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INDUSTRIAL MAY-OCTOBER

TRAINING
CETG 420
2018
COMPANY: JJ DESIGN AND ENGINERRING SERVICES
(Pty)Ltd

PROJECT: WATER TREATMENT PLANT, STARPACK


WAREHOUSE AND HOTEL GUARD HOUSE

SUPERVISOR: Mr. FRANCIS JOSEPH

SUBMITTED BY: KABO RADIJO (14001670)


STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

This is to certify that this is the bona fide project work and report of CETG 420 of Mr
Kabo Radijo ID Number 14001670 required for a successful completion of Bachelors of
Engineering Degree.

Date of completion of the report: Sign:

This report was read and verified by:

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ABSTRACT

This report covers most parts covered during my Industrial training period. It contains the
details (including safety regulations, procedures, materials etc.) about each area I learnt
during the given time.

The major area in which I learned a lot was under the department that was handled by the
consultant engineers, in which they carried design and routine inspections of all site
works, ensuring that the work was in accordance to the SANS and/or BS criteria and
contract specifications. Also that all work being run is with respect to the most recent of
site drawings.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to thank Botswana International University of Science
and Technology (BIUST) for presenting this opportunity to allow us students to gain
experience of a work place environment. Also, I would like to thank my department
supervisor Professor Malumbela who came to observe my training and ensured I was on
the right track.

Moreover, I want to express my appreciation to Bernard Joseph and Mr. Francis


(Managing Director and Senior Engineer respectively of JJ Designs) who gave me an
opportunity to work under their consultant company and helped me through supervision
and many valuable teachings and lessons of site works. I would also like to extend my
thanks especially to Mr Prosper who was my junior supervisor, equipping me will all the
basic steps of construction and other concepts, also Mr Farshid (Contractor for water
plant) and Mr Tlale (Contractor for the hotel) for allowing me to work on their sites and
also teaching me basic steps in construction. I learnt a lot about construction under their
guidance.

My sincere gratitude is also to my colleague Kenosi Kalanyakgosi who helped me where


I did not understand, all the foremen and sub-contractors, who all took the interest in
guiding me through the training period. They went out of their way and tried to give me
knowledge of each and every aspect that was to be covered during the training
programme. Finally, I would like to also thank the staff on site for their cooperation and
encouragement as I worked alongside them.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ..................................................................................... 2

ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................................... 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................. 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................... 5

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................. 7

LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................. 8

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 9

CHAPTER 1- COMPANY BACKGROUND ................................................................... 10

1.1. ADMINISTRATION .......................................................................................... 12

CHAPTER 2- SUMMARY OF DUTIES .......................................................................... 14

2.1. Inspection ............................................................................................................ 14

2.2. Design (Structural and Municipal) ...................................................................... 14

2.3. Project management ............................................................................................ 15

CHAPTER 3- WORKING EXPERIENCE ....................................................................... 16

3.1 PROJECTS CARRIED OUT ................................................................................... 16

3.2. SUPERVISORY WORK ........................................................................................ 16

3.2.1 Site safety first ...................................................................................................... 17

3.2.2 Design ................................................................................................................... 17

3.2.3 Setting-Out ............................................................................................................ 18

3.2.4 Excavation............................................................................................................. 20

3.2.5 Compaction ........................................................................................................... 21

3.2.6 Steel reinforcement ............................................................................................... 22

3.2.7 Formwork .............................................................................................................. 25

3.2.8 Concrete and screed .............................................................................................. 26

3.2.9 Brick Work and Plastering .................................................................................... 28

3.2.10 Waterproofing ..................................................................................................... 28

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3.2.11. Civil works ......................................................................................................... 29

3.2.12. Earthworks and Backfilling ............................................................................... 30

3.3 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED .............................................................................. 31

3.4 PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS APPROACH ................................................... 31

3.5. FEASIBLY PERMANENT/TEMPORARY SOLUTION ARRIVED AT AND


REASONS ..................................................................................................................... 31

CHAPTER 4 ...................................................................................................................... 34

4.1. RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................... 34

4.2. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 34

WORKS CITED ................................................................................................................ 35

LIST OF APPENDICES .................................................................................................... 35

APPENDIX 1: SAMPLES OF WORK DONE ................................................................................ 37


I. Design of a verandeh beam ............................................................................................ 38
II. Reduced ground levels of a abattoir tanks ..................................................................... 39
III. Weight of tanks .............................................................................................................. 40
IV. Design of an apron ......................................................................................................... 41
V. Bending schedule of manhole and duct ......................................................................... 42
APPENDIX 2: STUDENT FEEDBACK FORM ............................................................................... 43

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

BIUST – Botswana University of Science and Technology

JJ – JJ Designs and Engineering Services

SANS – South African National Standards

BS – British Standards

CBD – Central Business District

PPE – Personal Protective Equipment

SHE – Safety, Health and Environment

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Hierarchy of the company ................................................................................... 12


Figure 2: Hierarchy of project site ..................................................................................... 12
Figure 3 Beam Design using AutoCAD ............................................................................ 18
Figure 4: Dumpy Level ...................................................................................................... 19
Figure 5: Setting out........................................................................................................... 20
Figure 6: Excavation at abattoir ......................................................................................... 21
Figure 7: Excavation at Starpack ....................................................................................... 21
Figure 8: Compaction ........................................................................................................ 22
Figure 9: Reinforcement at Hotel ...................................................................................... 23
Figure 10: Reinforcement at Abattoir ................................................................................ 23
Figure 11: Manual bending of steel bars............................................................................ 23
Figure 12: Reinforcement drawing of columns ................................................................. 24
Figure 13: Prepared steel reinforcement of a slab ............................................................. 24
Figure 14: Prepared steel reinforcement of a column ........................................................ 24
Figure 15: Steel shutter placed and supported by fixed rods ............................................. 25
Figure 16: Custom wood shutters for a column base reinforcement ................................. 25
Figure 17: Concrete poured to base ................................................................................... 26
Figure 18: Concrete cubes for crushing being cured ......................................................... 27
Figure 19 Screed ................................................................................................................ 28
Figure 20: Brickwork ......................................................................................................... 28
Figure 21: Waterproofing at roof top ................................................................................. 29
Figure 22 Storm Water Pipeline ........................................................................................ 29
Figure 23: Vibrating roller used for compacting an area being backfilled ........................ 30
Figure 24: Honey comb ..................................................................................................... 32
Figure 25: Hardrock ........................................................................................................... 32

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INTRODUCTION

Industrial Training is a course required for the Bachelor of Engineering degree. I worked
under JJ in order to complete this course. My training started on the 16th of May 2018
and ended on the 12th October 2018. The sites for my attachment period were the
construction of the water treatment plant at Francistown abattoir, warehouse construction
and a hotel guard house in which the main consultant was JJ. I worked both on the site
and in the office to get a full overview of every aspect required for construction. The
report consists of a summary of work done on site and construction processes I indulged
in.

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CHAPTER 1- COMPANY BACKGROUND
JJ is an established Civil & Structural Engineering Practice, wholly owned operated and
managed by Batswana.

Company Name: JJ Design & Engineering Services (Pty) Ltd

Date Incorporated: 30th May 1995 Registration No: 95/768

Postal Address: PO Box 733, Francistown.

Physical Address: Plot 15069 CBD, Francistown.

Telephone: 2418710 Fax: 2417826/2418711 E Mail: jjd@botsnet.bw

Type: Structural, Civil Engineers & Municipal Consultants

Past projects:

1. Chemical warehouse-Francistown
2. BHC (Prison)

Current Projects:

1. Water Treatment Plant- Francistown


2. Hotel-Francistown
3. Revenue Office-Shakawe
4. Starpack Warehouse-Francistown

The main objective of the practice is to provide specialised engineering services to all
sectors of the economy, Government, Local Government, Para-Statals, Private Sector and
Individuals, to provide them with cost effective solutions based on sound engineering
principles for the betterment of the quality of life.

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JJ Design & Engineering Services (Pty) Ltd is in existence simply to provide that
individual attention and solutions for any engineering construction, assessment,
investigation and/or analysis and problem solving, whether it be,

- Sub-soil investigation
- Foundation design
- Cost evaluation for bank loan application
- Problems of sewerage or flooding
- Phasing and assessment of shopping complex
- Housing development
- Provision of infra structural services.

Its specialised individual attention is to provide clients with varying degree of demands
spanning from,

1) Conceptual Design – To assist client in conceptualising his/her dream or


solutions to any specific engineering problem into a physical entity on
paper.
2) Local Authority Approval – To assist client to sought approval of the
proposal in principle.
3) Financial Institutions – To assist in providing Financial Feasibility
Reports, Cost Estimates and Economic Analysis in obtaining financial
assistance.
4) Detailed Design, Drawing & Documentation – To assist client with
Tender Documentation, Appraisal, Contract Documentation, Contract
Administration and Delivery of the Final Product.
5) Retention Obligation & Assistance after Completion – To assist client
with any teething problems and ensuring the client gets Value for
Money.

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1.1. ADMINISTRATION
When working for the company, there is a general trend in which was followed when
dealing with the management.

MANAGING
DIRECTOR
JJ BENARD

FINANCE
DIRECTOR DIRECTOR
FRANCIS JOSEPH S BENARD

DESIGN AND DESIGN AND


PROJECT PROJECT
MANAGER ADMINISTRATION
MANAGER
T. RAVEENDRAN C. PROSPER M MOLAODI

TRAINEE TRAINEE
K KALAYAKGOSI K RADIJO

Figure 1 Hierarchy of the company

The hierarchy of the site is as follows:

Project Manager

Site Engineer

Foremen

Sub Contractors and


on-site staff

Figure 2: Hierarchy of project site

The client is the one generally in charge of the overall work in the site, as in this case the
client, consultant and architect worked in collaboration with each other and so had the
final word in completion of a task.

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The staff and sub-contractors are the main driving force of the construction site. They are
required to be supervised and if there is fault with the work, the main contractor is to
blame. Supervision is done by the foremen of the site, and then the quality of the job is
checked by the consultants. Once a task is done or towards the end of one, payments are
required. This is done by making a claim of completion to the project managers of which
the quantity and the quality of the work done is further assessed and approved by them.

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CHAPTER 2- SUMMARY OF DUTIES

The sites when I joint, were still at preliminary stages where most of the major
earthworks excavations and compactions were done. Major work during the initial
construction phase which I participated in was; setting out, formwork, rebar and concrete
and some building works. I also indulged in construction drawings, bending schedules
and also inspecting the construction works. These are further explained on chapter 3.

2.1. Inspection
The company has many projects across the country, but my main focus was the
construction of the water plant treatment, a guard house of a 2 storey hotel and a
warehouse. The consultancy department is where I did most of my training under
the direct supervision of Mr Francis Joseph who is the Senior Engineer. The
department had to ensure that all work corresponded with the method statements,
and are using the most recent of drawings before any other stage could start by
inspection. This was to ensure that the work done is of good quality. The constant
supervision of any work, new or repairs was paramount as the company prides
itself in the quality of the job it undertakes. Moreover, structural inspections were
carried out on already existing buildings when clients needed to regularise with
the local council. This was mostly carried out on houses that were long build
without council approval or when a client needed to apply for a loan to buy a
house. A structural report was then provided stating conclusions and
recommendations about the structure, confirming if its suitable for occupation.

2.2.Design (Structural and Municipal)


The construction drawings were primary source of information where calculations of
quantities of materials were determined. This involved obtaining design loads on slabs,
beams and columns, dimensions for determining volumes and areas, and number of
relevant articles of interest. Most designs were carried out using softwares such as Prokon
(BS8110-1997) and AutoCAD.

The bending and drawing schedules are used to determine the steel specifications (in
terms with the dimensions and fabrication requirements) and quantities that need to be

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ordered. Bending was done according to BS 4466. Since drawings are constantly revised,
it is required that the consultants keep up-to-date with the changes and orders
accordingly. Lack of this may cause shortages of material on site which will hinder the
construction time schedule. Also should the material be added or removed it is
mandatory to keep a log of these changes to account for the claims and payments that
need to be made to the client. This is a very tedious process as it involves referring to
previous documents, analysing all alterations and also on-site count of the material left on
site that will not be used or modified to fit the required specifications.

The design also includes conceptualising on water reticulation methods on waste water
and storm water drainage. The design determines the network and slopes that ensures
water flows in a certain manner due to gravity. A typical design is a slope ratio of 1:80
meaning for every 1 meter distance, there is a drop of 80mm.

2.3.Project management
JJ managed a few projects and was an intermediary between the clients and contractors. It
ensured all agreed tasks were carried out within stipulated time. Progress meetings with
the client, architect and consultants were held now and then in which the progress of on-
going activities and also problems that occurred on site was discussed. Co-ordination and
technical meetings were also held with the sub-contractors and foremen so that current
events that posed complications and events that are still to occur is discussed and
rectified. These meetings were highly regarded as they are the ones that indicated
hindrances to the site progress and helped future planning of the site work and to the
client.

Also, payments of the contractors were done once they have made claims on their works.
This is then followed by an on-site investigation to re-assess the quality and quantity of
the work being presented. From there it was agreed upon by both parties about the work,
which then allowed for payment by the method that was arranged, being a fixed charge or
a time related charge.

Work done and work remaining is also calculated to give an estimate of the time
remaining to finish a certain task. This helps with the ordering of equipment and hiring
of staff so that the project can move ahead as scheduled.

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CHAPTER 3- WORKING EXPERIENCE

3.1 PROJECTS CARRIED OUT

Water Treatment Plant

The Francistown abattoir has to be equipped with water treatment plant that cleans blood
to a council acceptable effluent so that it is channelled to the main sewage pipe line. The
plant has 6 tanks that process the waste liquid. The project consisted of mass concreting
thus I learn the types of concrete and their strength. Tank purposes:

 Equaliser tank: Provides a constant flow


 Aeration tank: Bio treatment of water, activated sludge breaks down contaminants
 Secondary clarifier: Separates out the activated sludge and leaves clean water
 Filter feed tank: Removes suspended solids
 Sludge thickener: Increases solid contents. Concentrates sludge
 Oil and grease chamber: Has traps that reduce the amount of fats, oils and greases
that enter sewers

Construction of a double storey guard house: I was also fortunate enough to be


involved in this project since I got an opportunity to learn basic steps in construction of a
double storey and all the necessary considerations such as loads applied. I also got to
learn about types of column and beam support as well as the type of reinforcements used
depending on the loads.

Construction of Starpack warehouse: For this project, portal frame was designed as
well as loads. The structure is to be supported by steel columns. I acquired setting out
skills in abundance in this project.

3.2. SUPERVISORY WORK


Includes work done in construction site, design and the process or steps that I was
involved in by inspection under supervision.

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3.2.1 Site safety first
A construction site is a very dangerous place. Different types of work are being done at
all times in various places. It is very necessary that one complies with all the protection
needed. One has to work with extra care when on site. Attention should be paid to safety
clothing, area in which the work is being done, tools and instruments used. The SHE
department does routine checks to ensure that accidents and equipment failures are
reduced.

Some of the hazards consist of:

1.Construction Vehicles – since there are no traffic rules for construction vehicles on
the site, one should always observe their movement while working outside.
2.Scaffoldings – When workers are working on high levels and ceilings, they use
scaffoldings. They have their tools with them, which can easily fall at any time. In
order to avoid being injured, one should wear a hard hat. Also the threat of falling of
the scaffold is always present, so safety precautions are required for heights above
1.8m.
3.Trenches and Openings – During construction, many trenches and openings will not
be fenced or indicated. It is therefore crucial to be careful while walking, especially
while carrying something that blocks your view.
4.Welding – Welding is taking place in many places on a big site. One should be
careful in order to protect the eyes with dimmers while welding and while walking
under such areas.
5.Dust and Gases – Due to the constant movement of vehicles, and the usage of
various construction equipment; dusts and harmful gases occur in mass quantities on
site, especially in areas that are not well ventilated. Dust and gas masks are required,
particularly when there is a prolonged exposure to these elements.

3.2.2 Design
Before any construction can commence, engineering drawing have to be provided stating
all specifications and bending schedules of a certain structure. I had an opportunity to
learn how to calculate structure loads and also how to produce bending schedules for
double storey buildings. Design loads determined what kind of reinforcement is to be

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used. Moreover, autoCAD was also used to draw these reinforcements, columns, slabs as
well as other changes done to the plans.

Figure 3 Beam Design using AutoCAD

3.2.3 Setting-Out
'Setting out' refers to the act of measuring and marking out a full size plan of a building
or element of a building on site. (John Uren, 2010) It specifies where all components in
the construction gets positioned looking at the drawing details and therefore any errors or
mistakes when doing so will have severe adverse effects on the building, whether it be
structural or aesthetical.

The drawings shows gridlines and co-ordinates which are used in setting out and making
sure a structure is correctly positioned.Temporary benchmarks were established using
pre-fixed co-ordinates from a known location. These are then transferred to the site where
they are used to set out the gridlines. A dumpy level was used to translate readings (see
figure 4).

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Figure 4: Dumpy Level

Once the surveyor has set out the points, the rest of the details of the building could be
done: columns, walls, slabs, beams etc. This was more easily done now using basic
equipment such as steel tapes measuring from the gridlines. The markings of these
elements were usually done with fish line and cement powder (see figure 5) for which the
formwork of the structures sat upon. As consultants, we had to check if setting out
corresponds to the plans.

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Figure 5: Setting out

3.2.4 Excavation
This generally means work involving the removal of soil or rock from a site to form an
open face, hole or cavity using tools, machinery or explosives. For our projects, open and
retaining walls excavations were adopted. This was done after setting out to identify
where excavations were to be carried out. Excavations were carried out mechanically to a
depth of 5m maximum for the abattoir and 2m maximum for the hotel and warehouse.
Most excavations were successful except when there was a hard rock blocking the way.
This delayed progress.

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Figure 6: Excavation at abattoir

Figure 7: Excavation at Starpack

3.2.5 Compaction
Many of the earthworks involved the compaction of the soil to a preferred density after
levelling. Soil compaction is the method of mechanically increasing the density of soil. It
is the significant part of construction. (Greacen EL and Williams J (1983) ). For the above
projects, mechanical compaction was used, using vibrating roller and a hand compactor
for light work. This was done to increase soil load bearing capacity, prevent soil
settlement and also provide stability. The compaction of the material had to attain 93%
Mod AASHTO density. Imported G5 was used for compaction. Should the soil not reach
its designed requirements, it is highly like to settle which will cause damage to the
structures laying on it. I had to avail myself during compaction testing to see if it passes
or not. Failure, more compaction had to be done and if it attains 93% or more, the
contractor is advised to proceed with the next stage of construction. The soil was usually

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transported in and compacted to the desired level which was 300mm, and later used for
backfilling. Compaction was done every 150mm for 300mm and tested by the
geotechnical agents.

Figure 8: Compaction

3.2.6 Steel reinforcement

Reinforcement is referred to as the “frame” of concrete, which prevents cracking and also
gives the concrete its strength. Steel fixing was done referring to according to two
documents, which are the drawing schedule which detailed how the steel is to be placed,
and the bending schedule which detailed the size, shape, length, and quantities of each bar
as well as spacing. All these details were determined by the amount of load applied to the
structure.

In all of our projects, high tensile steel was used for all concrete components, mostly
beams, columns, slabs, and walls. The documents also showed concrete covers which
ranged from 30mm to 60mm depending on the environmental conditions of the site and
also indicated the minimum length required for overlapping of two bars.

The bars were bent on site manually and I had to make sure all bars are bent according to
bending schedule provided

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Figure 9: Reinforcement at Hotel

Figure 10: Reinforcement at Abattoir

Figure 11: Manual bending of steel bars

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Figure 12: Reinforcement drawing of columns

Figure 13: Prepared steel reinforcement of a slab

Figure 14: Prepared steel reinforcement of a column

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3.2.7 Formwork
Formwork is the temporary mould in which concrete is poured and allowed to shape and
harden. Special attention is given to the care of these structures as should they be
deformed or improperly placed, it will be a costly procedure to rectify the problems it
causes. (The Concrete Centre).

Once the reinforcement was completed and approved, the formwork is placed and usually
fixed into place by bracing with steel rods. This ensured that they do not move when
concrete is poured. The formwork in this project were in most cases steel shutters, except
in a few cases of light concreting or where the formwork required a unique dimensioning
that required custom wood shutters to be made. Before concreting could be done, an
inspection was carried out to ensure all shutter boards were tightly fixed in place to
prevent collapse of formwork.

Figure 15: Steel shutter placed and supported by fixed rods

Figure 16: Custom wood shutters for a column base reinforcement

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All shutters were coated with oil before shuttering, which prevented the concrete to stick
to it.

3.2.8 Concrete and screed


Normal concrete was used for the structures. The concrete was used in according to the
designs stipulated by the engineering drawings and geotechnical report.

The normal concrete is a 30MPa concrete which is used for its strength and so was used
in all structural sections of the tanks and guard house, that being the beams, walls,
columns and slabs. Most of the concrete was premixed on a batch plant by another
company (AfriCrete) and was delivered to site where it was poured (see figure 17) or
transported using a bucket to various sections of the site. For light concreting, mixing was
done on site using ratios such as 1:1.5:3 and 1:2:2.

Figure 17: Concrete poured to base

Concrete testing was also vital as many factors could affect its strenght. If the strenght of
the concrete is below its design limit it is said the concrete has failed and the entire
structure where that specific concrete was used is to be demolished. (The Constructor) A
case in this project is where an entire slab section had failed concrete. This sets back the
project considerably, because the section has to be demolished and redone.

A geotechnical agent was hired to carry these tests. The test was the concrete cube
crushing to determine it’s strenght.

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Every other truck that delivered concrete, samples were taken from it which were then
tested and recorded.

Figure 18: Concrete cubes for crushing being cured

Vibration of the concrete when pouring is also a regulated aspect. Vibration influences
the compaction of concrete and thus its strength. But too much vibration causes
settlement in the aggregate that will make the concrete segmented and too little vibration
will leave air pockets in the concrete that causes low strength of concrete. However, some
sections were poorly vibrated leading to an effect called honey comb. Maintenance to the
concrete is required when this occurs which is an unnecessary and expensive process. For
this effect, epoxy was applied to seal the honey combed walls.

Once concrete has been poured attention to their finishing is done but since the shutters
had a smooth finish, no further work was required. The final step to the concrete is the
curing of the subject, in which usually involves it being kept constantly damp to augment
concrete strength and also control water loss during cement hydration, this prevents
premature stressing and concrete shrinkage. For columns, hessian cloth was used to keep
them damp. The cloth prevented rapid loss of water which might cause cracking of the
columns. However, too much water could lower concrete strength and durability, thus the
need to use proper amount of water for curing.

For screed, only paste was used, a mixture of cement, water and sand. This mixture was
used on top of slabs to raise the height of floor levels or to create slopes and valleys for
roof drainage systems.

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Figure 19 Screed

3.2.9 Brick Work and Plastering


For the brick work, attention was taken mostly when doing the setting-out of it, but also
to ensure that bricks were used according to the method statement specified, that is 15mm
spacing for mortar and inserting brick force after every 3 course.

Figure 20: Brickwork

3.2.10 Waterproofing
Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-
resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water (Waterprofing Applications,
2013)

Damp Proof Course (DPC) is an impermeable plastic material used as a measure to


protect a building from passage of water. It is normally applied to the exterior of
buildings.

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A bituminous material was used for sealing roof tops. This was done because seepage of
water can gradually damage a structure.

Figure 21: Waterproofing at roof top

3.2.11. Civil works


For our projects, civil works were storm water drainage as well as waste water drainage.
Benchmarks were established based on an existing structure and were transferred to the
site. Slopes were also determined to ensure that all flows are due to gravity. Constant
checking of slopes had to be done using a dumpy level to make sure all levels are sloping
with respect to a given slope ratio.

Figure 22 Storm Water Pipeline

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3.2.12. Earthworks and Backfilling
The earthworks for our sites were mostly compaction of the soil to a required density. The
soil was usually transported in by dumpy trucks and bulldozers depending on the quantity
and where the soil is required and it was compacted using a hand operated device for
small areas and a large roller operated by man was used for large spaces.

The soil was then compacted to the desired level which was 150mm. If the soil fails to
archive its designed requirements, chances that it settles over a period of time are high,
however, this will cause damage to the structures placed on top of it. Soilcrete was also
used for backfilling in cases where the space to be compacted was very small and a hand
compactor could not fit.

Figure 23: Vibrating roller used for compacting an area being backfilled

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3.3 PROBLEMS 3.4 PROBLEM 3.5. FEASIBLY
ENCOUNTERED SOLVING PERMANENT/TEMPORARY
PROCESS SOLUTION ARRIVED AT AND
APPROACH REASONS
1. Human error Ensure maximum An engineer has to make sure that
when taking supervision and that benchmark is not tempered with since
reading or setting the contractor or site this may affect the whole setting out.
out. Leads to foreman has Equipment has to be checked if it is well
wrong positioning experience in functioning before using them. Also,
of structures or carrying out site all readings or markings on equipment
buildings. works. should be visible to naked eye, pegs and
fish lines have to be used to mark
benchmarks and other important
coordinates. This will make certain that
all reading, markings and various
elements are in position with respect to
the plans.

2. Slow project Progress meetings Order materials as early as possible and


progress due to are conducted for the ensure delivery is on time. Also,
uncooperative and contractor to give an inspectors have to regularly check the
poor project update on works site to make sure that there is progress.
management by done at site and also Failure to comply, the contract is
contractors lay out reasons for terminated.
the delay.

3. Honey combs First step to do is to Compact/vibrate uniformly and


after removing identify the location adequately and also pour concrete at a
shutter boards. of the honey comb height not more than 1.5. In case of
This leads to and its size. A large honeycombs appearing, seal with resin
water penetration size of honey combs but in worst cases, the structure has to be
through the tank can allow demolished and redone. This is to ensure
wall. permeability good quality structure and that water

31
does not seep through the wall, also, it
ensures that the walls remain aesthetic.

Figure 24: Honey comb

4. Rocks that appear The rock scale is In case rock is impossible to crush and
on trenches. This determined as well remove, use explosive with all necessary
disturbed the as the size. This is to permits or construct (brick work) on top
excavation of check if the rock can of it. Constructing on top of the rock will
trenches. be easily removed. add an advantage to the structure as the
Also, the rock depth rock will provide good foundation and it
is checked. is stronger than concrete itself.

Figure 25: Hardrock

5. Pouring of Before concreting, Use suitable pouring methods that can


concrete was a the opening sizes of reach top levels as well as low levels
challenge since the shutters or such as concrete pumps to deliver
there were no formwork need to be concrete either at the top or bottom parts
suitable methods considered. Also, of the without any difficulty. Moreover,
of pouring check if a platform is buckets and shovels can also be used in
adopted on site at available which case where the pump cannot fit into
initial stages, allows free formwork.
shutter boards and movement for site

32
shovels were used workers to reach
which lead to other places around
honeycombing. the structure.

6. Shortage of Assess the type of Students were advised to bring and use
computers for work that needed to their laptops in instances were no design
designing be done. If its using soft wares was required.
purposes. The design, a company Sometimes, computers were used by
company had computer is needed alternating.
two functioning to access Prokon and
computers. This work that needed
delayed work that excel was done on
needed to be laptops.
done.

33
CHAPTER 4

4.1.RECOMMENDATIONS
Most projects were well managed and organised, and it shows through the work that was
being delivered. I would like to make just a few recommendations which, in my opinion,
will help further in enhancing site works.

The site should have had an on-site consultant or Resident Engineer at all times, rather
than having to inform and arrange for one to come at a scheduled time. This would
rapidly improve the completion of several tasks in a day as most of them have to be pre-
approved by the consultant before certain sections of the tasks can be accomplished, and
waiting on the consultant causes a loss of several hours a day, in which other tasks can be
approved and completed. This could save time and travelling expenses.

Also, the site should appoint at least one SHE officer who will be in charge of making
sure that everyone on site has their full PPE on and are working in a safe environment.

Moreover, I recommend that the Industrial Attachment should also be done during winter
semester and engage students in frequent field trips to sites for them to get an overview of
construction processes so that they are able to visualise during lessons and also ensure
less challenges are encountered during the six months of training.

4.2.CONCLUSION
After six months of rigorous practical work and obtaining the practical knowledge of
construction techniques, I feel that the training programme was a success. I learnt about
the actual site work, difficulties encountered and how to solve those problems while
working within a time limit. The work mentioned in this report is just a small fraction of
the work done, but I feel that I covered the major and basic possible aspects of design and
construction work successfully which helped my professional growth during this training
programme.

34
WORKS CITED

Waterprofing Applications. (2013). Retrieved from https://www.dispersions-


pigments.basf.com/portal/basf/formen/dt.jsp?setCursor=1_785618

Greacen EL and Williams J (1983) Physical properties and water relations. In SOILS an
Australian view point. CSIRO/Academic Press pp. 499-530. (n.d.).

John Uren, B. P. (2010). Surveying for Engineers. Pulgrave Macmillan.

The Concrete Centre. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.concretecentre.com/Building-


Elements/Formwork.aspx

The Constructor. (n.d.). Retrieved 2018, from Cicil Engineering Home:


https://theconstructor.org/concrete/tests-for-concrete-quality-checking/8927/

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Samples of work done

Appendix 2: Student Feedback Form

Appendix 3: Log Book

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APPENDICES

36
APPENDIX 1: SAMPLES OF WORK
DONE

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I. Design of a verandeh beam

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II. Reduced ground levels of a abattoir
tanks

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III. Weight of tanks

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IV. Design of an apron

41
V. Bending schedule of manhole and
duct

42
APPENDIX 2: STUDENT
FEEDBACK FORM

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