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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

Appendix-1

1. Title
2. Introduction
3. Literature Review
4. Noteworthy contributions
5. Proposed methodology
6. Expected outcome
7. Reference
8. List of published papers

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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

INTRODUCTION

The name spectral theory was introduced by David Hilbert in his original

formulation of Hilbert space theory, which was cast in terms of quadratic forms in

infinitely many variables. The original spectral theorem was therefore conceived as

a version of the theorem on principal axes of an ellipsoid, in an infinite-dimensional

setting. The later discovery in quantum mechanics that spectral theory could explain

features of atomic spectra was therefore fortuitous. Hilbert himself was surprised by

the unexpected application of this theory, noting that "I developed my theory of

infinitely many variables from purely mathematical interests, and even called it

'spectral analysis' without any presentiment that it would later find application to the

actual spectrum of physics. There have been three main ways to formulate spectral

theory, all of which retain their usefulness. After Hilbert's initial formulation, the

later development of abstract Hilbert space and the spectral theory of a single normal

operator on it did very much go in parallel with the requirements of physics;

particularly in the hands of von Neumann. The further theory built on this to

include Banach algebras, which can be given abstractly. This development leads to

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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

the Gelfand representation, which covers the commutative case, and further

into non-commutative harmonic analysis.

Quantum Three-Body

Exact solutions played very important roles in the development of physics. The exact

solutions of the Schrodinger equation for a hydrogen atom and for a harmonic

oscillator laid a foundation of quantum mechanics. The next simplest atom is the

helium atom, which is a typical three-body problem and has not been well-solved

both in classical mechanics [1] and in quantum mechanics [2]. The Faddeev

equations [3] are popularly used in both scattering processes [4] and bound state

calculations [5] for the quantum three-body problem. However, only a few

analytically solvable examples were found [6]. For the helium atom, variational

methods can achieve 9- to 12-place precision for energy values with a few hundred

or thousand variational parameters [7-10]. There are many reasons to prefer the

direct solutions of the three-body Schrodinger equation over the variational one, for

example, the analytic structure of the variational wave function is chosen arbitrarily.

The accurate direct solution of the three-body Schrodinger equation with the

separated center-of-mass motion has been sought based on different numerical

methods, such as the finite difference [11], finite element [12], complex coordinate

rotation [13], hyper spherical coordinate [14], and hyper spherical harmonic [15-17]

methods. In the hyper spherical harmonic method [15-17], the six Jacobi
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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

coordinates, after separation of the center-of-mass motion, are separated to one

hyper radial variable ρ and five hyper angular variables Ω. The wave function is

presented as a sum of products of hyper radial function and the hyper spherical

harmonic function, depending on Ω. Since three degrees of freedom for the rotation

of the system are not separated completely from the internal ones, there is the huge

degeneracy of the hyper spherical basis. The interactions in the three-body problem

is not hyper spherically symmetric so that the matrix elements of the potential have

to be calculated between different hyper spherical harmonic states. Another

difficulty in the practical calculations by the hyper spherical harmonic method is the

slow convergence of the series. The convergence was fastened by decomposing the

wave function ψ = χφ, where χ is chosen to take into account the singularities of the

potential and the clustering properties of the wave function, and φ is the part to be

expanded in hyper sphericals.

Thresholds of the three-body system

We now treat the problem of two identical impurities of mass ma immersed in a

Fermi sea background and interacting with a fermion of mass mb that belongs to the

sea. We assume that the total angular momentum is zero for both interacting and

non-interacting impurities. As for the two-body system, the interaction between

particles is assumed to be attractive s-wave zero-range potentials and now the CM

of the three-body systems is considered at rest in the frame of the Fermi sea. The
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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

coupled homogeneous integral equations for the bound state of an aab system are

derived. Here we have a Fermi sea and need to take Pauli blocking into account. We

do so by inserting appropriate Θ-functions in the coupled integral equations. The

Faddeev components describing the system of two impurities immersed in the Fermi

sea are given by

where the three-body reduced masses are maa,b = 2mamb/ (2ma + mb) and mab,a=

ma(ma + mb)/ 2(ma + mb).

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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

LITERATURE REVIEW

Marchioro et al the author presented the I-dimensional problem of three equal

particles interacting via repulsive inverse-cube forces has been recently studied and

the whole set of eigenfunctions given.l However, the scattering of these three

particles has not yet been considered. We find that the scattering amplitude of this

process is quite simple and very similar, in spite of the long range forces involved,

to the amplitude produced by an infinitely repulsive d-function interaction.

Specifically, the S matrix has non vanishing elements only between states differing

in the interchange of the momenta of the two external particles.

Calogero et al The quantum‐mechanical problems of N 1‐dimensional equal

particles of mass m interacting pairwise via quadratic (``harmonical'') and∕or

inversely quadratic (``centrifugal'') potentials is solved. In the first case,

characterized by the pair potential ¼mω2(xi − xj)2 + g(xi − xj)−2, g > −ℏ2∕(4m), the

complete energy spectrum (in the center‐of‐mass frame) is given by the formula,with

a = (1 + 4mgℏ−2). The N − 1 quantum numbers nl are nonnegative integers; each

set {nl; l = 2, 3, ⋯, N} characterizes uniquely one eigenstate. This energy spectrum

can also be written in the form Es = ℏω(N) [(N − 1) + N(N − 1)(a + ) + s], s = 0, 2,

3, 4, ⋯, the multiplicity of the sth level being then given by the number of different

sets of N − 1 nonnegative integers nl that are consistent with the condition

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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

s=∑l=2Nlnl. These equations are valid independently of the statistics that the

particles satisfy, if g ≠ 0; for g = 0, the equations remain valid with a = for Fermi

statistics, a = − for Bose statistics. The eigenfunctions corresponding to these energy

levels are not obtained explicitly, but they are rather fully characterized. A more

general model is similarly solved, in which the N particles are divided in families,

with the same quadratic interaction acting between all pairs, but with the inversely

quadratic interaction acting only between particles belonging to the same family,

with a strength that may be different for different families. The second model,

characterized by the pair potential g(xi − xj)−2, g > −ℏ2∕(4m), contains only

scattering states. It is proved that an initial scattering configuration, characterized (in

the phase space sector defined by the inequalities xi ≥ xi.1, i = 1, 2, ⋯, N = 1, to

which attention may be restricted without loss of generality) by (initial) momenta pi,

i = 1, 2, ⋯, N, goes over into a final configuration characterized uniquely by the

(final) momenta pi′, with pi′=pN+1−i. This remarkably simple outcome is a

peculiarity of the case with equal particles (i.e., equal masses and equal strengths of

all pair potentials).

John et al Guiding-center theory provides the reduced dynamical equations for the

motion of charged particles in slowly varying electromagnetic fields, when the fields

have weak variations over a gyration radius (or gyroradius) in space and a gyration

period (or gyroperiod) in time. Canonical and noncanonical Hamiltonian

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formulations of guiding-center motion offer improvements over non-Hamiltonian

formulations: Hamiltonian formulations possess Noether’s theorem (hence

invariants follow from symmetries), and they preserve the Poincaré invariants (so

that spurious attractors are prevented from appearing in simulations of guiding-

center dynamics). Hamiltonian guiding-center theory is guaranteed to have an

energy conservation law for time-independent fields—something that is not true of

non-Hamiltonian guiding-center theories. The use of the phase-space Lagrangian

approach facilitates this development, as there is no need to transform a priori to

canonical coordinates, such as flux coordinates, which have less physical meaning.

The theory of Hamiltonian dynamics is reviewed, and is used to derive the non-

canonical Hamiltonian theory of guiding-center motion. This theory is further

explored within the context of magnetic flux coordinates, including the generic form

along with those applicable to systems in which the magnetic fields lie on nested

tori. It is shown how to return to canonical coordinates to arbitrary accuracy by the

Hazeltine-Meiss method and by a perturbation theory applied to the phase-space

Lagrangian. This non-canonical Hamiltonian theory is used to derive the higher-

order corrections to the magnetic moment adiabatic invariant and to compute the

longitudinal adiabatic invariant.

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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

NOTEWORTHY CONTRIBUTIONS

The quantum problem of three interacting particles is a very old one, since it is

present in very different domains of physics: molecular, atomic, nuclear and

hadronic physics among others. Besides the fact that there exists a large number of

such systems in nature, it is interesting because it is much more difficult to solve

than the relatively easy two-body problem. One difficulty comes from the fact that

statistical approaches or even many-body technics are not efficient for three-body

problems; in particular a good treatment of the center of mass is necessary and

internal coordinates must be employed. Another difficulty appears if the three

particles are identical; in that case one must fulfill the Pauli principle which is not

easy to manage with internal coordinates. There exists a lot of different technics to

solve the three-body problem; let us cite, among others, quantum Monte Carlo

method [1–3], Faddeev equations [4], hyperspherical formalism [5], stochastic

variational method [6], expansion on orthogonal bases, for example harmonic

oscillator (OH) [7, 8]. In principle, all these methods tend to the exact result if some

parameters (number of states, number of amplitudes, number of mesh points,...) tend

to infinity. The convergence properties depend not only on the type of method, but

also on the system and the dynamics themselves. Of course, one searches the

minimum of computational effort for a given precision. Each method has its own

advantages and its own drawbacks. For example, dealing with a semirelativistic

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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

kinematics is not an easy task with Faddeev or hyperspherical formalism on a mesh,

hard core or very short range repulsive potentials are very difficult to implement

with the stochastic variational method or the HO basis.

PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

To give a better feeling of the behavior of a typical quantum system, we consider a

concrete special case, namely that of the quantum system defined by 3 identical

particles interacting via an r−1 interaction corresponding to λ = −1/2. The system

has an S3 symmetry, since the particles are identical. Those states that transform

according to a two-dimensional representation of S3 are therefore exactly

degenerate. Additionally, quasi-degeneracies are expected in the semi classical limit:

indeed the eigen functions are then expected to be localized in the phase space

defined by the Bloch sphere. But, in the case we consider, this phase space is

separated in two qualitatively different regions by a separatrix: one region is that

around the poles and the other close to the equator. The states located inside this

circumpolar region are doubly quasi-degenerate, since the North and South poles are

classically equivalent, being transformed into one another by a transposition of two

particles. If the two states are not related by an S3 symmetry operation, this

degeneracy is lifted by quantum mechanical tunneling. The other region, around the

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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

equator, is divided in three equivalent regions, transformed into each other by the

cyclic permutations of the three particles.

The spectrum is thus organized as follows: it consists of a mixture of S 3-symmetry

doublets with singlets, superposed with quasi-degeneracies which are double if the

energies are below the separatrix energy Esep (corresponding to the circumpolar

region) and triple if the energy is above Esep. The entire semi-classical analysis of

the Lipkin model performed in [19] can be carried through mutatis mutandis in this

case as well.

REFERENCES

1. L. Tagliacozzo, T. R. de Oliveira, S. Iblisdir and J. I. Latorre, Scaling of

entanglement support for matrix product states, Phys. Rev. B 78(2), 024410

(Jul 2008).

2. B. M. Terhal, Is entanglement monogamous?, IBM J. Res. Dev. 48(1), 71–78

(2004).

3. F. Verstraete and J. I. Cirac, Renormalization algorithms for QuantumMany

Body Systems in two and higher dimensions, (Jul 2004),

arXiv:condmat/0407066v1.

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Spectral theory for three body quantum system in two-dimension

4. F. Verstraete and J. I. Cirac, Matrix product states represent ground states

faithfully, Phys. Rev. B 73(9), 094423 (Mar 2006).

5. G. Vidal, Efficient Classical Simulation of Slightly Entangled Quantum

Computations, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(14), 147902 (Oct 2003).

6. G. Vidal, Efficient Simulation of One-Dimensional Quantum Many-Body

Systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(4), 040502 (Jul 2004).

7. G. Vidal, Classical Simulation of Infinite-Size Quantum Lattice Systems in

One Spatial Dimension, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(7), 070201 (Feb 2007).

8. G. Vidal, J. I. Latorre, E. Rico and A. Kitaev, Entanglement in Quantum

Critical Phenomena, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(22), 227902 (Jun 2003).

9. F. Verstraete, D. Porras and J. I. Cirac, Density Matrix Renormalization

Group and Periodic Boundary Conditions: A Quantum Information

Perspective, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(22), 227205 (Nov 2004).

10.F. Verstraete, M. M. Wolf, D. Perez-Garcia and J. I. Cirac, Criticality, the

Area Law, and the Computational Power of Projected Entangled Pair States,

Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(22), 220601 (Jun 2006).

11.S. R. White and A. L. Chernyshev, Ne´el Order in Square and Triangular

Lattice Heisenberg Models, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 127004 (Sep 2007).

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12. T.-C. Wei, D. Das, S. Mukhopadyay, S. Vishveshwara and P. M.

Goldbart, Global entanglement and quantum criticality in spin chains, Phys.

Rev. A 71(6), 060305 (Jun 2005).

13. M. M. Wolf, Violation of the Entropic Area Law for Fermions, Phys.

Rev. Lett. 96(1), 010404 (Jan 2006).

14. M. Mambrini, A. L¨auchli, D. Poilblanc and F. Mila, Plaquette

valencebond crystal in the frustrated Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet on

the square lattice, Phys. Rev. B 74(14), 144422 (Oct 2006).

15. V. Murg, F. Verstraete and J. I. Cirac, Variational study of hard-core

bosons in a two-dimensional optical lattice using projected entangled pair

states, Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 033605 (Mar 2007).

16.V. Murg, F. Verstraete and J. I. Cirac, Exploring frustrated spin systems using

projected entangled pair states, Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195119 (May 2009).

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LIST OF PAPER PUBLISHED

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