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QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

Solving Quadratic Equations


A quadratic equation in a single variable is any equation that can be
written in the form a! x 2 + b x + c = 0 where a! , b! and c! are real numbers
and a! ≠ 0.

To solve a quadratic equation means to find the values of the unknown


which satisfy the equation. They are also called the roots or
solutions of the equation.

Solution by Extracting the Roots

To solve a! x 2 + b x + c = 0 , when b! = 0 , just clear the equation of the


fractions when necessary, solve for x! 2 , and then extract the square
roots of both side of the equation to get the values of x.

To solve for x! , we have to specify the two distinct roots of the


number by applying the Square Root Property (If x! 2 = a and a! > 0 , then
!x = ± a ). When a! < 0 , we have to consider the imaginary number
!i = −1 .

Examples:

1. !3x 2 = 27
2. !2x 2 + 35 = − 5x 2
x2 + 2 5
3. ! =
3 6

Solution by Factoring

To solve for a! x 2 + b x + c = 0 where a! x 2 + b x + c can be factored, we have to


use the Zero Factor Property (If a! and b! are real numbers, a! b = 0 if
and only if !a = 0, or b! = 0 or both are equal to zero.

Steps in solving quadratic equations by factoring:


1. Make the right member equal to zero by transposing all terms to
the left side of the equation.
2. Factor the left side of the equation.
3. Set each factor to zero.
4. Solve for the values of the variable then check.

Examples:

1. !x 2 − 3x = 10
2. !4x 2 + 20x + 25 = 0
3. !3x 2 − 6x = 0
Solution by Completing the Square
There are quadratic equations which cannot be solved by factoring.
However, they can be solved by another technique called completing
the square. This method will enable us to solve any quadratic
equation !a x 2 + b x + c = 0.

Steps:
1. Transpose all terms involving the variable, say x! to the left
side and the constant to the right of the equation.
2. Divide all terms of the equation by a! to make the coefficients
of !x 2 equals 1.
3. Add the square of 1/2 of the coefficient of x! to both sides of
the equation making the left side a perfect square trinomial.
4. Express the left side as a square of a binomial.
5. Take the square root of both sides.
6. Solve for !x then check.

Examples:

1. !x 2 + 6x + 1 = 0
2. !2x 2 − 6 = x

Solution Using the Quadratic Formula

S o l v i n g f o r x! in the e q u a t i o n a! x 2 + b x + c = 0 , we obtain
−b ± b 2 − 4a c
!x = ± .
2a
Examples:

1. !2x 2 − x = 10
2. !x 2 + 2x + 2 = 0

Practice Exercises

Solve for x! or y! or
!z. All other letters Solve by factoring. Solve by completing
represent constants. the square.
1. !9x 2 − 144 = 0
2
1. !9x = 5 − 4x 2
! 2 + 28x = − 4
2. 49x 1. !x 2 + 3x = 4
! 2 + 49 = 0 !2x 2 + 17 = 10x
3. !x (x 2 − 4) (x + 5) = 0
2. 4x 2.
1 8 1 3. !3x 2 + 2x + 1 = 0
3. ! x 2 − = x2 2 3 5
3 15 5 4. ! − = 4. !9x 2 + 30x + 20 = 0
2x − 3 1 x − 1 2x + 5 3
4. ! = 5. !2x 2 + 17 = 12x

4 2x + 3 2w + 11 3w − 1
5. ! =
5. 9a ! x − a = 9cx 2 − c 2
2 2 2w + 8 w −1
Solve by the quadratic formula.

1. !2x 2 − 10 = x
2. !49x 2 − 16 = 0
3. !2x 2 + 10x = − 13
4. ! 2 − 8x y = 9y − 3x − 2x 2
Solve for !y in terms of x! : 6y
5. ! 2 − 8x y = 9y − 3x − 2x 2
Solve for !x in terms of y! : 6y

Application of Quadratic Equation to Worded Problems

1. One number is the square of another. Their sum is 132. Find the
numbers.
2. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 4 times the smallest side.
The third side is ! 735 . Find the hypotenuse and the smallest side.
3. The area of a rectangle is 560 square inches. The length is 3 more
than twice the width. Find the length and the width.
4. Separate 27 into two parts whose product is 92.
5. An airplane flew 660 miles with the wind, and then took 40 minutes
longer for the return flight against the wind. If the plane flies
200 miles per hour in still air, find the speed of the wind.
6. A rectangular piece of cardboard is three times as long as it is
wide. A 3-inch square is cut out of each corner, and the sides are
turned up, to make a box. If its volume is 288 cubic inches, find
the dimensions of the original cardboard.
7. If an object is shot vertically form the surface of the earth with
an initial velocity of v! feet per second, and if air resistance
and other disturbing factors are neglected, it is found that
1
s! = v t − gt 2, where s! feet is the height of the object above the
2
surface at the end of t! seconds and g! = 32, approximately. (a) Solve
for t! in terms of s! . (b) If v! = 300 feet per second, use (a) to find
s! = 450 and !s = 0.
8. A swimming pool is filled through its inlet pipe, and then is
emptied through the outlet pipe, in a total time of 8 hours i
water enters through the inlet and simultaneously is allowed to
1
leave through the outlet, the pool is filled in 7! hours. Find how
2
long it takes fill the pool, with the outlet closed.
9. Some men row 12 miles downstream on a river to a mountain and then
climb 10 miles to it summit. They take 8 hours for the trip, and 9
hours and 20 minutes to return. If their rate downhill was 1 mile
per hour faster than uphill, and if the rate of the current was 1
mile per hour, find the rate at which they row in still water.
10.In the equation x! 2 + b x − 6 = 0 , the sum of the squares of the roots
is 13. Find the value of the constant b! .