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INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Attitude is the values of every people in the whole world, their individual

personality on how they act everyday in our daily life. The students who has a good

attitude towards studies has a tendency to be a successful someday. Student`s attitude has

a great impact to their academic performances. Many students are experiencing failing

grades and low academic performance because of not showing attention or interest

toward their studies,absentism, cutting classes and participating well in class, especially

boys. Absentism and luck of interest in an activity or discussion are the most problem

which can cause of making low academic performance of a certain student.

Many reasons like bullyings, in active participation, poverty, uninterest of the students

towards learning can fail students academic performances. There was a different attitude

of the students toward inside of school and outside of school. The attitude that students

show towards their studies will result a good or bad effect in their academic

performances, it depends on what they act and participate in class discussion.

The students who try and make progress in their studies with positive attitude are

always successful , while those who are negative in there behavior are more concerned

about the negative outcomes which lead to their failures especially to the boys that they

must have concerned to their sports like their habit a basketball. When underlying

academic ability was taken into account only pre-attachment attitudes regarding the

importance of consultation skills remained significantly correlated with atleast one

measure of performance. These results show that students perform better on those skills
that they value and may be influenced by underlying motivation to master the skills.

Students confidence in performing a skill was not associated with academic measures of

performance.

Attitude comes from beleifs, intention, and action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) and

it is a psychological tendency which is expressed by appraising a particular entity with

some degree of favor or disfavor (Eagly and Chaiken, 1975). Attitude can also be explicit

and implicit that is consciousness and unconsciousness or our belief and behavior (Jung,

1971). Attitudes form as a result of personal experience, observation and influence by

social norms. The students having positive attitude towards any situation achieve their

goal easily. So, development or formation of positive attitude in one`s life is helpful

facing any challenge.

The students performance (academic achievement) plays an important role in

producing the best quality graduates who will become a great leader and manpower for

the country thus responsible for the country`s economic and social development (Ali et

al, 2009). Improving students attitude toward learning is a major curricular goal for many

countries (Mullis, Martin, Goh and Cotter, 2016), and an abundance of research has

documented the relationship between the student achievement. Students with poor

academic performances have a more negative attitude towards learning and will not help

them being successful in the future (Candeias, Robelo and Oliveira, 2010).

How students behave in school, how they relate to peers and teachers, the investment

they make in academic and extracurricular activities are aspects largely influenced by the

attitudes towards school are deeply influenced by their cultural background, the kind and
quality of family relationships, family pears and support, previous school performances,

that makes students positive attitudes. Behavior plays an important role in their academic

success (Akey, 2006). There is no doubt that life will change after the failure grades, and

not much will stay the same. However, the positive attitude can affect and it depends on

you, in your faith, and obviously, your determination. A growth in your career and other

achievements will bear the reflection of your positive attitude, while bad things will

always be remnants of your negative outlooks toward a particular situation. Remember, it

is your connection to your inner energy and force that will take you a long way

irrespective of your performance in the academics. This positive habit will go a long way

as an attribute of success to the students.

Furthermore, this study will be concerned the attitude of the students and

affecting the performance in school, we must identify individually about the personality

of among students behaviors. This is also studying of how we manage our attitude inside

and outside of schools and the all kinds of attitudes of the students in school particularly

in their homes.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this research is to determine attitudes of the Junior High School

Students toward academic performance of Calatrava National High School - Refugio

Extension.

Specifically, the research aim to answer the following questions:

1. What is the attitude of the Junior High School when grouped according to sex?

2. What is the level of academic performance of the Junior High School during the first
quarter grade of their semester? 3.

Is there a significant difference of the attitude of male and female of Junior High School?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the attitude of the Junior High School and

their academic performance?

Hypothesis

The following hypothesis is advance in this study:

There is no significant difference of the attitudes of male and female in Junior

High School.

There is no significant relationship between the attitudes of the Junior High

School and their academic performance.

Theoretical Framework

According to one theory of visual consciousness, called the Hierarchical Theory

(Crick and Koch, 1995; Rees et al., 2002), consciousness is organized in a hierarchical

fashion with increasingly higher visual areas being more closely related to our internal

conscious experience. This theory is consistent with the notion that higher visual areas

respond to more complex stimuli, such as entire objects, and can integrate information

about many visual features, which are processed in early visual areas.

Fiske`s (2010) Social Learning Theory provides insight into two similar processes

of conditioning that result in affective attitude formation. Specifically, the process of

modeling is similar to classical conditioning, and observational learning is similar to

instrumental conditioning. The difference between the two types of models is the unit of
action. In classical and instrumental conditioning it the person`s actions that result in

conditioned responses. In the social learning models, conditioning is the result of

observed or modeled behavior of others. For instance, a younger sibling observes the

behavior of an older sibling that results in reward and punishments, thereby influencing

(conditioning) their own behavior. The sibling learns what to do to achieve rewards

versus what not to do avoid punishment.

The Attitude-Change Theory suggests that attitudes being functions of cognitive,

affective, conative components are a part of brain`s associative networks that consist of

affective and cognitive nodes linked through associative pathways. These nodes contain

affective, cognitive, and behavioral components that can be altered by the activation of a

single node. Thus, by activating an affective or emotional node, attitude change may be

possible. So the attitude change theory suggests that targeting these emotions can help the

media or the sender to actually change the attitude of general public and create a brand

new dimension in terms of consumer perception (Manish Rajani, 2009).

Conceptual Framework

A heirechical model that includes cognition, affect, and conation as a first-order

factors, and attitude as a single-order factor. In this model, the three component are

defined independently and yet comprise, at a higher level of abstraction, the single

construct of attitude. To extend this line of reasoning, recall that each component is made

up of beliefs and thoughts in cognition, feelings and emotionals in affect, behavioral and

intention in coation component, and that each of these is further comprised of a large

number of very specific responses tendencies. The hierarchical three-component model


of attitude is shown schematically in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Hierarchical Model of Attitude

Scope and Limitation


This study covers the Attitudes of the Junior High School students towards Academic

Performances at Calatrava National High School – Refugio Extension for School Year

2019-2020.

The data gathering phase of this study was commence during the 2nd quarter of the

present school year and the respondents involve are the Junior High School students

using stratified sampling method. The grades of the respondents are taken during their

first grading period and this study limits only to Junior High School students.

Significance of the Study

This study is relevant to the following stakeholders:

Calatrava National High School – Refugio Extension Administrators and Master

Teachers. The result of this study is to give idea for the Administrators and Master

Teachers to plan something to help motivate the students to have positive attitudes

towards academic achievements and teach the student skills and talents can motivate

themselves better.

Calatrava National High School – Refugio Extension Faculty. Base of the Academic

Performance failures of the students, faculty teachers can assist them properly. In this

study, teachers could listen to the students conflicts in any aspect of their life.

Parents. These findings can help parents to be aware and understand why their children

got low or high academic performance in school, and so they can encourage their

children like study hard, be a better version of his/her self and also be a good model.
Junior High School Students. It`s very helpful for the students to know, understand, and

to be responsible of their attitudes towards their academic performances in school

discussions or in activities. They should realize that the attitudes can greatly affect their

academic performance so they can change it before it`s too late.

Definition of Terms

The following salient terms are define conceptually and operationally:

Attitudes. This term is defined as a attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness,

organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the

individual`s response to all objects and situations which it is related (Gordon Allport,

1935). It is operationally defined as a individuals behavior it takes that it is afavor or

unfavorsituations,and it has a consequences its either negative or positive.

Junior High School Students.Acoording to DepEd (2003), Junior High School includes

students from Grade7 – 10.

Academic Performance. This term is defined as to indicate a success rate of achieving a

goal, because an attempt has been made by someone learning an optimal (Setiawan,

2006). Operationally, the word is defined that it is the key or to be a success of one`s

future.

Review of Related Literature

Attitude is one important building block of a person particularly the students to

achieve their aspirations successfully or sometimes experience hopelessness and

objection. Possessing the right attitude towards something would mean an exceptional
end-result and result and vice-versa (Flores et al., 2015). Changing or enhancing the

attitude of the students towards school related factors would help them achieve the proper

way of learning the skills they need after graduation (Agena, et al., 2015).

The investigation made by Holfve-Sabel (2006) focused on student attitudes and

looks at school quality from the perspective of affective variables rather than

students`knowledge or abilities. The concept of attitude includes ways of feeling,

thinking and behaving and maintaining an expression of one`s identity within the

invironment.

Ramachandran (2014) further elaborated that there is significant difference

between “boys and girls” attitude towards learning social studies. One factor of the

attitude in learning the subject is the used of strategies as an invention. This has been

presented in the study of Peters (2015) used integration on developing the attitude of the

students towards learning social studies.

Marks (1998) conducted a wide-ranging research, where he studied attitudes of

students, techers, parents and school administration towards the school environment,

change in attitudes over 10 years and the impact of attitude on the sense of success.

According to Sejcova (2006) an important factor contributing to good results of

students in individual subjects in there attitude towards them. Pavelkova and

Prochadzkova (in Sejcova, 2006) indicate that an attitude towards a subject reflects a

measure of popularity that in turn, reflects a tendency to undertake actions required by

the subject and the satisfaction gained from these actions.


Kubiatko (2013) argues that if attitudes towards a subject and school are positive,

also the achievement of students gets better. The achievement of a student could be

defined as individual progress, improvements in terms of acquired knowledge, skills and

competences. Many teachers, as is apparent from the study of Holubkova and Glasova

(2011) associate academic achievement with a positive attitude of a student towards

school that may not be necessarily reflected in excellent achievements, although it will be

reflected in producing the best individual performances in relation to a student’s attitude

towards learning and school, as it ensures internal motivation for providing better

performance. The study of Fisher, Schult and Hell (2013) indicates that girls during

adolescents are more motivated to learn compared with their peer boys, which is also

reflected in results of their learning.

According to Craven and Martin (2000) affective characteristics are now being

recognized for the significant interaction they have with academic performance. And so,

attitude, one of the affective characteristics- is the general evaluation of people about

themselves, others, other objects, events or problems. Studies on attitude generally

explore how attitude influences success in school.

According to Zanjonc (1966), some attitudes may be formed and shaped through

mere exposure, direct conditioning, observational learning and genetics.

Attitudes are positive or negative views about a person, object, idea or situation

which influences individual choice of action and responses to challence (Marriane and

Elaine, 2005).
Attitude change therefore, requires determining factors during the attitude and

using that information to bring out the necessary change i.e. helping students to learn and

bring out their best potentials. These efforts may define the obscure role of the teacher in

molding the learners’attitudes and motivating them towards learning the subject.

Continued attention should then be directed towards creating, developing and reinforcing

positive attitude towards the subject (Pintrich, 1999).

A research developed by Karjaluoto, Mattila and Pento (2002) attempted to

explore the factors that influence consumer attitude formation and affect towards online

banking. The authors gave major emphasis for three factors that affect attitude: consumer

demographics and personality treat, priornexperience and reference group influence. The

study hypotherized that consumer attitude explains consumer behavior. The more

favorable attitude a person has towards a product/service, the more likely that person is to

buy that product/service. Overall attitude towards object is expected to be related to

behaviors towards object.

Synthesis

The literature shows that the attitude of the students has depending in their beliefs

or perception. In fact, most of the students doing their best to manage their attitude

correctly. Benham (1995), reviewed studies relating to students self-perceptions and

academic achievement. His findings were that when students believed that their academic

performance was a consequence of their own actions rather than the consequences of

factors out of their control, they had better academic achievement. Stemler (2001), who

supported the importance of students developing on internal locus of control and he


concluded that “effective schools tend to have a student body who is able to see a

connection between hard work, ability and achievement and are less likely to attribute

achievement to external factors or those beyond their control.

Attitudes can affect the students academic performance its either positive or

negative results. Students who has a good attitude are on going to achieve being a

successful person.. The importance of the study was for exposition and also for reference

purposes as would give impetus to the development of further research that seeks to

understand the effect of student attitudes on learning. Attitude as a major factor affecting

learning process, may be implicit hence has not enough attention from all stakeholders in

education and therefore, it is important to consider the fact that learners can mainly

contribute to their learning outcomes as a results of their belief and perceptions about the

subject matter e.g. whether they like it or not and whether they see any value in it.

Attitudes are seen as more or less positive and encompass emotions, values and behavior

and hence affect individual way of thinking, acting and behaving which has a lot of

implications to teaching and learning (Mensah et al, 2013).

The vast majority of respondents agreed that school should provide a stimulating

environment, where students feel comfortable and safe, are satisfied with their teachers

and derive joy and pleasure from learning. School environment should, therefore,

facilitate academic achievement. When examining the quality of school environment

students expressed a positive attitude, felt successful as students and agreed that school

will prepare them for the future. A study on attitudes over time indicates a moderate

decline of attitudes towards school and teachers. This decline is presumably affected by

decreased satisfaction young people feel towards institutions in general, media


communications about issues in the educational system, different profiles of teachers and

their teaching techniques. The main factors influencing attitudes of students towards

school include the subject learn, policy and requirements of an individual school.

Academic achievement of a student is the ability of the student to study and

remember facts and being able to communicate his knowledge orally or in written from

even under examination conditions. Secondary education plays a crucial role in laying the

foundation for the further education of students. If good foundation is laid at the

secondary school level, students can better cope with the challenges of life and profession

with great ease (Kpolovie et al., 2014). Academic success is one of the most widely used

constructs in educational research and assessment and it’s often with the term academic

achievement wrongly confused..

METHODOLOGY

This section presents the research design, respondents of the study, research

instrument, sampling procedure, validity and reliability of the research instrument, data

gathering procedure, statistical treatment, and ethical consideration.

Research Design

A descriptive research method was used in this investigation. According to

Creswell (1994), the descriptive method is to gather information about the present

existing condition. Since this study is focused on the attitude of the Junior High School

student towards academic performances in Calatrava National High School – Refugio

Extension, the descriptive method is the most appropriate method to use.


Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study will be the Junior High School Students. At present

there are 353 students in this public institution. The sample size is 163 who will answer

the survey questionnaire. This will happen during the 2nd quarter period.

Instrument

A standardized questionnaire will be utilized to elicit information among the

respondents. It consists of two parts. Part one deals with the demographic profile of the

participants. Part two deals with the test taking attitude questionnaire with sixteen (16)

items.

Data Gathering Procedure

The following shows the procedure in gathering information needed in this study:

The first step used was to ask permission from their research teachers to conduct

the survey. The researchers prepared the validated survey questionnaires and were

distributed to the respondents after securing the permit. Copies of the approved

questionnaire were distributed in order to gather the relevant data. The instruments were

retrieved after they were finished answering. The data will be encoded in the excel for

tabulation, analyzation and interpretation.

Statistical Treatment of the Data

The following statistical tools will be used in consonance with the specific

problems presented in this study:


To answer problem number 1 which is “the attitude of the Junior High School

Student of Calatrava National High School – Refugio Extension with regards to sex”,

percentage will be used.

To answer problem number 2 which is “the level of academic performance of the

Junior High School Student during the first quarter grade of their semester”, the weighted

mean will be used.

To answer problem number 3 and 4 which are “the significant difference of the

attitude of male and female of Junior High School”, and the “significant relationship

between the attitude of the Junior High School Students and their academic

performance”, both Chi- Square will be used.

Ethical Consideration

Gray (2009) insists on the need of the researcher to observe the principle of ethics

when conducting research. This is because there could be some danger the respondents

may experience or harm if their views are known to their superiors. Furthermore, it is not

recommended to violet the right of individuals for the reason of searching knowledge. So

the researcher in the first place needs to establish an informed consent to ask the

respondents to respond willingly and without being forced. Then, since it is not possible

to estimate the danger the respondents may experience the researcher

has to change the name by giving them codes and protect them for any harm or

embarrassment from those superior. In this study the respondents’ names were hidden

and the respondents were asked to participate willingly and anyone who was not

interested was allowed to with draw at any time during research processes.
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QUESTIONNAIRE

Name (optional): ___________________________ Grade Level: ___________

Age: ________ Sex: _______ Civil Status: __________

TEST TAKING ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE

DIRECTION: Answer the following questions as truthfully as possible. Blacken out the

T if the statement is generally TRUE for you; F if the statement is generally FALSE.

T
1. While taking an important exam, I perspire a great deal.
F

T
2. I get to feel very panicky when I have to take a surprise exam.
F

T
3. During tests, I find myself thinking of the consequences of failing.
F

4. After important tests, I am frequently so tense that my stomach gets upset. T


F

5. While taking an important exam, I find myself thinking of how much brighter T

the other students are than I am. F

T
6. I freeze up on things like intelligence tests and finals.
F

T
7. If I were to take an intelligence test I would worry a great deal before taking it.
F

8. During course examinations, I find myself thinking of things unrelated to the T

course material. F

9. During course examinations, I frequently get so nervous that I forget facts that I T

really know. F

10. If I knew I was going to take an intelligence test, I would feel confident and T

relaxed beforehand. F

T
11. I usually get depressed after taking a test.
F

T
12. I have an uneasy, upset feeling before taking a final.
F

13. When taking a test, I find my emotional feelings do not interfere with my T
performance. F

14. Getting a good grade on one test doesn't seem to increase my confidence on the T

second test. F

T
15. After taking a test, I always feel I have done better than I actually did.
F

T
16. I sometimes feel my heart beating very fast during important examinations.
F