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Experiment No 1

Analysis of Total Dissolved solids in polluted and fresh water by


Gravimetry method

Dicussion:

One measure of the quality of the water in lakes, rivers, and streams
is the total amount of solids dissolved in the water. High amounts of
dissolved solids can indicate poor water quality. The same is true for
drinking water

"Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)" is the concentration of the dissolved


chemicals in a sample of water. Before dissolving, these chemicals
could have been a solid or a liquid.

Pure water has nothing dissolved in it. So pure water has zero total
dissolved solids. However, when minerals, salts, and pollutants
dissolve in water, then the total amount of these dissolved solids
gives an indication of the water's quality. The Environmental
Protection Agency, for example, would measure total dissolved solids
(TDS) in lakes, rivers, and streams to monitor water quality.

Water that has high TDS values will taste salty, metallic, or bitter. The
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets the maximum level of
total dissolved solids for drinking water to be 500 milligrams (half a
gram) of dissolved solids for every liter of water.

These dissolved solids are removed using reverse osmosis


membranes. these membranes allow water to pass through but
block large atoms, larger compounds, and microscopic particles that
make up dissolved solids. These membranes also block toxic metals
and other toxic substances.

The most common chemicals counted in TDS tests are salts like
sodium chloride (table salt), calcium chloride (salt placed on icy
roads) and fertilizers like ammonium nitrate, various phosphates,
and various potassium salts (potassium carbonate, potassium
chloride, potassium sulfate). There are also dissolved minerals like
calcium carbonate (limestone) or magnesium carbonate and calcium
sulfate (gypsum/drywall material) or magnesium sulfate (Epsom
salts).

Ideal Drinking water from reverse osmosis, distillation, deionization,


0-50 PPM
microfiltration, etc..
Often considered acceptable range for carbon filtration, mountain
50-140 PPM
springs or aquifers.
Average tap water. 140-400 PPM
170 PPM or
Hard water.
above

Gravimetric Analysis:
Principle:
Gravimetric means "by weighing". Balances require gravity to weigh
something. You will weigh the total dissolved solids after water is boiled
away. This will be done using just one water sample.

The basic approach is simple. We need to measure out a known amount of


the solution. Then boil the solution leaving a solid residue. The water
actually doesn't have to boil, it just needs to evaporate.The boiling is just to
speed up the evaporation of the water so you can see and weigh the solid
residue sooner.

The residue left after water is boiled away is the dissolved solids. Weighing
those dissolved solids and dividing that by the weight or volume of the
solution, lets you find the Total Dissolved Solids concentration.

Materials Required:
Bunsen Burner,weighing apparatus,petri dish, volumetric flask, water
sample collected from polluted lake and mineral water.filter paper of
2 micron pore size.

Procedure:

1. Weigh the petri dish to nearest on hundredth gram.and record


that mass.

2. Both water sample solution to be tested for TDS using


gravimetric methods needs to be filtered through a 2 micron (2
micrometers or 2 millionths of a meter) filter.so that to remove
any solid particals larger than 2 micron.
3. Measure the solution in two ways. One by measuring the
volume and the other by measuring the mass of the solution.
4. To measure volume, pour the fresh water into the 100 mL
graduated cylinder. Record the volume to the nearest tenth of
a milliliter.then do the same for polluted water.
5. Now pour both kind of water in petri dish one by one and
Weigh the petri dish again with the water in it. Record the mass
of the dish plus the water. Subtract the dish's mass (done
earlier) from this mass to find the mass of just the water. At
this point you have the water measured in both volume (mL)
and in mass (grams). These values will be close to each other
because water weighs 1 gram per milliliter.
6. Next step is to boil the water.It will take about 30 minutes for
most of the water to boil away and leave the salt behind.

7. Let the dish set out for an hour to let any remaining water
evaporate, or you can also place it in the sun or in a warm oven
to speed up the remaining evaporation. Now weigh it again. If
the mass is within 0.03 grams of the first weighing, then you
are finished. If the difference is more than 0.03 grams, then
water is probably still evaporating. So let it sit another hour
preferably in a warm place, and then weigh it again. When the
mass is less than 0.03 grams different from the previous mass,
then you can assume all the water is gone, and you have an
accurate mass of the can with the dissolved solids residue.

Observations:

There was nothing left after evaporating the fresh water.but for the
polluted water observations are:

the mass of the solution was 59.84 grams. The mass of the residue
was 1.27 grams. So we make it a fraction:

1.27 grams dissolved solids


59.84 grams of solution

The above fraction is a concentration but not in the format of parts


per million. Here we have only 59.84 grams not a million grams. The
plan is to change 59.84 grams to one gram then multiply by a
million. See below for the problem solving steps.

1.27 grams residue x 1,000,000 =

59.84 grams of solution million

21220 g dissolved solids = 21200 ppm


million grams solution
Experiment # 02

Measurement of Electric Conductivity of water by using Electrical


Conductance Meter
Principle:
Conductivity is the ability of a material to conduct electrical current. The
principle by which instruments measure conductivity is simple -
plates/wires are placed in the sample, a potential is applied across them
(normally a sine wave voltage), and the current is measured. Conductivity,
the inverse of resistivity is determined from the voltage and current values
according to Ohm's law.
Since the charge on ions in solution facilitates the conductance of electrical
current, the conductivity of a solution is proportional to its ion
concentration.
The basic unit of conductivity is the siemens (S), sometimes referred to as
mho. Since cell geometry affects conductivity values, standardized
measurements are expressed in specific conductivity units (S/cm) to
compensate for variations in electrode dimensions.Conductivity is
measured in micromhos per centimeter (µmhos/cm) or microsiemens per
centimeter (µs/cm). Distilled water has a conductivity in the range of 0.5 to
3 µmhos/cm. The conductivity of rivers in the United States generally
ranges from 50 to 1500 µmhos/cm. Studies of inland fresh waters indicate
that streams supporting good mixed fisheries have a range between 150
and 500 µhos/cm. Conductivity outside this range could indicate that the
water is not suitable for certain species of fish or macroinvertebrates.
Industrial waters can range as high as 10,000 µmhos/cm
Conductivity measurements, along with temperature, also allow for salinity
values to be calculated through algorithms

The dissolved solids like salts and minerals disassociated into plus and
minus ions. This allows electricity to pass through the water. For example,
sodium chloride (NaCl) becomes Na+ and Cl- when dissolved in water. The
negative chloride ions (Cl-) will be attracted to the + side of the battery
terminal to give up their electrons, and the positive sodium ions (Na+) will
be attracted to the negative terminal to pick up electrons. In this manner,
the ions will allow electrical current to pass through the water. The more
electrical current flows through the solution if there are more ions in the
solution.

Conductivity monitors the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in water


and is measured in many fields such as the chemical industry, agriculture,
public drinking water systems, aquaculture, water conditioning and
treatment and environmental monitoring.

There are basically two types of conductivity meters - one is the small
"stick" type meter and the other is the larger, more complex and more
accurate bench top or portable model.

It is very important to calibrate the instrument every time it is used


otherwise it will cause inaccurate readings. Calibration means reading a
solution of known conductivity and adjusting the meter to read the same.
Calibrate the probe using a standard solution in the range of the samples
being tested.

The conductivity of a solution is highly temperature dependent, therefore it


is important to either use a temperature compensated instrument or
calibrate the instrument at the same temperature as the solution that you
want to measure.

Material Required:

Electric conductance meter,water sample,standard solution of known


conductance, beaker,thermometer.

Procedure:

The following procedure applies to field or lab use of the conductivity


meter.

1. . Turn on the EC meter and calibrate the probe using a standard


solution of known conductivity
2. Check calibration by measuring the EC of the standard solutions in
measure rather than calibrate mode.
3. Collect sample water in a glass or plastic container. Collect enough so
the probe tip can be submerged in sample; either rinse the probe
with deionized water (and blot dry) or with sample before inserting
the probe into the collection vessel.
4. Submerge the probe into the sample and wait until the EC reading on
the meter stabilizes. Many meters have automatic temperature
correction (ATC), which calculates the EC taking into account
temperature, if your meter does not have this feature, you may need
to adjust a knob on the meter to correct the EC for temperature.
Record the measurement when the EC reading is stable.

Observations:

Since we use tap water and lake water sample to measure electric
conductance,so the readings at 25oC are as follow:

EC value of tap water= 3umhos/cm

EC value of lake water sample: 150umhos/cm

Experiment # 03

Effect of Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or
balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly
caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains.
Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning
may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings
can result in noise pollution in the residential areas.

Indoor noise is caused by machines, building activities, music performances, and


especially in some workplaces. There is no great difference whether noise-induced
hearing loss is brought about by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise.

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood
pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of
coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering
predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation,
and contribute to permanent hearing loss

Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage
psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression,
hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus( perception of sound in ear when there is no
sound), hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.Furthermore, stress
and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems.

Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as
sleeping, conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one’s quality of life.

Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. A comparison of


Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial
noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high
levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss.

Noise pollution also is a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found
that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel
per year for noise reduction

Wildlife

Noise can have a detrimental effect on wild animals, increasing the risk of death by
changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and
interfering the use of the sounds in communication, especially in relation to
reproduction and in navigation. Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or
permanent loss of hearing.

An impact of noise on wild animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noisy areas
may cause, which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to
extinction. Noise pollution has caused the death of certain species of whales that
beached themselves after being exposed to the loud sound of military sonar

Noise also makes species communicate more loudly, which is called Lombard vocal
response. Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales'
song length is longer when submarine-detectors are on. If creatures do not "speak"
loudly enough, their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard
voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling. When one
species begins speaking more loudly, it will mask other species' voice, causing the whole
ecosystem eventually to speak more loudly.

Marine invertebrates, such as crabs (Carcinus maenas), have also been shown to be
impacted by ship noise Larger crabs were noted to be impacted more by the sounds
than smaller crabs. Repeated exposure to the sounds did lead to acclimatization.

European Robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places
with high levels of noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night
because it is quieter, and their message can propagate through the environment more
clearly. The same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of
nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution, to which the phenomenon often is
attributed.

Experiment # 04

Measuring pH of a liquid using a pH meter and probe:

Discussion:

pH is a measure of how acidic or basic water is. pH is important because it


controls many chemical and biological processes that occur in the water. pH is
measured on a scale that ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 considered neutral. Values
of pH less than 7 are acidic, while values higher than 7 are basic. pH can be
used as a proxy of water quality conditions since water pH is easily changed by
chemical pollution.

The pH state of surface water is especially important since aquatic organism


have a tolerance for very narrow pH ranges. A pH value higher or lower than
the 6 to 8 range for stream water can decrease the survival of aquatic organisms
and lead to loss of stream ecosystem diversity. High pH levels can occur when
algae and aquatic vegetation use CO2 for photosynthesis. Low pH can also be
cause by aquatic vegetation when they respire or from bacterial decay of
organic matter in the water producing high levels of CO2. Low pH in water can
allow toxic chemicals to become mobile and "available" for uptake by aquatic
plants and animals, producing conditions that are toxic to aquatic life, especially
sensitive species like rainbow trout. Water with high pH can corrode household
plumbing and their associated systems.

Unpolluted deposition (or rain), in balance with atmospheric


carbon dioxide, has a pH of 5.6. Almost everywhere in the
world the pH of rain is lower than this. The main pollutants
responsible for acid deposition (or acid rain) are sulfur dioxide
(SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Acid deposition influences
mainly the pH of freshwater.
Important examples of pH for natural waters:
� 6.5 to 8.5 is optimal for streams and ground water
� natural water 5.0 to 8.5
� fresh rain water 5.5 to 6.0
� alkaline soils 8.0 to 8.5
� seawater ~8.0

Apparatus:
Two samples of fresh water clear stream and polluted
stream.pH meter

Procedure:
1. Turn on the pH meter and calibrate the probe using two standard
solutions (pH 4, 7, and 10 buffers are recommended, dependant on
the range you are measuring). Calibration procedures vary by
instrument, so following the manufacturer's instructions is highly
recommended. BE SURE TO RINSE THE PROBE THOROUGHLY
BETWEEN BUFFERS USING DEIONIZED WATER AND CAREFULLY
BLOT THE PROBE DRY USING A KIM WIPE. pH meters should be
calibrated before each use or when measuring a large range of pH.
2. Check calibration by measuring the pH of the standard solutions in
measure rather than calibrate mode.
3. Collect sample water in a glass or plastic container. Collect enough so
the probe tip can be submerged in sample; either rinse the probe
with deionized water (and blot dry) or with sample before inserting
the probe into the collection vessel.
4. Submerge the probe into the sample and wait until the pH reading on
the meter stabilizes. Many meters have automatic temperature
correction (ATC), which calculates the pH taking into account
temperature, if your meter does not have this feature, you may need
to adjust a knob on the meter to correct the pH for temperature.
Record the measurement when the pH reading is stable.

Observations:
pH of fresh water is 6.8

pH of polluted water sample is 5.

Experiment # 5

To determine the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in


polluted water.

Introduction

Biochemical oxygen demand or B.O.D is the amount of dissolved


oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to
break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain
temperature over a specific time period. The term also refers to a
chemical procedure for determining this amount. This is not a precise
quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication of the
organic quality of water. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in
milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of
incubation at 20 °C and is often used as a robust surrogate of the
degree of organic pollution of water.

The typical wastewater treatment plant depends on microorganisms in


the wastewater to decompose waste. These microorganisms are
primarily aerobic, so they use up oxygen as they break down organic
matter. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand, or BOD, is the amount of
dissolved oxygen which is used up by these microorganisms and is
roughly equivalent to the amount of "food" (organic matter) found in the
wastewater. The more "food" that is present in the water, the more DO
will be used up by the bacteria and the greater the BOD reading will be.

Wastewater treatment plants use BOD as an estimate of the waste


load in the influent water. They can also test BOD of the effluent to
determine the plant's efficiency, to control plant processes, and to
determine the effects of discharges on receiving waters

Equipment
 Incubation bottles.
 Air incubator or water bath. (set at 20 oC)
 Oxygen-sensitive membrane electrode, with
appropriate meter

Reagents

 Phosphate buffer solution


 Magnesium sulfate solution
 Calcium chloride solution
 Ferric chloride solution
 Acid and alkali solutions, 1 N
 Nitrification inhibitor
 Ammonium chloride solution
 Distilled water

Laboratory Procedure
.

1. Clean the incubation bottles.

2. Determine the sample size(s).

Most samples of wastewater will require more oxygen during the


incubation period than is found in the BOD bottle, so the samples must
be diluted. At the proper dilution, the residual DO after five days will be
at least 1 mg/L and the DO uptake will be at least 2 mg/L.

we will use 1.5 mL of sample water in a 300 mL sample bottle, filling the
bottle the rest of the way with dilution water
Prepare the dilution water in each incubation bottle.

a. Place the desired volume of distilled water in an incubation bottle.


. Add 1 mL each of phosphate buffer solution, magnesium sulfate
solution, calcium chloride solution, and ferric chloride solution to the
water.

c. Bring the water to a temperature of 20 + 3°C.

d. Saturate the water with dissolved oxygen by shaking in a partially


filled bottle or by aerating with organic-free filtered air.

e.measure the pH. If the pH is greater than 8.5 or less than 6.0, then
small amounts of acid or alkali solution should be added to bring the pH
back into the desired range
Test the DO content of the sample water. If the water contains more
than 9 mg/L of DO at 20°C, then it is supersaturated and will lose some
oxygen to the air. This problem may occur when testing cold water or
water in which photosynthesis occurs.

If the water is supersaturated, place the sample in a partially filled bottle


and agitate it by vigorous shaking or by aerating with clean, filtered
compressed air. Continue until the DO content has dropped below 9
mg/L.

10. After five days of incubation, determine the final DO content of each
sample bottle.

11. For each bottle which meets the 2.0 mg/L DO depletion and 1.0
mg/L residual DO requirements, calculate the BOD5

c. Finally, calculate the BOD5 of each sample using the


following formula. Record this value in the Data section.

Where:
D1 = initial DO of sample, mg/L = 7.82 mg/L
D2 = final DO of sample, mg/L = 4.17 mg/L

DO Depletion= D1 – D2 = 3.65 mg/L


B1 = initial DO of seed control, mg/L
B2 = final DO of seed control, mg/L
f = the value only for seeded bottle = N.A
P = fraction of sample as calculated = The BOD bottle used is 300 mL.
Therefore the sample fraction was:

5 mL divided by 300 mL = 0.0167 mL