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Problem 3.

43 [Difficulty: 3]

Given: Data on isothermal atmosphere

Find: Elevation changes for 3% pressure change and 5% density change; plot of pressure and density versus elevation

Solution:

Assumptions: Static, isothermal fluid,; g = constant; ideal gas behavior

dp
Basic equations = − ρ⋅ g and p = ρ⋅ R ⋅ T
dz

dp p⋅ g dp g
Then = − ρ⋅ g = − and =− ⋅ dz
dz Rair⋅ T p Rair⋅ T

Rair⋅ T0 ⎛ p2 ⎞
Integrating Δz = − ⋅ ln ⎜ ⎟ where T = T0
g
⎝ p1 ⎠

p2 ρ2⋅ Rair⋅ T ρ2 Rair⋅ T0 ⎛ ρ2 ⎞ ⎛ ρ2 ⎞


For an ideal gas with T constant = = so Δz = − ⋅ ln ⎜ ⎟ = −C⋅ ln⎜ ⎟ (1)
ρ1⋅ Rair⋅ T ρ1
p1 g
⎝ ρ1 ⎠ ⎝ ρ1 ⎠

N⋅ m
From Table A.6 Rair = 287⋅
kg⋅ K

Rair⋅ T0 N⋅ m 1 s
2
kg⋅ m
Evaluating C= = 287⋅ × ( 30 + 273) ⋅ K × × ⋅ C = 8865⋅ m
g kg⋅ K 9.81 m N s2

p2
For a 3% reduction in pressure = 0.97 so from Eq. 1 Δz = −8865⋅ m⋅ ln ( 0.97) Δz = 270⋅ m
p1

ρ2
For a 5% reduction in density = 0.95 so from Eq. 1 Δz = −8865⋅ m⋅ ln ( 0.95) Δz = 455⋅ m
ρ1

Δz
p2 ρ2 ρ2 p2 −
C
To plot and we rearrange Eq. 1 = =e
p1 ρ1 ρ1 p1
5000

4000
Elevation (m)

3000

2000

1000

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Pressure or Density Ratio

This plot can be plotted in Excel