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Problem 1.

16 [Difficulty: 3]

Given: Long bow at range, R = 100 m. Maximum height of arrow is h = 10 m. Neglect air resistance.

Find: Estimate of (a) speed, and (b) angle, of arrow leaving the bow.

Plot: (a) release speed, and (b) angle, as a function of h

Solution: Let V0 = u 0 i + v 0 j = V0 (cos θ 0 i + sin θ 0 j) h


y V0
ΣFy = m dv
dt
= − mg , so v = v0 – gt, and tf = 2tv=0 = 2v0/g x θ0

dv v2
Also, mv = − mg, v dv = −g dy, 0 − 0 = − gh R
dy 2

Thus h = v 20 2g (1)

du 2u v
ΣFx = m = 0, so u = u 0 = const, and R = u 0 t f = 0 0 (2)
dt g

From Eq. 1: v 20 = 2gh (3)

gR gR gR 2
From Eq. 2: u0 = = ∴ u 20 =
2v 0 2 2gh 8h

1
gR 2 ⎛ gR 2 ⎞ 2
Then V =u +v =
2 2
+ 2 gh and V0 = ⎜⎜ 2 gh +
2
⎟ (4)
8h ⎟⎠
0 0 0
8h ⎝

1
⎛ m 9.81 m 1 ⎞2 m
V0 = ⎜⎜ 2 × 9.81 2 × 10 m + 2
× 100 2 m 2 × ⎟⎟ = 37.7
⎝ s 8 s 10 m ⎠ s

2gh
From Eq. 3: v 0 = 2gh = V0 sin θ , θ = sin −1 (5)
V0
⎡ 1

⎛ m ⎞ s ⎥
θ = sin ⎢⎜ 2 × 9.81 2 ×10 m ⎟ ×
2
−1
= 21.8°
⎢⎝ s ⎠ 37.7 m ⎥
⎣ ⎦

Plots of V0 = V0(h) (Eq. 4) and θ0 = θ 0(h) (Eq. 5) are presented below:

Initial Speed vs Maximum Height

80
70
60
V 0 (m/s)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
h (m)

Initial Angle vs Maximum Height

60
50
40
θ ( )
o

30
20
10
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
h (m)