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1.1 Introduction of Heat Exchangers

A heat exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy)
between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between solid
particulates and a fluid, at different temperatures and in thermal contact. In heat
exchangers, there are usually no external heat and work interactions. Typical
applications involve heating or cooling of a fluid stream of concern and evaporation or
condensation of single- or multi component fluid streams. In other applications, the
objective may be to recover or reject heat, or sterilize, pasteurize, fractionate, distil,
concentrate, crystallize, or control a process fluid. In a few heat exchangers, the fluids
exchanging heat are in direct contact. In most heat exchangers, heat transfer between
fluids takes place through a separating wall or into and out of a wall in a transient

In many heat exchangers, the fluids are separated by a heat transfer surface,
and ideally they do not mix or leak. Such exchangers are referred to as direct transfer
type, or simply recuperate. In contrast, exchangers in which there is intermittent heat
exchange between the hot and cold fluids via thermal energy storage and release
through the exchanger surface or matrix are referred to as indirect transfer type, or
simply regenerators. Such exchangers usually have fluid leakage from one fluid
stream to the other, due to pressure differences and matrix rotation/valve switching.
Common examples of heat exchangers are shell-and tube exchangers, automobile
radiators, condensers, evaporators, air prehearters, and cooling towers.

1.2 Types of Heat Exchanger

Figure 1.1 Classification of heat exchangers.

1.3 Plate Heat Exchanger

Plate heat exchangers (PHEs) were introduced in the 1930s and were almost
exclusively used as liquid/liquid heat exchangers in the food industries because of
their ease of cleaning. Over the years, the development of the PHE has generally
continued towards larger capacity, as well as higher working temperature and
pressure. Recently, a gasket sealing was replaced by a brazed material, and each
thermal plate was formed with a series of corrugations (herringbone). These greatly
increased the pressure and the temperature capabilities.

The plate heat exchanger normally consists of corrugated plates assembled

into a frame. The hot fluid flows in one direction in alternating chambers while the
cold fluid flows in true counter-current flow in the other alternating chambers. The
fluids are directed into their proper chambers either by a suitable gasket or a weld
depending on the type of exchanger chosen. Traditionally, plate and frame exchangers
have been used almost exclusively for liquid to liquid heat transfer. The best example
is in the dairy industry.

Today, many variations of the plate technology have proven useful in

applications where a phase change occurs as well. This includes condensing duties as
well as vaporization duties. Plate heat exchangers are best known for having overall
heat transfer coefficients (U-values) in excess of 3–5 times the U-value in a shell and
tube designed for the same service. Plate heat exchanger is an attractive option when
more expensive materials of construction can be employed. The significantly higher
U-value results in far less area for a given application. The higher U-values are
obtained by inducing turbulence between the plate surfaces. Owing to this they are
also known to minimize the fouling.

The corrugated pattern on the thermal plate induces a highly turbulent fluid
flow. The high turbulence in the PHE leads to an enhanced heat transfer, to a low
fouling rate, and to a reduced heat transfer area. Therefore, PHEs can be used as
alternatives to shell-and-tube heat exchangers. R410A approximates an azeotropic

behaviour since it can be regarded as a pure substance because of the negligible
temperature gliding.

These geometric factors influence the separation, the boundary layer, and
the vortex or swirl flow generation. However, earlier experimental and numerical
works were restricted to a single-phase flow. Since the advent of a Brazed PHE
(BPHE) in the 1990s, studies of the condensation and/or evaporation heat transfer
have focused on their applications in refrigerating and air conditioning systems, but
only a few studies have been done. Much work is needed to understand the features of
the two-phase flow in the BPHEs with alternative refrigerants. Xiao yang
experimented with the two-phase flow distribution in stacked PHEs at both vertical
upward and downward flow orientations.

They indicated that non-uniform distributions were found and that the flow
distribution was strongly affected by the total inlet flow rate, the vapor quality, the
flow channel orientation, and the geometry of the inlet port Holger.

The main objective of this work was to experimentally investigate the heat
transfer coefficients and the pressure drops during condensation of R410A inside
BPHEs. Three BPHEs with different chevron angles of 45, 35, and 20 were used. The
results were then compared to those of R22. The geometric effects of the plate on the
heat transfer and the pressure drop were investigated by varying the mass flux, the
quality, and the condensation temperature.

The results, the geometric effects, especially the chevron angle, must be
considered to develop the correlations for the Nusselt number and the friction factor.
Correlations for the Nusselt number and the friction factor with the geometric
parameters are suggested in this study.

Experiments to measure the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the

pressure drop in brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEs) were performed with the
refrigerants R410A and R22. Brazed plate heat exchangers with different chevron
angles of 45°, 35°, and 20° were used. Varying the mass flux, the condensation
temperature, and the vapour quality of the refrigerant, we measured the condensation
heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drops. mass flux and the vapour quality and
inversely with the condensation temperature and the chevron angle
Correlations of the Nusselt number and the friction factor with the geometric
parameters are suggested for the tested BPHEs. In an effort to study and optimize the
design of a plate heat exchanger comprising of corrugated walls with herringbone
design, a CFD code is employed. Due to the difficulties induced by the geometry and
flow complexity, an approach through a simplified model was followed as a first step.
This simple model, comprised of only one corrugated plate and a flat plate, was
constructed and simulated. The Reynolds numbers examined are 400, 900, 1000,
1150, 1250 and 1400. The SST turbulence model was preferred over other flow
models for the simulation.

The results for the simplified model, presented in terms of velocity, shear stress
and heat transfer coefficients, strongly encourage the simulation of one channel of the
typical plate heat exchanger, i.e. the one that comprises of two corrugated plates with
herringbone design having their crests nearly in contact. Preliminary results of this
latter work, currently in progress, comply with visual observations.

In recent years, compact heat exchangers with corrugated plates are being
rapidly adopted by food and chemical process industries, replacing conventional shell-
and-tube exchangers. Compact heat exchangers consist of plates embossed with some
form of corrugated surface pattern, usually the herringbone geometry. The plates are
assembled being abutting, with their corrugations forming narrow passages. This type
of equipment offers high thermal effectiveness and close temperature approach, while
allowing ease of inspection and cleaning.
In order to be able to evaluate its performance, methods to predict the heat
transfer coefficient and pressure drop must be developed. In this direction, CFD is

considered an efficient tool for momentum and heat transfer rate estimation in this
type of heat exchangers.

The type of flow in such narrow passages, which is associated with the choice
of the most appropriate flow model for CFD simulation, is still an open issue in the
literature. Due to the relatively high pressure drop, compared to shell-and-tube heat
exchangers for equivalent flow rates, the Reynolds numbers used in this type of
equipment must be lower so as the resulting pressure drops would be generally
Moreover, when this equipment is used as a reflux condenser, the limit
imposed by the onset of flooding reduces the maximum Reynolds number to a value
less than 2000. In a comprehensive review article concerning modelling heat transfer
in narrow flow passages, state that, for the Reynolds number range of 1,500-3,000,
transitional flow is expected, a kind of flow among the most difficult to simulate by
conventional turbulence models.

They concluded that the flow patterns in such geometries are complex, due to
the existence of secondary swirling motions along the furrows of their test section and
suggest that the local flow structure controls the heat transfer process in such narrow

The most common two-equation turbulence model, based on the equations for
the turbulence energy k and its dissipation ε, is the k-ε model. To calculate the
boundary layer, either “wall functions” are used, overriding the calculation of k and ε
in the wall adjacent nodes, or integration is performed to the surface, using a “low
turbulent Reynolds (low-Re) k-ε” model. In standard k-ε the wall shear stress and heat
flux are over predicted (especially for the lower range of the Reynolds number
encountered in this kind of equipment) due to the over prediction of the turbulent
length scale in the flow reattachment region, which is a characteristic phenomenon
occurring on the corrugated surfaces in these geometries..

Moreover, when this equipment is used as a reflux condenser, the limit
imposed by the onset of flooding reduces the maximum Reynolds number to a value
less than 2000. In a comprehensive review article concerning modelling heat transfer
in narrow flow passages, state that, for the Reynolds number range of 1,500-3,000,
transitional flow is expected, a kind of flow among the most difficult to simulate by
conventional turbulence models.

They concluded that the flow patterns in such geometries are complex, due to
the existence of secondary swirling motions along the furrows of their test section and
suggest that the local flow structure controls the heat transfer process in such narrow

The most common two-equation turbulence model, based on the equations for
the turbulence energy k and its dissipation ε, is the k-ε model. To calculate the
boundary layer, either “wall functions” are used, overriding the calculation of k and ε
in the wall adjacent nodes, or integration is performed to the surface, using a “low
turbulent Reynolds (low-Re) k-ε” model. In standard k-ε the wall shear stress and heat
flux are over predicted (especially for the lower range of the Reynolds number
encountered in this kind of equipment) due to the over prediction of the turbulent
length scale in the flow reattachment region, which is a characteristic phenomenon
occurring on the corrugated surfaces in these geometries..

Figure 1.2 Gasket plate- and-frame heat exchanger

The resulting flow passages are narrow, highly interrupted, and tortuous, and
enhance the heat transfer rate and decrease fouling resistance by increasing the shear
stress, producing secondary flow, and increasing the level of turbulence. The
corrugations also improve the rigidity of the plates and form the desired plate spacing.
Plates are designated as hard or soft, depending on whether they generate a high or
low intensity of turbulence.

Sealing between the two fluids is accomplished by elastomeric molded gaskets

[typically, 5 mm (0.2 inch) thick] that are fitted in peripheral grooves mentioned
earlier (dark lines in Fig.1.2). Gaskets are designed such that they compress about
25% of thickness in a bolted plate exchanger to provide a leak tight joint without
distorting the thin plates. In the past, the gaskets were cemented in the grooves, but
now, Snap-On gaskets, which do not require cementing, are common.

Figure 1.3 Gasket plates for plate heat exchanger

Some manufacturers offer special interlocking types to prevent gasket blowout

at high pressure differences. Use of a double seal around the port sections, prevents
fluid intermixing in the rare event of gasket failure. The interspace between the seals
is also vented to the atmosphere to facilitate visual indication of leakage .Typical
gasket materials and their range of applications is listed. With butyl and nitrile rubber
being most common. PTFE (poly tetra fluoro ethylene) is not used because of its
viscoelastic properties.

Each plate has four corner ports. In pairs, they provide access to the flow
passages on either side of the plate. When the plates are assembled, the corner ports
line up to form distribution headers for the two fluids. Inlet and outlet nozzles for the
fluids, provided in the end covers, line up with the ports in the plates (distribution
headers) and are connected to external piping carrying the two fluids. A fluid enters at
a corner of one end of the compressed stack of plates through the inlet nozzle.

It passes through alternate channels in either series or parallel passages. In one
set of channels, the gasket does not surround the inlet port between two plates. Fluid
enters through that port, flows between plates, and exits through a port at the other
end. On the same side of the plates, the other two ports are blocked by a gasket with a
double seal, so that the other fluid cannot enter the plate on that side.{ In a 1 pass–1
pass} two-fluid counterblow PHE, the next channel has gaskets covering the ports just
opposite the preceding plate. Incidentally, each plate has gaskets on only one side, and
they sit in grooves on the back side of the neigh boring plate, each fluid makes a
single pass through the exchanger because of alternate gasketed and ungasketed ports
in each corner opening.

The most conventional flow arrangement is 1 pass–1 pass counterblow,

with all inlet and outlet connections on the fixed end cover. By blocking flow through
some ports with proper gasketing, either one or both fluids could have more than one

Also, more than one exchanger can be accommodated in a single frame. In

cases with more than two simple 1-pass–1-pass heat exchangers, it is necessary to
insert one or more intermediate headers or connector plates in the plate pack at
appropriate places.

In milk pasteurization applications, there are as many as five exchangers or

sections to heat, cool, and regenerate heat between raw milk and pasteurized milk.
Typical plate heat exchanger dimensions and performance parameters are given. Any
metal that can be cold-worked is suitable for PHE applications. The most common
plate materials are stainless steel (AISI 304 or 316) and titanium.

Plates made from in coloy 825, Inconel 625, and Hastelloy C-276 is also
available. Nickel, cupronickel, and monel are rarely used. Carbon steel is not used,
due to low corrosion resistance for thin plates. Graphite and polymer plates are used

with corrosive fluids. The heat transfer surface area per unit volume for plate
exchangers ranges from 120 to 660m2/m3 (37 to 200 ft2/ft3).

1.4 Flow Arrangements

A large number of flow arrangements are possible in a plate heat exchanger,

depending on the required heat transfer duty, available pressure drops, minimum and
maximum velocities allowed, and the flow rate ratio of the two fluid streams. In each
pass there can be an equal or unequal number of thermal plates. Whether the plate
exchanger is a single- or multi pass unit, whenever possible, the thermodynamically
superior counter flow or overall counterblow arrangement is used exclusively.

One of the most common flow arrangements in a PHE is a 1-pass–1-pass U

configuration. This is because this design allows all fluid ports to be located on the
fixed end cover, permitting easy disassembly and cleaning/repair of a PHE without
disconnecting any piping. In a multipass arrangement, the ports and fluid connections
are located on both fixed and movable end covers. A multipass arrangement is
generally used when the flow rates are considerably different or when one would like
to use up the available pressure drop by multipassing and hence getting a higher heat
transfer coefficient.

1.5 Advantages and Limitations

Some advantages of plate heat exchangers are as follows. They can easily be
taken apart into their individual components for cleaning, inspection, and
maintenance. The heat transfer surface area can readily be changed or rearranged for a
different task or for anticipated changing loads, through the flexibility of plate size,
corrugation patterns, and pass arrangements. High shear rates and shear stresses,
secondary flow, high turbulence, and mixing due to plate corrugation patterns reduce
fouling to about 10 to 25% of that of a shell-and-tube exchanger, and enhance heat

Very high heat transfer coefficients are achieved due to the breakup and
reattachment of boundary layers, swirl or vortex flow generation, and small hydraulic
diameter flow passages.

Because of high heat transfer coefficients, reduced fouling, the absence of

bypass and leakage streams, and pure counter flow arrangements, the surface area
required for a plate exchanger is one-half to one-third that of a shell-and tube
exchanger for a given heat duty, thus reducing the cost, overall volume, and space
requirement for the exchanger.

Also, the gross weight of a plate exchanger is about one sixth that of an
equivalent shell-and-tube exchanger. Leakage from one fluid to the other cannot take
place unless a plate develops a hole. Since the gasket is between the plates, any
leakage from the gaskets is to the outside of the exchanger. The residence time (time
to travel from the inlet to the outlet of the exchanger) for different fluid particles or
flow paths on a given side are approximately the same. This parity is desirable for
uniformity of heat treatment in applications such as sterilizing, pasteurizing, and

There are no significant hot or cold spots in the exchanger that could lead to the
deterioration of heat-sensitive fluids. The volume of fluid held up in the exchanger is
small; this feature is important with expensive fluids, for faster transient response, and
for better process control. Finally, high thermal performance can be achieved in plate
exchangers. The high degree of counter flow in PHEs makes temperature approaches
of up to 18C (28F) possible.

The high thermal effectiveness (up to about 93%) facilitates economical low-
grade heat recovery. The flow-induced vibrations, noise, thermal stresses, and entry
impingement problems of shell-and-tube exchangers do not exist for plate heat
exchangers. Some inherent limitations of the plate heat exchangers are caused by
plates and gaskets as follows.

The plate exchanger is capable of handling up to a maximum pressure of about
3 MPa gauge (435 psig) but is usually operated below 1.0 MPa gauge (150 psig).The
gasket materials (except for the PTFE-coated type) restrict the use of PHEs in highly
corrosive applications; they also limit the maximum operating temperature to 2608C
(5008F) but are usually operated below 1508C (3008F) to avoid the use of expensive
gasket materials.

Gasket life is sometimes limited. Frequent gasket replacement may be needed

in some applications. Pinhole leaks are hard to detect. For equivalent flow velocities,
pressure drop in a plate exchanger is very high compared to that of a shell-and tube
exchanger. However, the flow velocities are usually low and plate lengths are short, so
the resulting pressure drops are generally acceptable. The normal symmetry of PHEs
may make phase-change applications more difficult, due to large differences in
volumetric flows.

1.6 Major Applications

Plate heat exchangers were introduced in 1923 for milk pasteurization

applications and now find major applications in liquid–liquid (viscosities up to 10
Pas) heat transfer duties.

They are most common in the dairy, juice, beverage, alcoholic drink,
general food processing, and pharmaceutical industries, where their ease of cleaning
and the thermal control required for sterilization/pasteurization make them ideal. They
are also used in the synthetic rubber industry, paper mills, and in the process heaters,
coolers, and closed-circuit cooling systems of large petrochemical and power plants.
Here heat rejection to seawater or brackish water is common in many applications,
and titanium plates are then used.

Plate heat exchangers are not well suited for lower-density gas-to-gas
applications. They are used for condensation or evaporation of non-low-vapour
densities. Lower vapour densities limit evaporation to lower outlet vapour fractions.

Specially designed plates are now available for condensing as well as

evaporation of high-density vapours such as ammonia, propylene, and other common
refrigerants, as well as for combined evaporation/condensation duties, also at fairly
low vapour densities.



A. BANI KANANEH [1] have proposed that Fouling inside gasketed
plate heat exchangers used in milk production has been reduced using nano-
composites coatings. An antifouling coating with low surface energy (low wettability)
led to a hydrophobic and oleophobic effect. Test facilities were constructed by the
Institute of New Materials (INM) and Institute of Environmental Process Engineering
(IUV), University of Bremen in Germany for the investigation of milk adhesion and
the stability of the coatings on rectangular plates and small cylindrical ducts. A
number of coatings and surface treatments were tested. Certain polyurethane-coated
plates and tubes formed thinner deposit layer compared to standard uncoated stainless
steel plates and tubes. The cleaning time for one coated tube was reduced by 80%
compared to the standard stainless steel one. A pilot plant including a milk pasteurizer
at LUFA Nord-West in Oldenburg-Germany was used for the thermal treatment of
whey protein solutions. Plates coated with different nano-composites as well as electro
polished plates were installed in the heating section of the pasteurizer. Significant
differences were observed between coated and uncoated plates. The coated plates
showed reduced deposit build up in comparison with the uncoated stainless steel
plates. Polyurethane-coated plates exhibited the thinnest deposit layer. Electro
polished plates also reduced deposit build up in comparison to the standard stainless
steel plates and were almost comparable to the coated plates. The time required for
cleaning in place (CIP) with the coated plates was reduced by 70% compared to
standard stainless steel plates.

MARZIA GIRIBALDI [2] have proposed that A new small-scale

continuous-flow High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST) pasteurizer has been designed
for treating human milk. The efficacy of the new HTST device was assessed on
inoculated Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Chronobacter
sakazakii, as well as on raw human milk bacteria. The milk biochemical quality after
HTST pasteurization was assessed in comparison to a standard Holder pasteurization,
by determining the secretory IgAs (sIgAs) content, the protein profile, lysozyme and
the Bile Salt Stimulated Lipase (BSSL) activities. No pathogen or bacterial growth
was detected after HTST pasteurization with the new instrument. Changes in the
protein profile were observed in the milk pasteurized according to both processes. The
sIgAs content and BSSL activity were significantly higher in the milk pasteurized
with the new device than in the same milk treated by the standard Holder
pasteurization. In conclusion, the new HTST apparatus: (i) can effectively pasteurize
human milk with a better retention of sIgAs content and BSSL activity; (ii) comply to
human milk banking safety requirements.

HELENA F [3] have proposed that The continuous thermal processing
of liquid foods with a three-section plate heat exchanger (PHE), heat integration and a
non-isothermal holding tube was modelled in order to derive the temperature history
of the product and the lethality distribution. Linear temperature changes were assumed
along the process and plug-flow was considered with three options for residence time:
space time (bulk velocity), experimental mean residence time and minimum residence
time (theoretical or experimental). In order to validate and test the model, it was used
to simulate the operation of a laboratory-scale plate pasteurizer processing an enzymic
time-temperature integrator (TTI) at four temperature conditions (70, 75, 80 and 85
°C). Previous studies of residence time distribution and heat transfer in the equipment
provided important parameters for the simulation. Predicted results of temperature
distribution were in excellent agreement with experimental values and the simulated
process lethality was close to the value assessed with the TTI. A case study showed
the effect of the adopted residence time and the over-processing associated with a
non-isothermal holding tube with tubular connections

CRISTIANE BOXLER [4] have proposed that Fouling deposition on

heat exchangers in milk plants is the main reason of progressive decline in efficiency
and performance during operation. In order to increase operational effectiveness an
anti-fouling strategy based on the adjustment of the hydrodynamic flow conditions
was investigated. For this purpose stationary flow was superimposed by an oscillating

flow, resulting in temporary high values of the wall shear stress. Experiments were
conducted using a commercial stainless steel pilot scale plate heat exchanger (PHE)
with a calcium phosphate-rich whey protein solution as model fluid. The PHE system
was operated at a product side flow rate of 0.085 m3 h_1 (v = 0.1 m s_1, Re = 870)
heating the solution from 62 to 85 _C. The results show that the build-up of fouling
layers as well as the fouling layer composition was strongly dependent on the flow
conditions. The pulsation amplitude and mode mainly influenced the mineral
deposition and a reduction of fouling was achieved. Hence, the use of pulsed flow
provides an opportunity for the mitigation of milk fouling
PHAVANEE NARATARUKSA [5] have proposed that Fouling by
coconut milk at different heating temperatures (50e54.5 _C, 60e64.5 _C, and 70e74.5
_C) and at three volumetric flows (2,4 and 6 LPM) in a test section equipped with four
flat plates was studied. Measurement of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and
the compositions of deposit mass were completed in order to obtain fouling factors
(Rf) and an empirical model for the rate of increase or f Biot number (ΔBi/Δt) as a
function of the temperature (T) and the flow (F). The results illustrated that the fouling
factor increased, when the temperature fell due to a combination of chemical reaction
fouling from proteins and precipitation fouling from fat. The fouling factor also
increased, when the flow was lowered due to a slow rate of deposit removal
introduced by small shear force. Combination of the two effects revealed that the
effect of flow was less significant at higher temperatures. All results can be confirmed
by an analysis of fouling compositions. At high temperature conditions, more
denaturation of proteins resulted in less ability to entrap fat globules onto heating
surface. The heat resistance was found decreasing with increasing temperature

ZOHRE TAGHIZADEH-TABARI [6] have proposed Many researchers

have focused on the increasing of the efficiency in the industrial equipment. Plate
heat exchanger (PHE) as an important thermal equipment in dairy industries is
employed here asatest-rigfor investigation thermal parameters.In order to enhance heat
transfer capability of distilled water as a hot stream in PHE ,titanium dioxide
nanoparticles (TiO2) were added to the distilled water to reparestable nanofluid with

weight concentration of 0.25%, 0.35% and 0.8% as the working media. Baseonthe
experimental data ,nanofluid at all concentrations showed higher heat transferrate
(advantage) and pressure drop (disadvantage) than that of the distilled water, resulting
from higher thermal conductivity of the nanoparticle loaded in basefluid. In order to
evaluate the positive and negative aspects of the nanofluid applications in the PHE
simultaneously, parameter of performance index was introduced and the results
confirmed the potential of this type of nanofluid in PHE, by looking at the ratio of
convective heat transfer enhancement to the pressure drop

BEUF M [7] have proposed that Fouling of heat exchangers in dairy
industries is still quite a severe problem both technically and economically. Altering
the surface properties of the heating surfaces would be a way of solving this issue.
Modified steel surfaces were tested in an Alfa Laval V2 plate heat exchanger
throughout dairy product sterilization. The behavior was analyzed for 8 different
surface treatments, such as coatings (Diamond Like Carbon [DLC], Silica, SiOX, Ni
P-PTFE, Excalibur, Xylan) and ion implantation (SiF+, MoS2). All fouling and
cleaning experiments were carried out in standard and well-controlled operating
conditions. After fouling, no significant difference could be seen between all
the modified steels and the reference by statistical variance analysis. Cleaning
efficiency of Ni-PPTFE appeared significantly the best. It could be suggested that the
free surface energy plays a predominant role and the roughness a minor role in the
level of fouling and cleaning efficiency

S.S. PREMATHILAKA [8] have proposed that Modified stainless

steelvsurfaces were fouled with wheyvprotein solutions to study the deposition
mechanisms and the effects of surface modification. Stainless steel samples were
coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride (TiN). These surfaces are
expected to present different surface chemistries to stainless steel in terms of their
functional groups and hydrophobic or hydrophilic nature. Thus, it is expected that
foulant-surface interactions will differ for the various fouled surfaces. The substrates
were exposed to a flowing whey protein solution in a fouling rig designed to achieve
laminar flow. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the initial
protein-surface interactions of samples fouled for 1 minute at 75°C. Ellipsometry was
used to study the fouling and cleaning performance of samples fouled at 75°C and
85°C for up to 30 minutes followed by ultrasonic caustic cleaning of selected samples.
XPS showed the presence of similar protein functional groups on all fouled surfaces.
The bonding mechanisms during fouling of DLC is different to the stainless steel and
TiN surfaces. The peptide link played a more active role at the deposit-surface
interface for the non-polar DLC surface, while it was less significant for the two polar
surfaces. Ellipsometry revealed that for the three surfaces, fouling increased in the
order DLC<SS<TiN, and cleanability increased in the order TiN<SS<DLC.
Furthermore, the nature of the surface influenced the structure of the deposit after the
initial protein layer was formed. It was concluded that the surface chemistry can
influence the deposition mechanisms in terms of the orientation of protein functional
groups as well as the amount of fouling, the structure of the deposit and hence the
deposit removal behaviour.

W. AUGUSTIN [9] have proposed that Heat transfer fouling

experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled stirred vessel using aqueous
solutions of whey protein concentrate in the concentration range of 3 to 3.5 wt-% at a
bulk temperature of 50 °C and pH of 6. Heat transfer data were obtained from
thermocouples embedded in an immersed electrical heating rod with various metal
plates attached with-and-without surface treatments. Measurements included solution
temperature, heating element surface temperature, and heat duty. Results are presented
as fouling resistance versus time for aluminum, copper, stainless steel, electro-
polished stainless steel, and surfaces coated with DLC and doped with Si , SiO, as
well as DLC-coating of an electro-polished stainless steel. Reducing surface
roughness was found to mitigate fouling but the combination of both surface
treatments, DLC coatings, and electro-polishing gave the best performance. The
experimental results demonstrate the potential and value for reducing the adhesive
behavior of whey protein fouling layers using modified surfaces. Also a comparison
of these results with those for crystallization fouling show the same effects of the

surface modification on nucleation and crystal growth. Of particular importance is the
influence on the cleaning performance where the main potential can be expected.

Q. ZHAO [10] have proposed that The adhesion of bacteria and proteins
on the surfaces of heat exchangers and food processing equipment has been
recognized as a widespread problem. Biofouling not only reduces heat transfer
performance significantly, but also causes considerable pressure drop, calling for
higher pumping requirements. Biofouling also present a considerable hygiene risk in
the food industry. It would be much more desirable if surfaces with an inherently
lower stickability for biofouling could be developed. In this paper, stainless steel 304
plates were modified by electroless plating Ni-P and small amounts of PTFE. The
experimental results showed that the surface free energy of the Ni–P–PTFE coatings,
which were altered by changing the PTFE content in the coatings, had a significant
influence on the adhesion of bacterial, protein and mineral deposits. The Ni–P–PTFE
coatings reduced the adhesion of these deposits significantly. The anti-fouling
mechanism of the composite coatings was explained with the extended DLVO theory.

S. LEE [11] have proposed that Oxide nanofluids were produced and
their thermal conductivities were measured by a transient hot-wire method. The
experimental results show that these nanofluids, containing a small amount of
nanoparticles, have substantially higher thermal conductivities than the same liquids
without nanoparticles. Comparisons between experiments and the Hamilton and
Crosser model show that the model can predict the thermal conductivity of nanofluids
containing large agglomerated Al203 particles. However, the model appears to be
inadequate for nanofluids containing CuO particles. This suggests that not only
particle shape but size is considered to be dominant in enhancing the thermal
conductivity of nanofluids

K. S. HONG [12] have proposed that Nanofluids have been attractive for
the last few years with the enormous potential to improve the efficiency of heat
transfer fluids. This work focuses on the effect of the clustering of nanoparticles on
the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Large enhancement of the thermal
conductivity is observed in Fe nanofluids sonicated with high powered pulses. The
average size of the nanoclusters and thermal conductivity of sonicated nanofluids are
measured as time passes after the sonication stopped. It is found from the variations of
the nanocluster size and thermal conductivity that the reduction of the thermal
conductivity of nanofluids is directly related to the agglomeration of nanoparticles.
The thermal conductivity of Fe nanofluids increases nonlinearly as the volume
fraction of nanoparticles increases. The nonlinearity is attributed to the rapid
clustering of nanoparticles in condensed nanofluids. The thermal conductivities of Fe
nanofluids with the three lowest concentrations are fitted to a linear function. The Fe
nanofluids show a more rapid increase of the thermal conductivity than Cu nanofluids
as the volume fraction of the nanoparticles increases.

STEPHEN U. S. CHOI [13] have proposed that Low thermal

conductivity is a primary limitation in the development of energy-efficient heat
transfer fluids that are required in many industrial applications. In this paper we
propose that an innovative new class of heat transfer fluids can be engineered by
suspending metallic nanoparticles in conventional heat transfer fluids. The resulting
"nanofluids" are expected to exhibit high thermal conductivities compared to those of
currently used heat transfer fluids, and they represent the best hope for enhancement
of heat transfer. The results of a theoretical study of the thermal conductivity of
nanofluids with copper nanophase materials are presented, the potential benefits of the
fluids are estimated, and it is shown that one of the benefits of nanofluids will be
dramatic reductions in heat exchanger pumping power.

YOUCEF MAHDI [14] have proposed that A two-dimensional dynamic

fouling model for milk fouling in a plate heat exchanger (PHE) is proposed. Emphasis
is placed on fouling prediction based on the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic

performances of the PHE. A 12-channelPHE with counter-current flows is used in
quantification of the milk deposition developed inside the channels. The
aggregationrate of unfolded protein is found to increase exponentially with increasing
wall temperature and is accompanied bya substantial reduction in the heat-transfer
A. BANI KANANEHA [15] have proposed that Fouling inside gasketed plate
heat exchangers used in milk production has been reduced using nano-composites
coatings. An antifouling coating with low surface energy (low wettability) led to a
hydrophobic and oleophobic effect. Test facilities were constructed by the Institute of
New Materials (INM) and Institute of Environmental Process Engineering (IUV),
University of Bremen in Germany for the investigation of milk adhesion and the
stability of the coatings on rectangular plates and small cylindrical ducts. A number of
coatings and surface treatments were tested. Certain polyurethane-coated plates and
tubes formed thinner deposit layer compared to standard uncoated stainless steel
plates and tubes. The cleaning time for one coated tube was reduced by 80%
compared to the standard stainless steel one. A pilot plant including a milk pasteurizer
at LUFA Nord-West in Oldenburg-Germany was used for the thermal treatment of
whey protein solutions. Plates coated with different nano-composites as well as
electropolished plates were installed in the heating section of the pasteurizer.
Significant differences were observed between coated and uncoated plates. The coated
plates showed reduced deposit buildup in comparison with the uncoated stainless steel
plates. Polyurethane-coated plates exhibited the thinnest deposit layer. Electro
polished plates also reduced deposit buildup in comparison to the standard stainless
steel plates and were almost comparable to the coated plates. The time required for
cleaning in place (CIP) with the coated plates was reduced by 70% compared to
standard stainless steel plates.
BYEONG-JU JINA [16] have proposed that Generally, the heat transfer
performance of plate-type heat exchanger has been shown lower than other heat
exchangers.Recently titanium material that has high formability and performance has
been payed attention to a plate material of the plate-type heat exchange. However, the
material has a spring-back due to the high strength as well as the mold design for die

and punch processes determined by the operator’s experience. Furthermore, the
factors that affect the sheet forming are too large and complex to describe by
mathematical method so that it is quite difficult for the exact design by experimental
methods. Since the chevron shape and pattern are important factors in the performance
of the plate-type heat exchanger, the heat exchanger that has the same performance
with the targeted one has been manufactured in conjunction with mold design. This
design has been employed to predict and determine performance of plate-type heat
exchanger. If the mold design of the plate-type heat exchanger has considered to the
spring-back phenomenon, the design of twodimensional shape should necessarily be
required. Therefore, the compatibility and adequacy of mold design in the platetype
heat exchanger which is used in the industries, can be verified using three-dimensional
(3D) Finite Element Method(FEM). In this paper, a forming analysis of a plate-type
heat exchanger with its numerical simulation has been carried out. The optimization of
mold design in plate-type heat exchanger that has the complex shape has been
proposed using the computer simulation. Since the high-tensile steel plate such as Ti
material has high stability when designing a metal mold in the new product, an
optimization in the quality of plate-type heat exchanger using the developed numerical
model has been proposed.
VÁCLAV DVORAKA [17] have proposed that Flow and heat transfer
in a recuperative counter flow plate air-to-air heat exchanger were investigated
numerically using Fluent software. It was employed previously developed methods to
generate a computational mesh and assumed a zero thickness of the plates to calculate
the flow in an air-to-air heat exchanger. Pressure loss and effectiveness were
evaluated as functions of inner velocity. Obtained numerical data were substituted by
suggested functions dependent on the Reynolds number. A function for the loss
coefficient was based on the presumption that losses consist of local losses and
friction losses. The function for the Nusselt number used the ordinary power function
of the Reynolds number for forced convection. The effect of material thickness on
pressure loss and effectiveness was illustrated. Even a very thin material for the plate
significantly affects pressure loss, while the effect on the effectiveness depended on
the thermal conductivity of plate material used. From this results, it is obvious that a

thin as possible material is crucial for creating the most effective recuperative air-to-
air heat exchanger with high effectiveness and low pressure loss, while the properties
of the material itself are unimportant. We compared numerical data with data obtained
by measuring a real heat exchanger. The results for effectiveness corresponded well
and corrections made were negligible. Then results for pressure loss differed
significantly, but this difference was lowered by correcting for plate thickness.
NUR ROHMAH [18] have proposed that spacing is one of variable that
influences plate heat exchanger (PHE) design as a condenser in Organic Rankine
Cycle (ORC) system. The rises of plate spacing have effects to channel cross sectional
area, channel velocity, equivalent diameter, and Reynold number at hot and cold fluid
sides in PHE. Those parameters affect the total heat transfer area and total pressure
drop that influence the PHE condenser performance. This paper investigated the detail
effect of the plate spacing increments in the final total heat transfer area and total
pressure drop design result. The plate spacing in design calculation method is varied
and the other independent variables are assumed to be constant. The design was
conducted by calculating condenser capacity at both sides and both zones, estimating
overall heat transfer coefficient, and calculating heat transfer area and plate film
coefficient. Analysis continued by calculating overall heat transfer coefficient that has
small percent of error with the estimated overall heat transfer coefficient, calculating
pressure drop, total plate number and total heat transfer area. The result of calculation
shows that the rises of plate spacing increase the total heat transfer area and decrease
the cold and hot fluid total pressure drop. The rises of plate spacing increase channel
cross sectional area and equivalent diameter, and decrease channel velocity and
Reynold number at zone 1 (without phase change) and zone 2 (with phase change).
Therefore, the increment of heat transfer areas is unpreferable and the decrement of
pressure drops is preferable
OANA GIURGIU [19] have proposed that The study presents a
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical study for two different models of
mini channels, included in plate heat exchangers structure. The influence of geometric
characteristics of the two studied plates on the intensification process of heat transfer
was studied comparatively. For this purpose, it was examined the distribution of

velocity, temperatures fields and distribution of convection coefficient along the
active mini channel. The analyzed mini channels had the inclination angles of 30°
respectively 60° and the Reynold flow number was 3500. Also a session of
experimental measurements have been carried out on the two types of analyzed plates
for the heat exchangers, confirming the results obtained through numerical simulation
that the plate heat exchanger model using mini channels with inclination angle of β =
60ᵒ provides best heat transfer



The main objective of this research work we are analyzing the

performance of corrugate type plate heat exchanger using nano fluid in milk
pasteurization process. To predict the milk deposit patterns on the plate surfaces
with more accuracy. This approach is expected to have the way to organize and
optimize the operating conditions for reducing the extra costs involved with

Arslanoglu et al., 2010 The Holder pasteurization (HOP) method (62.5 °C

for 30 min) is currently the recommended pasteurization method for human
milk banks (HMB), In a previous study by our group (Baro et al., 2011), the
HTST method (72 °C for 15 s) showed to better preserve, in comparison to
HOP, the milk protein profile and some of the key active components of human
milk with potential consequences on the availability of important nutritive
compounds, such as fatty acids and available lysine

Delplace et al., 1994 Gasketed plate heat exchangers with stainless steel
plates are commonly used in the dairy industry. They have high heat transfer
Performance, lower temperature gradient, higher turbulence, and easier
maintenance than shell and tube heat exchangers

Beuf et al. (2003) studied the fouling of dairy product on modified

stainless steel surfaces in an Alfa Laval plate heat exchanger.

The aim of the present study is HTST method will be attain to increase
the temperature in pasteurization process with short time duration using

Fabrication of PHE

Selection of suitable nanoparticles

Preparation of nanofluid


Flow of water Flow of nanofluid

Hot Cold Hot Cold

inlet & outlet inlet & outlet inlet & outlet inlet & outlet

Various observations
for different flow adjustment


FIGURE 4.1 Methodology



5.1 Plate Heat Exchangers

The plate heat exchanger is formed up by a set of corrugated metal plates. The
corrugated plates are mounted in a frame with a fixed plate on one side and a movable
pressure plate and pressed together with tightening bolts. The corrugated plates serve
not only to raise the level of turbulence, but also provide numerous supporting points
to withstand the pressure difference between the media.

The hot medium may not flow through the apparatus without the cold medium
flowing through. This is to prevent damage to the apparatus. In case the cold medium
is present but does not flow while the hot medium is flowing through, the cold
medium will start boiling and the apparatus will be damaged.

Sudden pressure and temperature changes should be prevented. When a heat

exchanger (filled with water or a water mixture) which is not in operation is exposed
to temperatures below zero, the plates can become deformed. If a danger of frost
occurs, the heat exchanger should be drained completely.

5.1.1 Components of Plate Heat Exchangers

 Frames
 Pressure Plates
 Gaskets
 Flow Arrangements
 Thermocouple
 U-Tube manometer
 Rota meter
 Gate valve
 Hot and cold fluid tank
 Connecting tubes

28 Frame

The heat exchanger consists of a frame plate (Head), a pressure plate

(Follower), a carrying bar, a lower bar and a column. Tightening bolts are used to
press the plates together. This is depending on the type of heat Exchanger and can be
different in some applications. Pressure Plates

The plate package consists of plates with a groove along the rim of the plate
and around the ports. The number of plates is, as well as size and dimension,
dependent on the thermal output required. Depending on the application stainless-steel
or titanium plates might be used.

Figure 5.1 plates

The heat exchanger plates, which make up the heat transfer surface, are
clamped between two plates of steel with the use of the tightening bolts. The heat
exchanger construction allows a plate heat exchanger to be easily opened for
inspection and cleaning.

The plate pattern is corrugated and varies depending on the application and the
fluids being put through the heat exchanger. As the plate’s corrugation depth gets
smaller the thickness of the plate can be less.
Each heat exchanger plate is formed by pressing in one piece (no seams or

Most plates have four holes punched, one in each corner. The last plate in a
single pass unit has no holes so the fluid flow is reversed or turned.

Multiple pass heat exchangers have turning plates with only two holes for
redirecting the fluid flow. Gaskets

Each plate has a gasket that produces a sealing and channel system through the
entire plate pack in which the two heat exchanging media flow in a counter-current

Figure 5.2 Gasget

The circular portion of the gasket stops the fluid from going across the heat
transfer plate and sends it to the next open channel. The remaining portion or field
gasket directs the opposing fluid across the heat transfer surface.

The gasket can be mechanically clipped to the plate with the glue free “U”
shaped clip or glued in place. The gasket is double around the ports toprevent

intermixing of the two fluids. In the event of gasket failure, any leakage is vented
external to the equipment.

They limit the maximum operating temperature for a plate heat exchanger.
Material selection depends upon

 Chemical resistance
 Temperature resistance
 Sealing properties
 Shape over an acceptable period of time Flow and Plate Arrangement:

The heat transfer plates with gaskets are arranged in an alternating pattern of
left hand flow and right hand flow to direct the fluids in an opposing direction within
the heat exchanger. The completed assembly of all the plates and gaskets is called the
“plate pack.”

“A” “B”

Left Hand Flow Right Hand Flow

Figure 5.3 Flow and Plate Arrangement

The starter plate against the fixed cover does not have fluid flowing across it.
Instead it has four ring shaped gaskets to seal against the inside of the connections. In

this manner, fluids do not flow between this plate and the fixed head and are diverted
to open channels in the plate pack.

The groove provided in the plates holds the special gasket. The purpose of this
gasket is to prevent intermixing of the media and leakage to the outside. The gaskets
are selected to suit the actual combination of temperature, chemical environment and
possible other conditions to be considered. They can be supplied in Viton, Nitrile or
A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical
conductors forming electrical junction at differing temperature. A thermocouple
produce a temperature-dependent voltage as a result of thermoelectrical effect and this
voltage can be interpreted to measure the temperature. Thermocouple are widely used
type of temperature sensor. U-Tube manometer

Manometer can be used to measure gauge pressure, differential pressure and
absolute pressure. U-tube is made of glass.the tube is filled with a fluid know as
manometer fluid. Mercury is one of the most commonly used manometer fluid. Rotameter

A rotameter is a device that measures the volumetric flow rate of fluid in a

closed tubes .its belongs to a class of meter called variable area meters , which
measure flow rate by allowing the cross-section area the fluid travels through to vary,
causing a measurable effects Gate valve

Gate valve are primarily used to permit or prevent the flow of liquid, but
typical gate valve shouldn’t be used for regulating flow.

5.2 Apparatus

The setup employed for this experiment is as follows.

1. A stainless steel plate heat exchanger with a facility to measure inlet and
outlet temperature of hot and cold fluid with an accuracy of 0.1˚ C.

2. The plates are planar (not corrugated), There are a total of 5 plates
making 4 chambers for the fluid transport–two for the cold fluid and two
for the hot fluid.The total heat transfer area available is equal to that of
the number of plates

3. The cold fluid used here is water and the hot fluid is also water.

4. A stainless steel insulated tank with a heater to act as a reservoir for the
hot fluid.

5. Hot fluid circulation pump is used as 1HP power output and which is
have head displacement upto 20m.

6. Cold fluid inlet from the pump which is having 28W output and which
having head displacement upto 5m.

7. Four temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet points for each of the
two fluids. The hot-fluid inlet wired thermocouple is also a thermostat
control, which controls the heater connected to the reservoir by a simple
relay mechanism.

8. Rotameters for fluid flow measurements.

5.2.1 Schematic Diagram of Experimental Setup

Figure 5.4 Schematic Diagram Of Experimemtal Setup

5.3 General Setup

1. The zero correction of the thermocouples are determined by measuring

steady the fluid inlet and outlet temperature under the following conditions (without
switching on the heater).

 Stationary (Assuming the equipment is at equilibrium, before the

start of the experiment, all the thermocouples should indicate the
same temperature. Any deviation indicates the error of the
thermometer/sensor combination)
 Allow minimal flow of the hot fluid and measure any temperature
 Set the pump to maximum capacity flow rate (≈ 155 kg/h), and
measure the temperature difference between the outlet and inlet of
the hot fluid.

2. Set the temperature of the inlet hot fluid in the dual temperature indicator
cum controller. The set point should be set around 65 to 70˚C.

3. Provide cooling water supply to the plate heat exchanger so that the flowrate
is 111kg/h. This will ensure that the temperature rise is restricted to about 2–3˚C.
Keep this flow rate constant throughout the experiment.

4. Connect the 15 A and 5 A plug pins to a stable 230 V A.C. electric supply.
Care should be taken to connect these two pins in different phases of the power
supply. Switch on the heater power supply.

5. Adjust the flow rate of hot fluid through the heat exchanger by adjusting the
speed of hot fluid circulation pump. Note down the flow rate of hot fluid as indicated
by the rotameter. If during the course of any experiment, the flow rate changes (due to
power fluctuations, or due to temperature changes), to manually reset the flow rate to
the desired set value. This kind of adjustments should be done for all the experiments
to follow to ensure that the flow rate is maintained at a constant value.

5.4 Selection of Material

5.4.1 Specification of PHE

Plate Type : VT04 PH K

Heat Transfer Area (Total/per unit) : 0.14 m2

Number of Plates (Total/per unit) :7

Plate Thickness : 0.60 mm

LMTD : 35.99 K

Plate Material : AISI316

Gasket Material/ Gasket Type : NBR / Glued

Internal flow (passes × channels) : 2×4

No. of Frames :1

Frame Material : CS-IS 2062 Gr B

Surface : Painted RAL50

5.5 Features

 High heating transferring coefficient: as the flowing made in the plate pack
forms up turbulence at low Re and the smooth plates have little possibility of
forming scale, the plate heat exchanger has a heat transferring coefficient over
5000W/m2k, which is 2-4 times that of the shell-and-tube exchanger.
 High heat recovery rate: Due to high heat-transferring coefficient, the heat
transferring temperature difference can be very low. Therefore, it is very well
suited to low energy level heat recovery. Normally heat recovery using a plate
heat exchanger can be as high as 90%.
 Great flexibility
 Compact structure
 Easy maintenance.



6.1 Nanofluid

Nanofluid is a fluid containing nanometer-sized particles, called nanoparticles.

These fluids are engineered colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles with sizes typically
of the order of 1–100 nm in a base fluid. Modern nanotechnology provides great
opportunities to process and produce materials with average crystal sizes below 50
nm. Recognizing an opportunity to apply this emerging nanotechnology to established
thermal energy engineering, it was proposed by Choi in 1993 that nanometer-sized
metallic particles could be suspended in industrial heat transfer fluids such as Water,
Ethylene Glycol, and Engine Oil to produce a new class of engineered fluids with high
thermal conductivity. The average size of particles used in nanofluids is below 50 nm.
Choi. In 1995 coined the term nanofluids for this new class of heat transfer fluids.

Nanofluids show improved stability compared to the conventional fluids added

with micrometer or millimeter-sized solid particles because of its size effect and
Brownian motion of the nanoparticles in liquids. With such ultrafine nanoparticles,
nanofluids can flow smoothly in a micro channel without clogging and the size of the
heat transfer system can be reduced for the use of nanofluids due to its high heat
transfer efficiency.

6.2 Types of Nanoparticles

 Oxide ceramic
 Al2O3
 CuO
 SiO2
 Metal carbides
 SiC

 Metal
 Al
 Cu
 Non-metal
 Graphite
 Carbon Nano Tube

6.3 Types of Base Fluid

Water, Ethylene Glycol, Tri-Ethylene Glycol, Coolants, Oils, Lubricants,

Bio-Fluids, Polymers, Organic Liquid.

6.4 Properties of Nanofluid

Some of the interesting facts and specific benefits of nanofluids are

described below.

6.4 .1 Improved Heat Transfer and Stability

Because heat transfer takes place at the surface of the particle, it is desirable to
use a particle with a large surface area. Nanoparticles provide extremely high surface
areas for heat transfer and therefore have great potential for use in heat transfer. The
much larger relative surface areas of nanophase powders, when compared with those
of conventional micrometer-sized powders, should markedly improve the heat transfer
capabilities and stability of the suspensions.

6.4.2 Reduced Pumping Power

In heat exchangers that use conventional fluids, the heat transfer

coefficient can be increased only by significantly increasing the velocity of the fluid in
the heat transfer equipment. However, the required pumping power increases
significantly with increasing velocity. For a Nanofluid flowing in the same heat
transfer equipment at a fixed velocity, enhancement of heat transfer due to increased
thermal conductivity can be estimated.

6.4.3 Minimal Clogging

ANL researchers are developing advanced fluids for industrial applications,

including district heating and cooling systems [3, 4, and 5]. One problem identified in
this R&D program was that micrometer-sized particles could not be used in practical
heat transfer equipment because of severe clogging problems. However, nanophase
metals are believed to be ideally suited for applications in which fluids flow through
small passages, because the metallic nanoparticles are small enough that they are
expected to behave like molecules of liquid. This will open up the possibility of using
nanoparticles even in micro-channels for many envisioned high-heat-load

6.5 Methods of Nano Fluid Preparation

Theoretically, all solid nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity can be

used as additives of nanofluids. These nanoparticles that have been often used to
prepare nanofluids reported in literature are: (1) Metallic particles (Cu, Al, Fe, Au,
and Ag); (2) Non-Metal particles (Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4, TiO2, and SiC); (3) carbon
Nano tubes and (4) Nano droplets. The base fluids commonly used are water, oil, and
acetone, decene [C10H20] and ethylene glycol (EG) 2. Preparation of nanofluids is the
key step in the use of Nano particles to improve the thermal conductivity of fluids.
Two kinds of methods have been employed in producing nanofluids. One is a single-
step method and the other is a two-step method.

6.5.1 Single - step method

The single-step method is a process combining the preparation of nanoparticles

with the synthesis of nanofluids, for which the nanoparticles are directly prepared by
Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) Technique or Liquid Chemical Method [6]. In this
method the processes of Drying, Storage, Transportation, and Dispersion of
nanoparticles are avoided, so the agglomeration of nanoparticles is minimized and the
stability of fluids is increased. But a disadvantage of this method is that only low
vapor pressure fluids are compatible with the process. This limits the application of
the method

6.5.2 Two –step method

The two-step method for preparing nanofluids is a process by dispersing

nanoparticles into base liquids. Nanoparticles, Nano fibers or Nano tubes used in this
method are first produced as a dry powder by inert gas condensation, chemical vapor
deposition, mechanical alloying or other suitable techniques. The Nano sized powder
is then dispersed into a fluid in a second processing step. This step-by-step method
isolates the preparation of the nanofluids from the preparation of nanoparticles. As a
result, agglomeration of nanoparticles may take place in both steps, especially in the
process of drying, storage, and transportation of nanoparticles. The agglomeration will
not only result in the settlement and clogging of micro channels, but also decrease the
thermal conductivity. Simple techniques such as ultrasonic agitation or the addition of
suitable surfactants to the fluids are often used to minimize particle aggregation and
improve dispersion behaviour. Though, several companies have already scaled Nano
powder synthesis techniques up to industrial production levels, there are potential
economic advantages in using two-step synthesis methods that rely on the use of such
powders. But an important problem that needs to be solved is the stabilization of the
suspension prepared.

Figure 6.1 Two-step methods.

6.6 Nanofluids Preparing Techniques

 Magnetic Stirrer
 Ultrasonic Bath Sonicator


A magnetic stirrer or magnetic mixer is a laboratory device that employs

a rotating magnetic field to cause a stir bar immersed in a liquid to spin very
quickly, thus stirring it. The rotating field may be created either by a rotating
magnet or a set of stationary electromagnets, placed beneath the vessel with the

Magnetic stirrers are often used in chemistry and biology, where they can
be used inside hermetically closed vessels or systems, without the need for
complicated rotary seals. They are preferred over gear-driven motorized stirrers
because they are quieter, more efficient, and have no moving external parts to
break or wear out (other than the simple bar magnet itself).

Magnetic stir bars work well in glass vessels commonly used for
chemical reactions, as glass does not appreciably affect a magnetic field. The
limited size of the bar means that magnetic stirrers can only be used for
relatively small experiments, of 4 liters or less.

Stir bars also have difficulty in dealing with viscous liquids or thick
suspensions. For larger volumes or more viscous liquids, some sort of
mechanical stirring is typically needed. Because of its small size, a stirring bar
is more easily cleaned and sterilized than other stirring devices. They do not
require lubricants which could contaminate the reaction vessel and the product.

Magnetic stirrers may also include a hot plate or some other means for heating
the liquid.

Fig.6.2 Magnetic Stirrer


Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a

sample, for various purposes. Ultrasonic frequencies (>20 kHz) are usually
used, leading to the process also being known as ultra sonication or ultra-

In the laboratory, it is usually applied using an ultrasonic bath or an

ultrasonic probe, colloquially known as a sonicator. In a paper machine, an

ultrasonic foil can distribute cellulose fibres more uniformly and strengthen the

 High frequency electrical energy is converted into ultrasound waves

by means of ultrasonic Tranducers, which are bonded on the base of
S. S. Water Tank.

 These high frequency sound waves create in the liquid countless,

Microscopic Vacuum Bubbles, which rapidly expand and collapse.

 This phenomenon is CAVITAION.

 These bubbles act like miniature high speed brushes, driving the
liquid into all openings and minutes recesses of the Object immersed
in the liquid.

 Intense scrubbing of Cavitation cleans away all the dirt and soil from
the object immersed and the object is perfectly cleaned.

 Intricate objects can be cleaned with either complete or little


Fig.6.3 Ultrasonic bath sonicator

The preparation of nanofluid must ensure proper dispersion of
nanoparticles in the liquid and proper mechanism is needed to attain the stability
of the suspension against sedimentation.

Alumininum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles are procured from M/s. United

Nanotech products Ltd., Howrah, India (XRD of Al2O3 nanoparticles is shown.
The size of nanoparticles is 50-100 nm. Under atmospheric temperature
condition these particles form loose agglomerates, which are of the order of

However they can be dispersed in the fluid quite successfully which

results in breaking of the agglomerates by sonication.

The clustering of nanoparticles is avoided by inducing surface charge on

to the particles by adjusting the pH value of the base fluid.

The pH value of the base fluid is adjusted with the addition of small
amount of hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide.

Al2O3 nanoparticles are dispersed in deionized water using magnetic

stirrer. The dispersion of the particles is achieved by first mixing the required
volume of the powder in the chemical measuring flask with de-ionized water.

The unknown weight of the nanopowder is estimated based on the

known percentage of volume fraction, density of the particle and density of the
water by the law of mixtures. After preparing the proper mix of the
nanoparticles and water, the flask is placed on the dimmer controlled magnetic
base and another different pole magnetic strip is placed inside the flask.

It is a simple techniques and the cost is lower than the one step method. In
this method, firstly the nanoparticles are made in dry powdered by means of a

physical and chemical process, these nanoparticles are dispersed in base fluids
by using magnetic stirring and ultrasonication.

A 250 ml of distilled water is taken in a beaker and then adding exact

quantity of 0.2gms concentration (i.e., 0.8gms/litre of distilled water) of Al2O3
nanoparticles. After the beaker is placed in a magnetic stirrer and the stirring
speed range from 1200 rpm to 800 rpm for 40 minutes.

During this process, they are many bubbles appeared at the surface of
suspension nanoparticles after stirring process.

It can adhere the bubbles in a beaker wall. Due to high surface activity, the
stirring process is easily helps to dissolve the air in the fluids and easily the
bubbles were formed.

For this problem, the reduction in the stirring speed from 1200 r/min to 800
r/min and the stirring speed is extended upto 40 min.

By this method, the formation of bubbles were reduced effectively and the
obtained nanofluids quality is improved. After the stirring process, the beaker is
placed in a ultra sonication process.

During this process, the sonication temperature is various from 40ᴼC to 60ᴼC
for same concentration. Then make sample for a respected temperature degrees.

The sonication time is 45 minutes which makes the nanofluids as a efficient

and settlement of nanoparticles in a Al2O3 – distilled water nanofluids is

The stability of Al2O3 – distilled water nanofluids is achieved with good

performance by magnetic stirring time and ultra sonication time and

These nanofluids is in the form of dilute suspension is more advantageous

over the colloidal solution.
6.8. Checking stability

Nanoparticles tend to aggregate with the time elapsed for its high surface-
activity. The agglomeration of nanoparticles results not only the settlement and
clogging of micro channels but also the decreasing of thermal conductivity of
nanofluids. So the investigation on stability is also a key issue that influenced the
properties of nano fluids .The most important factors affecting the stability of
suspensions were the nanoparticles concentration, dispersant, viscosity of base liquid
and pH value. The stability of nanofluids also depends on the type of the
nanoparticles, size and shape of the nanoparticles and the intensity of ultrasonic
vibration used. Hwang studied the stability of nanofluids with the UV–vis

i. Sedimentation method

ii. Zeta potential method

iii. UV–vis spectrophotometer

6.9. Application of Nanofluids

6.9.1 Mechanical Applications

Why nanofluids have great friction reduction properties? Nanoparticles in

nanofluids form a protective film with low hardness and elastic modulus on the worn
surface can be considered as the main reason that some nanofluids exhibit excellent
lubricating properties. Magnetic fluids are kinds of special nanofluids. Magnetic liquid
rotary seals operate with no maintenance and extremely low leakage in a very wide
range of applications, and it utilizing the property magnetic properties of the magnetic
nanoparticles in liquid.

6.9.2 Magnetic Sealing

Magnetic fluids (Ferromagnetic fluid) are kinds of special nanofluids. They are
stable colloidal suspensions of small magnetic particles such as magnetite (Fe3O4).
The properties of the magnetic nanoparticles, the magnetic component of magnetic

nanofluids, may be tailored by varying their size and adapting their surface coating in
order to meet the requirements of colloidal stability of magnetic nanofluids with non-
polar and polar carrier liquids . Comparing with the mechanical sealing, magnetic
sealing offers a cost-effective solution to environmental and hazardous-gas sealing in
a wide variety of industrial rotation equipment with high speed capability, low friction
power losses and long life and high reliability. Ferro-cobalt magnetic fluid was used
for oil sealing, and the holding pressure is 25 times as high as that of a conventional
magnetite sealing

6.9.3 Friction Reduction

Advanced lubricants can improve productivity through energy saving and
reliability of engineered systems. Tri-biological research heavily emphasizes reducing
friction and wear. Nanoparticles have attracted much interest in recent years due to
their excellent load-carrying capacity, good extreme pressure and friction reducing

6.9.4 Transportation

Nanofluids have great potentials to improve automotive and heavy-duty engine

cooling rates by increasing the efficiency, lowering the weight and reducing the
complexity of thermal management systems. The improved cooling rates for
automotive and truck engines can be used to remove more heat from higher horse
power engines with the same size of cooling system. Alternatively, it is beneficial to
design more compact cooling system with smaller and lighter radiators. It is, in turn,
beneficial the high performance and high fuel economy of car and truck. Ethylene
glycol-based nanofluids have attracted much attention in the application as engine
coolant due to the low-pressure operation compared with a 50/50mixture of ethylene
glycol and water, which is the nearly universally used automotive coolant.

6.9.5 Industrial Cooling Applications

The application of nanofluids in industrial cooling will result in great energy

savings and emissions reductions. For US industry, there placement of cooling and
heating water with nanofluids has the potential to conserve 1 trillion Btu of energy

.For the US electric power industry, using nanofluids in closed loop cooling cycles
could save about 10–30 trillion year (equivalent to the annual energy consumption of
about 50,000–150,000 households).

6.9.6 Space and Defense

Due to the restriction of space, energy, and weight in space station and aircraft,
there is a strong demand for high efficient cooling system with smaller size. Further
research of nanofluids will lead to the development of next generation of cooling
devices that incorporate nanofluids for ultrahigh-heat-flux electronic systems,
presenting the possibility of raising chip power in electronic components or
simplifying cooling requirements for space applications..

6.9.7 Nuclear Systems Cooling

The researchers are exploring the nuclear applications of nanofluids,

specifically the following three (1) main reactor coolant for pressurized water reactors
(PWRs). It could enable significant power uprates in current and future PWRs, thus
enhancing their economic performance. Specifically, the use of nanofluids with at
least 32% higher critical heat flux (CHF) could enable a 20% power density uprate in
current plants without changing the fuel assembly design and without reducing the
margin to CHF; (2) coolant for the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) of both
PWRs and boiling water reactors. The use of a Nanofluid in the ECCS accumulators
and safety injection can increase the peak-cladding-temperature margins (in the
nominal-power core) or maintain them in uprated cores if the Nanofluid has a higher
post-CHF heat transfer rate; (3) coolant for in vessel retention of the molten core
during severe acid entsin high-power-density light water reactors. It can increase the
margin to vessel breach by 40% during severe acid entsin high-power density systems
such as Westinghouse APR1000 and the Korean APR1400.While there exist several
significant gaps, including the Nanofluid thermal-hydraulic performance at
prototypical reactor conditions and the compatibility of the Nanofluid chemistry with
the reactor materials. Much work should be done to overcome these gaps before any
applications can be implemented in a nuclear power plant.

6.9.8 Solar Absorption

Solar energy is one of the best sources of renewable energy with minimal
environmental impact. The conventional direct absorption solar collector is a well
established technology, and it has been proposed for a variety of applications such as
water heating; however the efficiency of these collectors is limited by the absorption
properties of the working fluid, which is very poor for typical fluids used in solar
collectors. Recently this technology has been combined with the emerging
technologies of nanofluids and liquid-Nanoparticle suspensions to create a new class
of Nanofluid-based solar collectors. reported the experimental results on solar
collectors based on nanofluids made from a variety of nanoparticles (CNTs, graphite,
and silver)

6.9.9 Electronic Applications

Due to higher density of chips, design of electronic components with more

compact makes sheet dissipation more difficult. Advanced electronic devices face
thermal management challenges from the high level of heat generation and the
reduction of available surface area for heat removal. So, the reliable thermal
management system is vital for the smooth operation of the advanced electronic
devices. In general, there are approaches to improve the heat removal for electronic
equipment. One is to find an optimum geometry of cooling devices; another is to
increase the heat transfer capacity. Nanofluids with higher thermal conductivities are
predicated convective heat transfer coefficients compared to those of base fluids.
Recent researches illustrated that nanofluids could increase the heat transfer
coefficient by increasing the thermal conductivity of a coolant.

6.10 Characterization

It is important to be able to fully characterize the nanofluids under inspection

for heat transfer enhancement. The first steps are to quantify the composition, size and
loading of the nanoparticles and search for impurities in the nanofluids, Tools utilized
to characterize and qualify nanofluids for this study include transmission electron
microscopy (TEM) imaging, dynamic light scattering (DLS),scanning electron
microscope (SEM), XRD crystallography, Atomic Force Microscope, Dynamic Light
Scattering (DLS).

6.10.1 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that

produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The
electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain
information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron
beam is generally scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is
combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution
better than 1 nanometer. Specimens can be observed in high vacuum, in low vacuum,
in wet conditions (in environmental SEM), and at a wide range of cryogenic or
elevated temperatures.

The most common SEM mode is detection of secondary electrons emitted by

atoms excited by the electron beam. The number of secondary electrons that can be
detected depends, among other things, on the angle at which beam meets surface of
specimen] i.e. on specimen topography. By scanning the sample and collecting the
secondary electrons that are emitted using a special detector, an image displaying the
topography of the surface is created.

6.10.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

Transmission Electron Microscopy is a microscopy technique in which a

beam of electrons is transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with the
specimen as it passes through it. An image is formed from the interaction of the
electrons transmitted through the specimen; the image is magnified and focused onto
an imaging device, such as a fluorescent screen, on a layer of photographic, or to be
detected by a sensor such as a CCD camera.

6.10.3 X-Ray Crystallography

It is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal,
in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many
specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams,
a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density
of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density, the mean positions of the
atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds,
their disorder and various other information

6.10.4 Atomic Force Microscopy

AFM provides a 3D profile of the surface on a nanoscale, by measuring forces

between a sharp probe (<10 nm) and surface at very short distance (0.2-10 nm probe-
sample separation). The probe is supported on a flexible cantilever. The AFM tip
“gently” touches the surface and records the small force between the probe and the

6.10.5 Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS)

It is measuring the size of particles typically in the sub micron region, also
referred to as Photon Correlation Spectroscopy or Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering
particles suspended within a liquid undergo Brownian motion. The larger the particle,
the slower the Brownian motion will be. DLS monitors the Brownian motion with
light scattering.

6.11 Thermal Properties of Nanofluid

6.11.1 Introduction

Thermal fluids provide a situation for changing the energy of system cat
transfer efficiency of these fluids depends on their physical properties such thermal
conductivity, viscosity, density and specific heat. Due to low thermal conductivity of
traditional thermal fluid like water, ethylene glycol, and oils centrists try to find a new
coolant with higher thermal capacity. Nanofluid is a pension of solid particles in size
of nanometer in base fluid to increase its thermal capacity. Before appearance of
nanofuid were used micro or millimetre size particles Thermal conductivity is more
important in nanofluid. In fact it's enhancement than traditional fluid, is the benefit a
of nanofluids. Duo to thermal conductivity play a key role in laminar fluid flow than
turbulent one most researches focus on stationary state or very low velocity of
nanofluids now. In using suspensions we must pay special attention on particle

6.11.2 Thermal Conductivity

In physical aspect, thermal conductivity, k, is the property of a substance which

shows its ability to conduct heat. As we know thermal conductivity of metals are very
higher than liquids. In nanofluid approach, scientist attempt to use this feature to
enhance the thermal conductivity of traditional thermal fluids by suspending nano
metallic particles and most researchers create new formulae, novel comelations or try
to adopt last formulae for calculating thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

6.11.3 Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid against deformation by ther

extensional stress or shear stress. In general terms it is the resistance of a liquid to
flow. For nanofluids due to its suspension nature, viscosity is very IMPORTAnt in
application design. For viscosity of solid-liquid mixture also are ented a lot of models
and correlations.

6.11.4 Density

The materials density is defined as their m per unit volume. Density very
important role in heat transfer especially in natural convection. Base of inverse effect
on natural convection.

6.11.5 Specific Heat

Specific heat capacity which known simply as specific heat, is the measure of
the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance
by a certain temperature interval. It is another thermo physical property which is
important as well as other ones. Nobody can deny its effect on Prandtl number, heat
capacity per unit mass and in general heat transfer.



7.1 Milk Pasteurization

The milk pasteurization is one of the food preservation methods using thermal
treatment. The purpose of pasteurization is to extend the life period of the product.

In pasteurization process, first the raw milk is heated about certain At this
temperature the microorganisms or microbe temperature bacteria's or pathogens
present in the milk is destroyed. This is called as heat treatment

Then the pasteurized milk is cooled by using the heat transferring devices like
heat exchangers. Now the temperature of the pasteurized milk equal to or slightly
above the atmospheric temperature.

The above said treatment is very useful to increase the life period of the
product. There are no of methods are used in food preservation techniques. There are
no of treatments, methods and purposes of pasteurization are given below.

7.2 Purpose of Pasteurization

Pasteurization is a relatively mild heat treatment in which food is heated to

<100oc. It is widely used throughout the food industry and is frequently employed as a
CCP in various HACCP plans. As a unit operation in food processing it can be used to
destroy enzymes and relatively heat sensitive micro-organisms (e.g. non spore
forming bacteria, yeast and moulds). In this regard is it used to extend shelf life by
several days e.g. milk or months, e.g. bottled fruit.

Pasteurization is normally used for the destruction of all disease causing

organisms (e.g. pasteurization of milk or the destruction or reduction in the number of
spoilage organisms in certain foods e.g. vinegar.

These temperatures are equivalent and are sufficient to destroy the most heat
sensitive of the non-spore-forming pathogenic organisms. Milk pasteurization

temperatures are also sufficient to destroy all yeasts, moulds, gram negative bacteria
and many gram positive. The two groups of micro- organisms that survive
pasteurisation temperatures used in milk are:

Thermoduric: organisms that can survive exposure to relatively high

temperatures but do not necessarily grow at these temperatures e g. Streptococcus and

Thermophilic: organisms that not only survive relatively high temperatures

but require high temperatures for their growth.

7.3 Pasteurization Types and Temperature

Temperature (OC) time Pasteurization type

63 30 min Vat Pasteurization

72 15 sec HTST

89 1.0 sec HTST

90 0.5 sec HHST

94 0.1 sec HHST

96 0.05 sec HHST

100 0.01 sec HHST

138 2.0 sec Ultra Pasteurization

Table 7.1 Pasteurization Types And Temperature

7.4 Methods for Pasteurizing

There are number of basic methods of pasteurization widely used in the industry.

7.4.1 Batch (holding) Method

In this method every particle (e.g. milk) must be heated to at least 63°C and held for at
least 30 minutes, however this is not used commercially these days.

7.4.2 High-Temperature-Short-Time (HTST)

In this method the heating of every particle of milk to at least 72°C and
holding for at least 15 seconds. Carried out as a continuous process. Ultra Heat be
performed using higher temperatures and shorter times e g. 1 s at 135oC

7.4.3 Typical Equipment Employed For This Method Includes

 Plate heat exchanger (PHE)

 Holding tube sized to ensure the correct treatment time is achieved
 Holding tanks for storage of the raw and pasteurised milk
 Balance tank to assist in maintaining full flow, and to take returned milk if
temperature not achieved
 Control and monitoring system to record temperature and to divert flow back to
the balance tank if correct temperature is not achieved.

7.5 Pasteurization of Packaged Foods

Some liquid foods (e.g. beer and fruit juices are pasteurized after filling
containers. Hot water is normally used if the food is packaged into glass, to at reduce
the risk of breakage due to thermal shock. Maximum temperature between the
container and the liquid are 20°c for heating and 10°c cooling. or Metal and plastic
containers may be pasteurized using steam-air mixtures or hot water. Pasteurisers ma
be batch or continuous. A simple batch type may be a water bath in which s stes of the
food are heated to a pre-set temperature, and then cooled by draining and adding cold

A continuous version may convey containers through a hot water batch
followed by a cold water bath. Steam tunnels may also be used with the advantage of
faster heating, resulting in shorter residence time and smaller equipment.
Temperatures in the heating zones may be controlled depending on the amount of air
present. Acid products such as fruit or acidified vegetables like beetroot can be
pasteurized in a retort. lone 3 Lone zone l Preheating Presenting Pasturing Cooling



To determine the overall coefficient of the plate heat exchanger

8.1 Formula Used

8.1.1 Concentration of Nano Fluid

{volume of nano fluid}

∅= × 100
{volume of nanoparticle + volume of water}

W nanoparticle
ρ nanoparticles
∅= × 100
W nanoparticles W water
ρ nanoparticles ρ water

8.1.2 Density of Nanofluid

𝜌𝑛𝑓 = {∅ × 𝜌𝑝 } + {(1 − ∅)𝜌𝑓 }


𝜌𝑛𝑓 = Density of nanofluid

𝜌𝑓 = Density of nanofluid

𝜌𝑝 = Density of nanoparticles

∅ = Volume concentration

8.1.3 Specific Heat Capacity of Nanofluid

∅ × {𝜌𝑝 × 𝑐𝑝𝑝 }
[ ]
+(1 − ∅) × {𝜌𝑓 × 𝑐𝑝𝑝 }
𝑐𝑝,𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 =


𝑐𝑝𝑛𝑓 = heat capacity of nanofluid

𝑐𝑝𝑓 =heat capacity of base fluid

𝑐𝑝𝑝 =heat capacity of nanoparticles

8.1.4 Viscosity of Nanofluid

𝜇𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 = {1 + (7.3 × ∅) + (123 × ∅2 )}𝜇𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝜇𝑛𝑓 = 𝜇𝑏𝑓 (1 + 2.5𝜑 )


𝜇𝑛𝑓 = Viscosity of nanofluid

𝜇𝑏𝑓 = viscosity of base fluid

8.1.5 Thermal Conductivity Of Nanofluid

[{𝑘𝑝 } + {2 × 𝑘𝑓 } + {2 × (𝑘𝑝 − 𝑘𝑓 ) × ∅}]

𝐾𝑛𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 =
[{𝑘𝑝 } + {2 × 𝑘𝑓 } − {(𝑘𝑝 − 𝑘𝑓 ) × ∅}]


𝑘𝑛𝑓 =thermal conductivity of nano fluid

𝑘𝑓 =Thermal conductivity of base fluid

𝑘𝑝 = Thermal conductivity of nano particles

8.1.6 Nusselt Number

Nu= 0.023Re0.8 Pr0.4

8.1.7 Over All Heat Transfer Co-Efficient

U= [1/hi+1/ho]-1

8.1.8 Heat Transfer Rate

Q = UA ΔTm

8.2 Properties of Al2O3 nanoparticle

Size = 50nm

Specific surface = 15-20 m2/g

Density = 3890 kg/m3

Thermal conductivity = 30 w/m-k

Specific heat capacity = 880 j/kg-k

8.3 Properties of base fluid (water)

Density = 996 kg/m3

Thermal conductivity = 0.6065 w/m-k

Specific heat capaciuty = 4180 j/kg-k

Viscosity = 7.9779 X 10-4 kg/m-s

8.4 Properties of nanofluid

Density =1016.352 kg/m3

Thermal conductivity = 1.0085 w/m-k

Specific heat capacity =4170.1 j/kg-k

Viscosity = 8.0377 X 10-4 kg/m-s

8.5 Observations for Water as A Coolant

Flow Rate Temperature

S.No Hot Fluid Cold Fluid Cold In Cold Out Hot In Hot Out
(Tci) (Tco) (Thi) (Tho)


1. 60 60 30 51 70 61

2. 70 70 30 54 70 59

3. 80 80 30 57 70 53

Table 8.1 Observations For Water As A Coolant

8.6 Observations For Nano Fluid As A Coolant

Flow Rate Temperature

S.No Hot Fluid Cold Fluid Cold In Cold Out Hot In Hot Out
(Tci) (Tco) (Thi) (Tho)


1. 60 60 30 53 70 57

2. 70 70 30 57 70 54

3. 80 80 30 60 70 50

Table 8.2 Observations For Nano Fluid As A Coolant

8.7 Calculation

8.7.1 Specific heat

Cpnf= ɸCpp+(1-ɸ)Cpf

Cpnf=0.001x 0.88 + (1-0.001)x 1.95

=1.94893 kj/kg.k

8.7.2 Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity of nanofluid at pressure = 1 bar

Temperature = 273.15K is 0.6340 w/m.k

8.7.3 Heat transfer rate

Q = mh x Cph x(Thi-Tho) = mc x Cpc x (Tco-Tci) = UAΔTm

Mh=ρh x vh

=1035 x (2.45 x 10-3)/60

Mh= 0.0423 kg/s

Q= 0.0423 x 3930 x (70-57)

Q=2161.107 W

ΔTm= (Thi-Tco)-(Tho-Tci) / ln{Thi-Tco)/(Tho-Tci)}

=(70-57)-(63-30)/ ln{70-57)/(63-30)}

ΔTm =16.84ºc

8.7.4 Overall heat transfer co efficient


U=2161.07/ ( (0.1125 x12)x16.84)

U=154.67 w/mº c


Actual experimentation on corrugated plate heat exchanger has been carried out
as per integrated research methodology. The results of heat transfer rate and overall
heat transfer coefficient for counter flow arrangement with the different mass flow
rate are presented

In nanofluid-milk heat transfer various results are plotted based on different

parameters such as heat transfer rate, specific heat, thermal conductivity, heat transfer

Chart 9.1.shows the differens of concentration with respect specific heat. It is

observes that concentration will increases with decrease the specific heat.



specific heat kj/kg.k


specific heat (kj/kg.k)



0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
concentration %

Chart 9.1. Concentration Vs specific heat

Chart 9.2. shows the differens of concentration with respect thermal
conductivity. Increase in concentration results into increase in thermal conductivity of

Thermal conductivity w/m.k

0.6352 thermal conductivity
0.635 (w/m.k)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
concentration %

Chart 9.2. Concentration Vs thermal conductivity

Chart 9.3. shows the differens of concentration with respect heat transfer rate.
Increase in concentration results into increase in heat transfer rate of fluid.

Heat transfer rate kw

21 heat transfer rate kw
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
concentration %

Chart 9.3.concentration Vs heat transfer rate

Chart 9.4. shows the differens of concentration with respect overall heat
transfer coefficient. Increase in concentration results into increase in overall heat
transfer rate of fluid.
overall heat transfer coefficient




overall heat transfer co
88 efficient (W/m2k)



0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
concentration %

Chart 9.4. Concentration Vs overall heat transfer coefficient

For the nano fluid based heat transfer different results are based of different
parameter such as heat transfer rate, over all heat transfer coefficient, mass flow rate,
specific rate, thermal conductivity.

Increasing the heat transfer coefficient indicate the flow in more turbulent. Its
results obtaining heat transfer rate and lower fowling.

The above said result clearly indicates that the heat transfer rate and overall
heat transfer coefficient is higher by using nano fluid as a cold fluid compared to
water as a cold fluid

(kj/kg.k) (w/m.k) RATE TRANSFER

1. 0.1 1.94893 0.6344 20.8970 85.0121

2. 0.15 1.94839 0.6348 20.9512 86.1024

3. 0.2 1.94786 0.6352 21.1240 86.9481

4. 0.25 1.94732 0.6358 21.2136 90.0141

5. 0.3 1.94679 0.6362 21.3012. 91.7862

Table 9.1 overall performance tabulation

Chart 9.5 show with the concentration with specific heat, thermal conductivity,
heat transfer rate, overall heat transfer coefficient while increase the concentration the
performance will be increased

overall performance evaluation

80 specific heat (kj/kg.k)

thermal conductivity
40 (w/m.k)
heat transfer rate kw
overall heat transfer
co efficient (W/m2k)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
concentration %

Chart 9.5. Overall performance evaluation Vs concentration



The main focus of using nanofluid, it has high thermal conductivity than base
fluid like water, ethylene glycol, etc nanofluid will be prepare by using nanoparticles
and the base fluid such as demineralized water. The flow rate will be adjusted. Then
the various set of temperature will be analyzed. From this work we expected that the
enhancement of high heat transfer rate. To get efficient heat transfer rate counter flow
arrangements are made in this work.

By using the above work conclude that can apply the plate heat exchanger
setup in various heat transfer application for different fluid in various heat transfer
application for different fluid for various industries. The plate heat exchanger having
three or more times more than heat transfer coefficient then shell and tube heat
exchanger. This approaches is suitable and simple tool for use in the determine of
overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate

performance of a plate heat exchanger using Al2O3 Nano fluid as coolant is

observed experimentally under varying condition and parameters the effect of
concentration and flow rate has been determined, which has yield the following

Nanofluid can be used as a more efficient working fluid in PHE rather than
mostly .Its performance depends upon the surface area concentration and flow rate of
nanofluid. Enhancement of approximately 46% heat transfer rate observed with the
mixing of nanofluid concentration

As with the use of nanofluids results shows better heat transfer so it can compel
to use smaller plate heat exchanger to achieve the same results, which can effectively
not only reduce our capital cost but also the maintenance cost

This work is further extended to analyse the heat transfer rate and reduction of
fouling using nanoparticles coating on the plate heat exchanger


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