hereditary class I, for each subset A of X, A⋆ (I, µ) = {x ∈ X |

A∩V ̸∈ I for every V ∈ µ such that x ∈ V } [5]. If cµ⋆ (A) = A∪A⋆ (I, µ) for every subset

A of X, then µ⋆ = {A ⊂ X | X − A = cµ⋆ (X − A)} is a GT and cµ⋆ (A) is the intersection

of all µ⋆ −closed supersets of A [5]. iµ⋆ (A) is the largest µ⋆ −open set contained in A. In

this section, we define Igκ −closed sets in a space (X, κ) where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β}

with a hereditary class I and discuss its properties. Throughout the paper, we denote

A⋆ (I, κ) by simply A⋆ . The following Lemma 3.1 will be useful in the sequel.

Lemma 3.1. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β} with a hereditary

class I and A and B be subsets of X. Then the following hold.

(a) A⋆ ⊂ B ⋆ whenever A ⊂ B [5, Proposition 2.1].

(b) A⋆ is κ−closed [5, Proposition 2.4].

(c) A is κ⋆ −closed if and only if A⋆ ⊂ A [5, Proposition 3.5].

(d) A⋆ ∪ B ⋆ ⊂ (A ∪ B)⋆ (The proof follows from (a) ).

(e) κ ⊂ κ⋆ [5, Theorem 3.6] and so cκ⋆ (A) ⊂ cκ (A) for every subset A of X and every

κ−closed set is a κ⋆ −closed set.

(f) A ⊂ A⋆ if and only if cκ⋆ (A) = cκ (A) [5, Proposition 3.7].

A subset A of X in a space (X, κ) with a hereditary class I is said to be an Igκ −closed

set if A⋆ ⊂ U whenever U ∈ κ and A ⊂ U. Note that if I = {∅}, then A⋆ (I, κ) = cκ (A) =

cκ⋆ (A) and κ = κ⋆ . So Igκ −closed sets coincide with gκ −closed sets. A is said to be an

Igκ −open set if X − A is an Igκ −closed set. The following Theorems 3.2 and 3.4 give

characterizations of Igκ −closed sets and Theorem 3.3 gives a property of Igκ −closed

sets.

Theorem 3.2. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β} with a hereditary

class I. A subset A of X is Igκ −closed if and only if F ⊂ A⋆ − A and F is κ−closed

imply that F = ∅.

Proof. Suppose A is Igκ −closed. Let F be a κ−closed subset of A⋆ −A. Since A ⊂ X −F

and A is Igκ −closed, A⋆ ⊂ X − F and so F ⊂ X − A⋆ . Thus, F ⊂ A⋆ ∩ (X − A⋆ ) = ∅.

Hence F = ∅. Conversely, suppose A ⊂ U and U ∈ κ. Suppose A⋆ ̸⊂ U. Since A⋆ is

κ−closed by Lemma 3.1(b), A⋆ ∩ (X − U ) is a nonempty κ−closed subset of A⋆ − A

which is a contradiction. Therefore, A⋆ ⊂ U and so A is Igκ −closed.

62 On g−closed sets in generalized topological spaces

class I and A be a subset of X. If A is an Igκ −closed subset of X such that A⋆ − A is a

κ−closed set, then A is κ⋆ −closed.

I and A is a subset of X, then the following are equivalent.

(a) A is Igκ −closed.

(b) cκ⋆ (A) ⊂ U whenever A ⊂ U and U is κ−open in X.

(c) For all x ∈ cκ⋆ (A), cκ ({x}) ∩ A ̸= ∅.

(d) cκ⋆ (A) − A contains no nonempty κ−closed set.

(e) A⋆ − A contains no nonempty κ−closed set.

X and so cκ⋆ (A) = A ∪ A⋆ ⊂ U whenever A ⊂ U and U is κ−open in X. This proves

(b).

(b)⇒(c). Suppose x ∈ cκ⋆ (A). If cκ ({x}) ∩ A = ∅, then A ⊂ X − cκ ({x}). By (b),

cκ⋆ (A) ⊂ X − cκ ({x}), a contradiction, since x ∈ cκ⋆ (A).

(c)⇒(d). Suppose F ⊂ cκ⋆ (A) − A, F is κ−closed and x ∈ F. Since F ⊂ X − A and F

is κ−closed, cκ ({x}) ∩ A = ∅. Since x ∈ cκ⋆ (A) by (c), cκ ({x}) ∩ A ̸= ∅, a contradiction

which proves (d).

(d)⇒(e) is clear.

(e)⇒(a). The proof follows from Theorem 3.2.

From Theorem 3.4(b) and Lemma 3.1(e), it follows that every gκ −closed set is an

Igκ −closed set. The following Example 3.1 shows that an Igµ −closed set need not be

a µ−closed set. Also, since A⋆ is κ−closed, A⋆ is gκ −closed and so A⋆ is Igκ −closed

for every subset A of X. Theorem 3.5 below shows that the concepts gκ −closedness and

Igκ −closedness are equivalent for sets A for which A ⊂ A⋆ .

Example 3.1. Consider the space (X, µ) of Example 2.1 with the hereditary class

I = {∅, {a}, {b} }. Clearly, A = {b} is Igµ −closed but not µ−closed.

I and A is an Igκ −closed subset of X such that A ⊂ A⋆ , then A is gκ −closed.

containing A, then by Theorem 3.4(b), cκ⋆ (A) ⊂ U. By Lemma 3.1(f), cκ (A) ⊂ U and

so A is gκ −closed.

class I and A be a subset of X. Then A is Igκ −closed if and only if A = F − N where

F is κ⋆ −closed and N contains no nonempty κ−closed set.

S. Maragathavalli, M. Sheik John and D. Sivaraj 63

κ−closed set. If F = cκ⋆ (A), then F is κ⋆ −closed such that F −N = (A∪A⋆ )−(A⋆ −A) =

(A ∪ A⋆ ) ∩ ((X − A⋆ ) ∪ A) = A. Conversely, suppose A = F − N where F is κ⋆ −closed

and N contains no nonempty κ−closed set. Let U be a κ−open set such that A ⊂ U.

Then F − N ⊂ U which implies that F ∩ (X − U ) ⊂ N. Now A ⊂ F and F ⋆ ⊂ F

imply that A⋆ ∩ (X − U ) ⊂ F ⋆ ∩ (X − U ) ⊂ F ∩ (X − U ) ⊂ N. Since A⋆ is κ−closed by

Lemma 3.1(b), A⋆ ∩ (X − U ) is κ−closed. Therefore, by hypothesis, A⋆ ∩ (X − U ) = ∅

and so A⋆ ⊂ U which implies that A is Igκ −closed.

The following Theorem 3.7 gives a property of Igκ −closed sets and Corollary 3.8

follows from Theorem 3.7 and the fact that, if A ⊂ B ⊂ A⋆ , then A⋆ = B ⋆ and B ⊂ B ⋆ .

Theorem 3.7. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β} with a hereditary

class I. If A and B are subsets of X such that A ⊂ B ⊂ cκ⋆ (A) and A is Igκ −closed,

then B is Igκ −closed.

Proof. Since A is Igκ −closed, cκ⋆ (A) − A contains no nonempty κ−closed set. Since

cκ⋆ (B) − B ⊂ cκ⋆ (A) − A, cκ⋆ (B) − B contains no nonempty κ−closed set and so by

Theorem 3.3(d), B is Igκ −closed.

class I. If A and B are subset of X such that A ⊂ B ⊂ A⋆ and A is Igκ −closed, then A

and B are gκ −closed sets.

The following Theorem 3.9 gives a characterization of Igκ −open sets. Theo-

rem 3.10 gives a property of Igκ −open sets which follows from Theorem 3.9.

Theorem 3.9. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β} with a hereditary

class I and A be a subset of X. Then A is Igκ −open if and only if F ⊂ iκ⋆ (A) whenever

F is κ−closed and F ⊂ A.

Proof. Suppose A is Igκ −open. If F is κ−closed and F ⊂ A, then X −A ⊂ X −F and so

cκ⋆ (X −A) ⊂ X −F. Therefore, F ⊂ iκ⋆ (A). Conversely, suppose the condition holds. Let

U be a κ−open set such that X − A ⊂ U. Then X − U ⊂ A and so X − U ⊂ iκ⋆ (A) which

implies that cκ⋆ (X − A) ⊂ U. Therefore, X − A is Igκ −closed and so A is Igκ −open.

class I and A ⊂ X. If A is Igκ −open and iκ⋆ (A) ⊂ B ⊂ A, then B is Igκ −open.

The following Theorem 3.11 gives a characterization of Igκ −closed sets in terms

of Igκ −open sets. Theorem 3.12 below shows that every subset of X is Igκ −closed if

and only if every κ−open set is a κ⋆ −closed set.

Theorem 3.11. Let (X, κ) be a space where κ ∈ {µ, α, σ, π, b, β} with a hereditary

class I and A ⊂ X. Then the following are equivalent.

(a) A is Igκ −closed.

(b) A ∪ (X − A⋆ ) is Igκ −closed.

(c) A⋆ − A is Igκ −open.

64 On g−closed sets in generalized topological spaces

Proof. (a)⇒(b). Suppose A is Igκ −closed. If U is any κ−open set such that (A ∪ (X −

A⋆ )) ⊂ U, then X − U ⊂ X − (A ∪ (X − A⋆ )) = A⋆ − A. Since A is Igκ −closed, by

Theorem 3.4(e), it follows that X − U = ∅ and so X = U. X may be a κ−open set or

may not be a κ−open set. In both cases, clearly, A ∪ (X − A⋆ ) is Igκ −closed.

(b)⇒(a). Suppose A ∪ (X − A⋆ ) is Igκ −closed. If F is any κ−closed set such that

F ⊂ A⋆ −A, then A∪(X−A⋆ ) ⊂ X−F and X−F is κ−open. Therefore, (A∪(X−A⋆ ))⋆ ⊂

X − F. By Lemma 3.1(d), A⋆ ∪ (X − A⋆ )⋆ ⊂ X − F and so F ⊂ X − A⋆ . Since F ⊂ A⋆ ,

it follows that F = ∅. Hence A is Igκ −closed.

The equivalence of (b) and (c) follows from the fact that X −(A⋆ −A) = A∪(X −A⋆ ).

class I. Then every subset of X is Igκ −closed if and only if every κ−open set is κ⋆ −closed.

Proof. Suppose every subset of X is Igκ −closed. If U is κ−open, then U is Igκ −closed

and so U ⋆ ⊂ U. Hence U is κ⋆ −closed. Conversely, suppose that every κ−open set is

κ⋆ −closed. If A ⊂ X and U is an κ−open set such that A ⊂ U, then A⋆ ⊂ U ⋆ ⊂ U and

so A is Igκ −closed.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the referees for their valuable comments and suggestions.

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