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Levels of Organization DIFFERENT BRANCHES

• Organism 1. Cytophysiology
• Organ system • Deals with study of different functions if the cell and its relationship to
• Organ its organelles.
• Tissue 2. Embryology
• Cell • Study of development of a human from a fertilized egg.
• Biomolecule 3. Histology
• Molecule • study of parts, structures and functions of tissue.
• Carbohydrate • Fertilization is also called conception.
• Proteins 4. Organ physiology
• Lipids • study of particular organs.
• Nucleic Acid 5. System physiology
• Atom • deals with functions of a particular organ system.
Cyanobacteria 6. Pathophysiology
• Pathogenic • Deals with different disorders or disease of a certain cell tissue,
• Primitive synthetic bacteria organ or organ tissue.
• Photosynthetic Organ system
Byproduct • system of different organs that act to perform a specialized function.
• released during the process Organism
ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY • the more complex level of organization that is composed of all the
• From prokaryotic cell to eukaryotic cell (animal & plant cell) organ systems.
• Symbiosis - interaction A. Composed of cell/s
• “Living together within a cell” B. With metabolism
• Accepted mechanism for how eukaryotic cells evolved from C. Growth and development
eukaryotic cells. D. Can reproduce
• First published by Lynn Margulis (1960s). E. Irritability
• This proposed that the main organelles of the eukaryotic cell were F. Adaptation
actually primitive prokaryotic cells that engulfed by a different, bigger G. Movement
prokaryotic cell.
• “Endosymbiosis” = to cooperate inside In Vivo method (within the living body)
• Other organelles arose from the first organelles, including the • a method in which the studies of various biological entities are tested
nucleus where the DNA in eukaryotes is housed. on whole, living organisms or cells as opposed to a tissue extract or
Tissues dead organism.
• group of cell that performs a specialized function. In Vitro method (within the glass; outside)
Organ • the studies that are performed with microorganisms, cells or
• composed of group of tissues that perform specialized function. molecules outside their normal biological context.
• study of structure or morphology of the body parts
• study of functions of body parts, what they do and how they do it.
Domain — eukarya • Lateral: away from midline
Kingdom — animalia • Intermediate: between 2 points
Phylum — chordata • Ipsilateral: same side
Class — mammalia • Contralateral: opposite side
Order — primata • Proximal: near origin
Family — hominidae • Distal: away from origin
Genus — homo Body Cavities
Species — sapiens • cranial — brain
Scientific name — Homo sapiens • Thoracic
• Abdominal
Anatomical terms Anatomical Terms
• a standardized method of observing or imaging the body that allows • Acromial - point of shoulder
precise and consistent anatomical reference. • Antebrachial - forearm
Body terms and Planes • Antecubital - space in front of the elbows
Reclining position • Axillary - armpit
• Supine position (facing up) • Brachial - arm
• Prone position (facing down) • Buccal - cheek
Regional names • Carpal - wrist
• names given to specific regions of the body for reference. • Cervical - neck
Examples: • Coastal - ribs
• Cranial (skull) • Coxal - hip
• Thoracic (chest) • Crural - leg
• Brachial (arm) • Cubital - elbow
• Patellar (knee) • Digits/digitals - fingers
• Cephalic (head) • Femoral - thigh
• Gluteal (buttock) • Lumbar - region of the lower back
Planes • Mental - chin
• imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body/organs into • Nasal/Nas - nose
areas: • Navel - Umbilical
Midsagittal (medial) - equal • Occipital - lower posterior region of head
Parasagittal (parallel) - unequal • Oral - mouth
Frontal (coronal) • Orbital - eye cavity
Transverse (cross-sectional or horizontal) • Otic - ear
Directional Terms
• Palmar - palm of the hand
• used to precisely locate one part of the body relative to another and
• Pedal - foot
to reduce the length of explanations.
• Pelvic - Pelvis
• Superior/cephalic/cranial
• Perineal/Perineum - space between anus and genitalia
• Inferior/caudal
• Plantar - sole of the foot
• Anterior/ventral/rostral
• Popliteal - behind the knee
• Posterior/dorsal
• Sacral - posterior region between hip bone
• Superficial: toward surface
• Sternal - middle of the thorax
• Deep: away from surface
• Tarsal - instep of foot
• Medial: toward midline
• Vertebral - spinal column • Relies on the environment.
• Endotherms
• Metabolic heat
• Muscle contraction
• Walking
• Rubbing your hands
• Brown fat
• Shivering
Controlling heat loss and gain
• Vasoconstriction
• Low temperature
• Vasodilation
• High temperature
Control Mechanism DNA REPLICATION
• Stimulus - Receptor - Control Center - Effector = Response - semi-conservative, meaning each strand in the DNA double helix
Positive Feedback acts as a template for the synthesis of a new, complementary strand
• Amplifies - leading strand = 5’ to 3’; continuously synthesized strand
• For achieving homeostasis
- lagging strand = strand which is made in fragments
Negative Feedback
• Maintenance of homeostasis. • Okazaki fragments – small fragments between 2 primer
Glucose Homeostasis • The leading strand can be extended from one primer alone,
• Insulin whereas the lagging strand needs a new primer for each of the
• regulates sugar level Okazaki fragments.
• Redirect the glucose to the cells - James Watson & Francis Creek
Fasting ➢ discovered DNA through x-ray result
• 70-100 mg/100mL of blood
➢ found the notebook of Rosalyn Franklin that contains the details
• Female - 4L of blood
• Male - 4.5L of blood about how to view DNA
• Low level of blood sugar (glucose). 1. Helicase – removes hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous
Hyperglycemia bases for unzipping of DNA helix that results to replication fork
• Above the normal level of blood sugar (glucose). 2. Primase – provides the primer
Glycoproteins • primer – small series of RNA; RNA bases; the starting
• Receptors of proteins.
point of attachment
ECF (Extracellular Fluid)
3. DNA Polymerase
Glut 4 • add nucleotides one by one to the growing DNA chain,
• Transport protein incorporating only those that are complementary to the
Thermoregulation template
• Strategies to enable animals to live in different environments. • direction = 5’ to 3’
• Ectotherms
4. Exonuclease – removes the primer then the DNA polymerase ✓ Tyrosine
5. DNA Ligase – seals the DNA by hydrogen bond
Gene – region in the DNA
➢ exons - small part
➢ introns – larger part
- organic substances made up of CHON(S) - during expression of protein-coding gene, information flows from
- sulfur may also be present but not all the time DNA to RNA to protein wherein this directional flow of information Is
- peptide bond – bond formed when 3 amino acids link together known as the central dogma of molecular biology
- built from smaller basic unit of amino acids - genome - collection of genes
➢ GENERAL STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACID INVOLVES: - only one enzyme is involve that is able to do all the processes, the
• Carboxyl group (COOH) RNA Polymerase
• R-group – unique side chain that distinguishes the
1. Attach to promoter region that consists of palindromic systems
amino acid • TATA ATAT
• Amino group (NH2) 2. Stops at terminal region also consists of palindromic systems
➢ THE 20 AMINO ACIDS: 3. Transcription happens:
• Essential Amino Acids – contained/obtained from the • Involves rewriting, or transcribing the DNA sequence in a
food we eat similar RNA “alphabet”
• Creates mRNA (messenger RNA) from DNA template
✓ Leucine
4. Splicing – removes the introns to avoid mutations
✓ Isoleucine 5. RNA goes to cytoplasm to look for ribosome
✓ Valine 6. tRNA (transfer RNA) then attaches with inactive acid
✓ Histidine 7. Translation happens:
✓ Lysine • sequence of mRNA is decoded to specify the amino acid
✓ Methionine sequence of a polypeptide
✓ Phenylalanine 8. Amino acid activates that will eventually result to polypeptide
✓ Threonine
9. Polypeptide chain goes to Golgi apparatus to creates proteins
✓ Tryptophan
• Non-essential Amino Acid – synthesized within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
body; built up inside - Cerebrum
✓ Alanine - Cerebellum
✓ Arginine - Brain Stem
✓ Asparagine - Nerves
✓ Aspartic Acid
✓ Cysteine - one of the largest internal organs of the body
✓ Glutamic Acid - Trivia:
✓ Glutamine 1. The human brain weighs 3 pounds.
✓ Glycine 2. It comprises 60% of fat and is one of the fattest organs in the
✓ Proline human body.
3. Human brain has the capacity to generate approximately 23
✓ Serine
watts of power when awake.
4. Of the total blood and oxygen that is produced in out body, the b. Cerebellum
brain gets 20% of it. • the second largest part of the brain
5. When the blood supply to the brain stops, it is almost after 8-10 • located beneath the occipital lobe
seconds that the brain starts losing the consciousness. • has 2 hemispheres and it is connected by the vermis
6. The brain is capable of surviving for 5 to 6 minutes only if it • Function: reflex coordinating center (boy posture and
doesn’t get oxygen after which it dies. balance)
7. The blood vessels that are present in the brain are almost c. Brain Stem
100,000 miles in length. • serves a connection between the brain the rest of the
8. There are 100 billion neurons present in the brain. body
9. In early pregnancy, the neurons develop at an alarming rate of • consists of 8 parts (midbrain, pons, and medulla)
250,000 per minute. • controls the basic functions of the body:
10. As we grow older, we are unable to remember new things. ✓ swallowing
According to the researcher in the US it is because the brain is ✓ heart rate
unable to filter and remove old memories which prevent it from ✓ blood pressure
absorbing new ideas. ✓ consciousness
d. Cranial Nerves
- Parts: • 12 cranial nerves:
a. Cerebrum I. Olfactory
• the largest part of the brain o Sensory: Smell
• cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter II. Optic
• Parts: o Sensory: Vision
✓ Frontal Lobe III. Oculomotor
o allows you to solve a complex task o Motor: Movement of the eye; regulation
o undergo voluntary movement of your of the size of the iris
body parts IV. Trochlear
o form complete sentences o Motor: Eye movement
o responsible for your personal traits V. Trigeminal
✓ Parietal Lobe o Both: Sensation of face and head;
o general sensation and feeling mastication
✓ Temporal Lobe VI. Abducens
o one in each hemisphere – close to o Motor: abduction of eyeball
where your ears are VII. Facial
o primarily functions in auditory o Both: taste; facial expressions and saliva
o may also be involve in emotion, learning, VIII. Vestibulocochlear
and pronunciation/ learning a new o Sensory: balancing and hearing
language IX. Glossopharyngeal
o Both: taste, swallowing and secretion of
✓ Occipital Lobe saliva
o found in the back of your cerebrum X. Vagus
o plays a role in processing visual o Both: sensation and movement of
information organs
o can be related to oculus
XI. Accessory ✓ produce myelin sheath
o Motor: shoulder movement, turning of ✓ repairs myelin sheath
head and voice production • Astrocytes
XII. Hypoglossal ✓ looks like a star
o Motor: tongue movements ✓ serves as adhesion between capillaries and
• Microglial/Dendritic/Macrophage Cell
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ✓ serves as the immune cells of the nervous
- process under PNS are outside the brain and the spinal cord system
- consists of all neurons outside the brain and spinal cord • Ependymal Cell
- Functions: ✓ serves as a lining of the nervous tissue = highly
• Collects input from the different parts of the body compacted
(sensory neurons) - KINDS:
• Relay input to CNS ➢ Afferent Nervous System
• Performs action (motor neurons) • sensory
- NEURONS = not repairable • collects input from the periphery to the CNS
1. Structure ➢ Efferent Nervous System
• Myelin Sheath • motor
✓ fatty, protective wrapper around axons • carries processed input from the CNS to periphery
✓ excellent insulators • Divisions:
• Nodes of Ranvier ✓ Autonomic
✓ Spaces/gaps in myelin sheath where action o involuntary (smooth, cardiac muscles,
potential develop glands)
• Saltutory Conduction o Divisions:
✓ jumping of action potentials ▪ Sympathetic – “fight or flight”;
2. Types activated during times of stress
• Multipolar ▪ Parasympathetic –
✓ M=multiple dendrites and a single axon “housekeeper”; activated during
✓ Ex. CNS and most motor neurons (muscles) normal condition
• Bipolar ✓ Somatic
✓ one dendrite and one axon o voluntary (skeletal)
✓ Ex. Eye and nasal cavity
• Pseudo Unipolar CNS PNS
✓ one axon and no dendrites OLIGODENDROCYTES SCHWANN CELLS
✓ Ex. sensory neurons; skin; lining of organs produce myelin
✓ Has receptor = where first impulses pass sheath
- NEUROGLIA collection of axons
➢ supporting cells for neurons NUCLEI GANGLION
➢ can divide to produce more cells (can perform mitosis) collection of cell
➢ Cells: bodies
• Schwann Cell
➢ Resting Membrane Potential • If enough Na+ enters, then threshold is reached and
• outside of cells is more + (Na+) more Na+ channels is open
• inside of cell is more – (K+) • Action potentials continue until Na+ channels close, K+
• Leak Ion Channels channel open and repolarization occurs (sodium
✓ always open potassium pump)
✓ K+ channels (mostly)
• Gated Ion Channels
✓ closed until opened by specific signal
✓ mostly Na+ channel

➢ Action Potentials ➢ where an axon attaches to a muscle, gland, organ, or other
• “electricity” that causes: neuron
✓ Depolarization – loss electrons ➢ involve with release of neurotransmitters
✓ Polarization – gain electrons Ex. Neuromuscular junctions
• changes resting membrane potential by activating gated ➢ sending out of neurotransmitters
ion channels
• potential – positively charge electron flows
• electricity – negatively charge electrons flow
➢ Local Current
• Movement of Na+ which causes inside of cell to be more
positive (depolarize)
- DISEASES ▪ Pulmonary Edema – mucus
➢ Parkinson’s Disease thickens which inhibits the
• characterized by tremors of the hand when resting and a diffusion of oxygen
slow walk with rigidity of muscle movement ✓ Facilitated Diffusion
• caused by deficient dopamine o diffusion that is helped by a membrane
➢ Bell’s Palsy transport channel (glycoprotein)
• condition that causes partial or total weakness or ▪ Diabetes Mellitus – GLUT4
paralysis of the facial nerve does not intake glucose which
• may develop suddenly or develop more gradually over a causes it to remain the
period of 24 to 48 hours bloodstream; pancreas is
• Signs & Symptoms: functional
✓ Headache ✓ Osmosis
✓ Inability to close an eyelid o movement of solvent particles in a semi-
✓ Facial drooping the corner of the mouth permeable membrane
✓ Drooling and changes in amount of saliva o Kinds:
✓ Decreased ability to taste
✓ Changes in the quantity of tears produced
✓ Increased sensitivity to sound ▪ Hypertonic Solution –cause
✓ Pain behind ear the cell to flaccid
✓ Pain around the jaw (shrink/wrinkled) due to loss of
water in extreme cases they will
CELL TRANSPORT MECHANISMS be plasmolized or by
- The Cell Membrane dehydration
• semi-permeable membrane ▪ Isotonic Solution - no change
• phospholipid bilayer ▪ Hypertonic Solution – gain
• has glycoproteins water and will swell or burst
- Two Types: 2. Active Transport
1. Passive Transport • use ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
• does not use energy • Primary Active Transport (directly uses ATP for
✓ Sodium-Potassium Path
• Processes: o 3 ion channels
✓ Diffusion o potassium diffuses in while sodium
o particles move from an area of high diffuses out
concentration to an area of low o transport protein is 2 way
concentration o in every 2 potassium that goes in, 3
o concentration of solute sodium goes out
✓ Simple Diffusion • Secondary Active Transport
o molecules move down their gradients ✓ move multiple molecules across the membrane,
through the membrane powering the uphill movement of one molecule
o small and non-polar with the downhill movement of another molecule
o gas exchange ✓ symporters – transport molecules in the same
direction (one way)
✓ antiporters – transport molecules in opposite ➢ THE EYE AND VISION
directions (two way) • Accessory Structures of the Eye
• Endocytosis – types of active transport wherein the cell ✓ Meibomian Glands
absorbs a membrane by invagination to form a vacuole. o modified sebaceous glands produce an
If the engulfed substance is solid the process if called oily secretion to lubricate the eye
phagocytosis; is a liquid is absorbed pinocytosis
• Exocytosis – occurs when the content of a cell vacuole ✓ Ciliary Glands
fuse with the plasma membrane to be expelled outside of o modified sweat glands between the
the cell eyelashes
SENSES ✓ Lacrimal Apparatus
- touch (general sense) o produces tears with antibodies and
- taste (gustation) lysosomes
- sight (vision) o consists of:
- smell (olfaction) ▪ lacrimal gland
- hearing (auditory) ▪ excretory lacrimal ducts
- equilibrium (sense of balance) ▪ lacrimal sac
- GENERAL SENSES ▪ lacrimal lake
➢ somatic sensations ( tactile, thermal, pain, and proprioceptive ▪ nasolacrimal duct
and visceral sensations) ✓ Conjunctiva
➢ scattered throughout the body o “pink eye” or “sore eyes”
➢ relatively simple structures o secretes mucus to lubricate eye
➢ General Sense Organs: o when inflamed – conjunctivitis
• Free Nerve Endings (Naked Nerve Endings) o lines eyelids and surface of eyes
✓ Location: skin and mucosa (epithelial layers) • Extrinsic Eye Muscles (produce eye movements)
✓ for sense of pain, crude touch, temperature, itch,
• Tactile (Meissner) Corpuscles
✓ fine touch and vibration
• Bulbous (Ruffini) Corpuscles
✓ touch and pressure
• Lamellar (Pacini) Corpuscles
✓ pressure and vibration
• Bulboid Corpuscles (Krause End Bulbs)
✓ touch
• Golgi Tendon Receptors & Muscle Spindles
✓ proprioceptors

➢ smell, taste, vision, hearing, equilibrium • Structure of the Eye
➢ specific locations in the head 1. Eye wall has 3 tunics:
➢ anatomically distinct structures ✓ Fibrous Tunic (outside layer)
➢ form complex neural pathways o Sclera – white connective tissue; “white
of the eye”
o Cornea – transparent ✓ Astigmatism
o multiple focal points
✓ Choroid Layer (middle layer) o irregularly shaped cornea
o blood rich, nutritive; pigment prevents o unequal curvature of the lens
light from scattering o blurry vision
o has 2 sub-structures
▪ Ciliary Body – smooth muscle ➢ THE EAR (organ for sense of hear)
▪ Iris – gives eye color; • Anatomy of the Ear
Pupil=opening of iris ✓ Outer Ear
✓ Sensory Tunic (retina) o for sense of hearing only
o contains photoreceptors o Structures:
o Rods (grayscale) ▪ Pinna (Auricle)
▪ mostly at the edges of the retina ▪ External Auditory Canal
▪ allows dim light and peripheral (ceruminous/wax glands) – for
vision protection against insects; for
o Cones (colored) lubrication
▪ mostly at the center of the retina ✓ Middle Ear/Tympanic Cavity
▪ fovia centralis – area with o for sense of hearing only
cones only o air-filled cavity within temporal bone
2. Lens – biconcave crystal-like structure o Structures:
• Internal Eye Chamber Fluids ▪ Auditory Tube (Eustachian
✓ Aqueous Humor Tube) – connects middle ear
o watery fluid found the chamber between with throat; equalizes pressure
lens and cornea during yawning and swallowing
o helps maintain intraocular pressure o Bones:
o provides nutrients for the lens and ▪ Malleus (Hammer)
cornea ▪ Incus (Anvil)
o glaucoma – blocked drainage ▪ Stapes (Stirrip)
✓ Vitreous Humor ▪ Vibrations from eardrum move
o gel-like substance behind lens from malleus
o keeps eye from collapsing ▪ Transfer sound to the inner ear
o lasts a lifetime; cannot be replaced
• Emmetropia (correct focus)
✓ focus of light at the retina ✓ Inner Ear or Bony Labyrinth
✓ objects are seen clearly o for sense of hearing and balance
• Diseases o filled with perilymph (liquid)
✓ Myopia (nearsightedness) o Bony Chambers within Temporal
o focus of light in front of the retina Bone:
o eyeball too long; lens too strong ▪ Cochlea
o distant objects are blurry ▪ Vestibule
✓ Hyperopia (farsightedness) ▪ Semicircular Canals
o focus light beyond the retina • Organs for Hearing at Inner Ear:
o short eyeball or lazy lens ✓ Organ of Corti – located within cochlea
o near objects are blurry ✓ Receptors – hair cells on basilar membrane
✓Tactorial Membrane – gel-like; bends hair cells • Impulses – transmitted via the olfactory nerve;
✓Cochlear Nerve – transmits nerve impulses to interpretation of smell happens in cortex
auditory cortex on temporal lobe
• Mechanism of Hearing ➢ CHEMICAL SENSE: SENSE OF TASTE
1. Vibrations from sound waves move tectorial • Taste Buds
membrane ✓ houses receptor organs; mostly on the tongue,
2. Hair cells are bent by the membrane soft palate, cheeks
3. Action potential starts in the cochlear nerve ✓ found on the side of papillae
4. Continued stimulation can lead to adaptation ✓ Structure:
• Equilibrium o Gustatory Cells
✓ Organs for Equilibrium at Inner Ear: ▪ receptors for taste
o Receptor Cells: ▪ have gustatory hair (long
▪ Semicircular Canals microvilli)
▪ Vestibule ▪ hairs stimulated by chemicals
✓ 2 Functional Parts dissolved in saliva
o Static Equilibrium (potential) o Impulses are carried to the gustatory
▪ sense of gravity at rest complex by several cranial nerves
▪ Maculae (facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus)
❖ receptors in the because taste buds are found in
vestibule different areas
❖ functions: (1) report on • Papillae – projections covering tongue
the position of head (2) ✓ Filiform – sharp; no taste buds
send info via vestibular ✓ Fungiform - rounded; with taste buds
nerve ✓ Circumvallate - large; with taste buds
o Dynamic Equilibrium (kinetic) • Taste Sensations
▪ angular and rotatory head ✓ Sweet Receptors
movement o sugars
▪ Crista Ampullaris – receptors o saccharine
in the semicircular canals o some amino acids
(collection of hair cells) o indicates energy-rich nutrients
▪ Capulla (Gelatinous Cap) – ✓ Sour Receptors
covers hair cells o acids
▪ Action of Angular Head ✓ Bitter Receptors
Movement: o allows sensing diverse natural toxins
1. Capula stimulates hair ✓ Salty Receptors
cells o allows modulating diet for electrolyte
2. Impulse is sent via
vestibular nerve to
• sense of smell
• Receptors - located at the roof of the nasal cavity;
neurons with long cilia
• Chemicals must be dissolved into mucus for detection
- Many changes in your body are due to the Endocrine System
The Endocrine System regulates, coordinates and controls:
✓ Growth and development
✓ Male and female development
✓ How your body uses energy
✓ Levels of salts and sugars in your blood
✓ The amount (volume) of fluid in your body
✓ Appetite
✓ Many other body functions
• are the organs of the Endocrine System
• produce and secrete (release) hormones. What
• located all over the body Controls the Hormones?
- by way of nerves from the sensory organs in the nervous
- by way of nerves and other hormones from inside the
➢ Brain reacts by way of SECRETIONS from neurons in
hypothalamus (neurohormones).
➢ Brain also reacts by way of NERVES from hypothalamus and
brainstem. “Autonomic Nervous System”
➢ Notice that organ function is regulated by NERVES and by
➢ What is the difference between nerve and hormone control?
➢ Why both kinds of controls?
Most hormone systems are NEGATIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEMS
- Means that when enough hormone is in the body, the body
STOPS PRODUCING THE HORMONE until it is needed again.
- chemical messengers that are secreted (released) from glands into
the blood and affect cells in another part of the body.
- Hormones only work on certain cells, called target cells.
- Target cells have special receptors that “recognize” the hormones
and allow them to influence that cell.
• In DIABETES, there is a problem with this negative feedback • If this process is DISRUPTED, the Thyroid keeps producing
system hormones and HYPHERTHYROID DISEASE ensues.


✓ Progesterone
✓ Adrenaline
✓ Testosterone
✓ Insulin
✓ Thyroxine
✓ Cortisol
✓ Estrogen
✓ Done

HORMONE (where it (where it (What it does?)
✓ In comes acts?)
the case shown in this picture, the body produces insulin but the from)
target cells become resistant and unresponsive to it. • Stimulates heart rate
ADRENALINE Adrenal Heart • Increases blood pressure
✓ DIABETES can also be caused by the body not producing
Gland Blood vessels • Dilates pupil
enough insulin.
Eyes ➢ Causes “Adrenaline Rush”
✓ The glucose does not enter the muscle and liver cells like it ➢ A fight and flight hormone
should and it builds up in the blood causing complications. ➢ Released in high stress
✓ Both PEOPLE and ANIMALS can GET DIABETES! conditions or in excitement
or fear.
A few hormone systems are POSITIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEMS ➢ Loud noise, high
• The pituitary gland sends a signal by way of the hormone oxytocin to temperature etc. may also
the uterus causing contractions. trigger its release since
there are also high stress
• The pressure of the fetus on the cervix sends a signal back to the
brain which then stimulates the release of more oxytocin.
• Controls menstruation in
• This causes more contractions. The fetus pushes harder on the women and plays a role in
PROGESTERONE Uterus Ovary (where
cervix. an egg was pregnancy
• More oxytocin is RELEASED. released) • One of the components of
• The system continuous until birth occurs. birth control pills

DISEASE is usually a positive feedback problem. • Controls heart rate of

• Neurons in the hypothalamus secrete THYROID RELEASING THYROXINE Most cells of Thyroid metabolic processes (how
HORMONE (TRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to the body Gland energy is used) in the body
and influences physical
• TSH binds to receptors to cells in the thyroid gland, stimulating ➢ People may not produce
thyroid hormones, which affect all cells in the body. enough of this hormone and
• When blood concentrations of thyroid hormones increase above a get a condition known as
certain level, TRH-secreting neurons in the hypothalamus are HPOTHYROIDISM.
inhibited and stop secreting TRH.
➢ They can take thyroxine to (MALE AND FEMALE)
treat this condition
• Stimulates development of MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
TESTOSTERONE Testicles Body-hair male sexual characteristics.
➢ Female also produce small • Spermatogenesis
- A steroid and cells
has been Muscle amounts of testosterone in • Internal and External Anatomy
administered to Reproductive their ovaries that affect SPERMATOGENESIS VS. OOGENESIS
athletes in order structures muscle development and
to improve other body functions.
- Considered to
be a form of
doping in most
sports and is a
very dangerous
• Stimulates development of
ESTROGEN Ovary Breast tissue, female sexual
reproductive characteristics
structures in • Estrogen levels may be
female related somehow to
migraine headaches in
➢ Mental stimulation breaks o TUNICA ALBUGINEA
CORTISOL Outer part of Multiple down fat and protein to – covering of testes
- Referred as adrenal tissues glucose, anti-inflammation. o SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES
“stress hormone” gland – tightly coiled tubules
as it is involved in ▪ SERTOLI - provides nourishment for sperm cell
response to ▪ LEYDIG – secretes testosterone
stress and EPIDIDYMIS
anxiety. - temporary storage of sperm cells.
• Insulin causes cells - passageway of sperm from epididymis to seminal vesicle.
INSULIN Produce in Liver, muscle, to take up glucose
(sugar) from the ACCESSORY GLANDS
Pancreas and fat tissue
blood, storing it in o SEMINAL VESICLE (60% of semen)
the liver and – Fructose (energy)
muscle, and – Vitamin C
stopping use of fat – Prostaglandins
as an energy
source. – Prosemenogelin
➢ Problems in insulin – Water
production or use o PROSTATE GLAND (30% of semen)
in the body can – enzyme for activating Prosemenogelin
lead to DIABETES. – Clot-liquefying enzyme (serine protease; PSA)
– Water
– Lubricant • Oogenesis
– Acid-neutralizing buffer • External and Internal Anatomy
– Water VULVA
PENIS – part of your genitals on the outside of your body
Structures: – vaginas are just one part of the vulva.
– head of the penis o MONS PUBIS
o CORPORA CAVERMOSA – located over the pubic symphysis and becomes covered by
o CORPUS CAVERNOSUM pubic hair at puberty.
- Two columns of tissue running along the sides of the penis. o CLITORIS
Blood fills this tissue to cause an erection. – female homologue to the male penis.
o CORPUS SPONGIOSUM – small as pea or as big as thumb
- A column of sponge-like tissue running along the front of the o LABIA MAJORA (outer lips)
penis and ending at the glans penis; it fills with blood during an – female homologue to the male scrotum
erection, keeping the urethra -- which runs through it -- open. – contains adipose tissues and sweat glands.
o URETHRA o LABIA MINORA (inner lips)
- runs through the corpus spongiosum, conducting urine out of – does not have hair, just a few sweat glands but has
the body. numerous sebaceous glands.
▪ FLACCID – no blood inside – opening between the two labia minora
▪ ERECT – there is a blood inside o HYMEN
– located within the vestibule which partially closes the distal
SCROTUM end of the vagina.
- skin-cover, muscular sac o BARTHOLIN’S GLAND
o RAPHE – midline of scrotum – secretes mucus to lubricate the distal end of the vagina
during sexual intercourse.
o PROSTATE CANCER – release fluid during female ejaculation.
– compressed urethra – secretes mucus to help the bartholin’s gland.
– elastic, muscular part of the FRS, that extends from vulva to
o CERVIX (2 to 3 cm long)
– the lower cylindrical shaped part of the uterus in the FMR.
– site for the implantation of fertilized egg and development of
– a pair of tube where fertilization occurs.

▪ Excessive body hair growth
▪ Weight changes and trouble losing weight
▪ Ovarian cysts
▪ Low sex drive
▪ Irregular or missed periods
▪ Male pattern baldness thinning hair
▪ High testosterone levels
▪ Insulin resistance
▪ Fatigue
▪ Acne
▪ Mood changes
▪ Trouble conceiving or infertility