Sie sind auf Seite 1von 86

cd;sfha bÈß u.

i|yd jQ
úuiqu yd msúiqu

mdG,S pïmsl rKjl

ISBN : 978-955-98843-9-2

m%ldYkh
mdG,S pïmsl rKjl
fkd' 121" úfcardu udj;
fld<U 07'
fm<.eiau
fmrjok

úuiqu - 1
cd;sl ixj¾Ok wNsfhda.(
bkak ysf;k rglg ;j ÿro@

úuiqu - 2
2020 ka Tíng(
iqyqre hq.fha kdhl;aj wNsfhda.h

msúiqu - 1
úoHdkql+, wdKavqlrKh(
yeu remsh,gu Wmßu w.hla

msúiqu - 2
rdcHh" wdrlaIdj iy cd;sl;ajh(
kj f.da,Sh m%jK;d

msúiqu - 3
úfoia fjf<|du iy úfoia in|;d(
f,dj Èkk u.

mßYsIagh- 1
wdY%s; ixLHdf,aLk

mßYsIagh- 2
fN!;sl ixj¾Ok ie,iqï

miqjok
fmrjok
ta 2018 jif¾ fkdjeïn¾ udihhs' Ök cd;sl wef.a ukig we;=¿ jQ ìh" i;=re m%ydr yuqfõ
m¾fhaIlhl= jk y cshekal=hs ^He Jiankui& m%ldY wehf.a is; p,kh jQ whqre wdÈh mß.Klh u.ska
lf<a ;uka ±ßúhka fofokl= cdk ixialrKfhka ksÍlaIKh lrk ,§' fojeksjr wehg iqúfYaIS
^Genetic Editing& W;amdokh l< njhs' Tjqkg ysia m<|kdjla ^Transcranial Helmet& ,ndfok
ish Ôú;fhaoS taâia frda. ffjrih fkdjef<f|k ,§' fmr mßÈu w;d;aúl i;=re m%ydrhlg wehj
nj Tyq Woaodufhka m%ldY lf<a h' úúO frda. fhduqlrk ,§' túg weh pls;hlska f;drj" ìh
i|yd cdk m%;sldr fhdod .;a;o orejl= ìysùug iel ÿr,d igka lrkq wehf.a fud<h mÍlaId l<
fmr cdk ixialrKfhka kj orejl= ìysjQ m<uq mß.Klhg fmkS .sfha h'
j;dj th úh' thg ,enqKq Okd;aul m%;spdrh
jQfha bÈßfha§ foudmshka Wmf;a§ ;u orejkaf.a tkï wehf.a ysia m<|kdj úiska fud,fha úoHq;a
yevrej yd fi!LH ;;a;ajh ms<sn| lror úh ls%hdldÍ;ajh md,kh lr weh ks¾Nh fin<shl
hq;= ke;s njh' tfy;a 2019 cqks uioS ;j;a njg m;a lr ;sìKs'
m¾fhaIlhska msßila lSfõ cshekal=hsf.a cdk
ixialrKfhka Wm; ,enQ ±ßúhka Ökfha idudkH w;S;fha igkaj,§ fin¿kag fukau fikam;shkago
wdhq wfmaCIdj jk jir 76 g fmr ñhhEug 21] ìhckl hqoìulg hEug wêIaGdkhla wjYH
l iïNdú;djhla we;s njh' bkamiqj jd¾;djQfha úh' tlaflda th foúhka úh' ke;akï ud;DN+ñh"
Ök n,OdÍka cshekal=hsg tfrysj kS;sh ls%hd;aul cd;sh" ¥orejka fyda ñ;%;ajh úh' ±ka th
lrñka isák njh' bf,lafg%davj,g udre ù ;sfí' flfia fj;;a"
we*a.ka hqoaOfha§ ^2001& tlai;a ckmo foaYmd,k
cdk ixialrK u.ska Ydl yd i;aj úfYaI m%Odkshl= m%ldY lr ;snqfKa Tjqkaf.a foúhkag
fjkialsÍu .ek nrm;, újdohla mj;S' wd.ñl ^w,a,dyag& jvd wmf.a foúhka ^fhfydjd& n,j;a
f,i tfrys jkafkda foúhkaf.a ueùu udkjhd ksid Tjqka ch.%yKh lrk njhæ
úiska ixialrKh fkdl< hq;= nj lsh;s' yskaÿ
yd fn!oaO wd.ïj, tk l¾uhg fuh tfrys wkd.; hqoaOh YÍr Yla;sh" fõokdj ord isàu"
hehs ;¾l lrkafkdao fj;s' tfukau jir ñ,shk ks¾Nh;ajh" WmdhYS,S;ajh jeks udkùh idOl
.Kkla mqrd iajNdúlj fjkia jQ cdk ieliqu u; fkdj bf,lafg%dav" úoHQ;a pqïNl j¾Kdj,sh
lD;%suj isÿ lsÍfï m%;súmdl Nhdkl njo yd iajhxl%Sh frdfnda ls%hdldÍ;ajh jeks idOl u;
úoHd;aul ;¾llrefjda mji;s' isÿùug bv we;'

tfy;a f,dfõ jeä bvlv we;af;a cshekal=hsf.a Y%S ,xld wdrCIl yuqod fï mßj¾;khg" tkï
ud¾.fha bÈßhg f.dia jvd mßmQ¾K jeä wdhq iqyqre yuqodjla njg m;aùug iQodkï o@
ld,hla iys; udkjhl= ìyslr,Su i|yd h'
2019 udkjhd i| .ukg jir 50 la iïmQ¾K lf<a
ksõ ihkaáiaÜ ^New Scientist& udOHfõÈkshl jQ h' fïjk úg tlai;a ckmoh" reishdj yd Ökh
ie,S wd§ tlai;a ckmofha Tydfhda .=jka l|jqf¾ i|u;g f.dvnei we;s w;r" fï jif¾§ bkaÈhdj
jQ ;dlaIKsl fin, mqyqKqjla i|yd 2016 § .shd i| u;g ish pkaøhdka 2 wNHjldY hdkh
h' wehg m<uqj iajhxl%Sh wúhlska ;dlaIKsl f.dvneiaiùug kshñ;h' fï rgj,a y;r yereKq
f,i ujk ,o urdf.k uefrk ;%ia;jd§ka 20 fldg cmdkh yd BY%dh,ho i| jgd llaI.; ù
fofkl= iu`. igkl kshef<kakg isÿúh' tys§ tys f;dr;=re ,ndf.k we;' 1958 isg 2019 olajd

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 5


106 j;djla i|g f.dvneiSu fyda llaI .;ùu wmf.a wdÈ;uhd jQ fydafuda fiamshka ;uka iu`.
isÿlr we;' ±ka ±ka fuh mqoa.,sl jHdmdrhla tlg úiQ udkj j¾.hka 20 lg wêl m%udKhla
njg tlai;a ckmoh ;=< mßj¾;kh fjñka we;' mrdch lr fiiq .j yia;s wd§ i;=ka yS,E lf<a ish
fgia,d wêm;s t,ka uiala ^Elon Musk&" weuika ks¾udKYS,S;ajh yd ixúOdkd;aulNdjh u.sks'
wêm;s fc*a fnfidia ^Jeff Bezos& fukau j¾ðka
wêm;s ßpâ n%ekaika ^Richard Branson& wd§ka o we;eï f,aLlhska fmkajd fokafka kj cdk
fvd,¾ ì,shk .Kkla jeh lr mqoa.,sl wNHjldY ;dlaIKh yd iakdhq ;ka;= ;dlaIKh wdÈh úiska
pdßld yd i| .uka ixpdr ixúOdkh lrñka we;' fydafuda fiamshka mrojd,k isrerla" fud,hla yd
ukila we;s kj i;ajhl= fï ishji ;=< ìyslrkq
hQß ..dÍka wNHjldY .;ùu;a" kS,a wïiafg%daka we;s njh' ^Homo Deus - Noah Harari - 2017& fuhska
i| u;g md ;eîu;a iu. ,enqK PdhdrEm fmkajd ud fmkajd fokafka udkùh f,dalfha wmQ¾j;ajhhs'
fokafka mDÓúh fld< meye;s f.da,dldr jia;=jla th úoHdfjka ;dlaIKfhka fl;rï n,j;a jqjo
njh' tjeks ñksiqka 572 fofkl= fï jkúg ta merKs foújreka" N+;hska yd wkdjelslrejkao
w;a±lSu wNHjldYfha isg ±l we;' w;=reoyka fkdù mßkduh fjñka mj;shs' fld<U
Okj;a mjq,l Bn%dysïf.a mq;=kg yd f,a,sjrekg
tfy;a" we;eï ..k.dókao we;=¿ fndfyda msßila iaj¾.h fidhd ;j;a ish.Kkla urdoud ;ukajo
mDÓúh mSßishla jeks me;e,s hula njg Y=oaO iajhxj >d;kh lr.ekSug yelsjQfha ta ksidh'
.%ka:j, jQ u;h ;ju;a ms<s.ks;s'
Y%S ,xldj ±ka isákafka ikaêia:dkhlh' tla
miq.shod we;sjQ mdial= m%ydrh iu. ,xldj ;=< w;lska f,dalh ish merKs m%Yak jQ id.;h"
wd.ñl wd;;shla we;súh' ;u ;ukaf.a wd.ï jvd;a ixydrh yd jix.;hka fjkqjg w¨;a m%Yak
ksjerÈ njg jQ ;¾l ú;¾l we;súh' kef.kysr ks¾udKh lr.ksñka isà' ;dlaIKh y;rjeks
ysgmq wdKavqldr ysianq,a,d uy;d m%ldY lf<a
ld¾ñl úma,jhg 2010 isg .uka lrñka isà' ta
f,dfõ nyq;rh bia,dï wd.u woyk njh' Tyq
w;r f.da,Sh WKqiqu by< hEu md,kh lr.;
jHx.fhka m%ldY lf<a thu bia,duh jvd;a
i;Hhg <`. nj fmkajd fok idOlhla njh' fkdyelsj udkjhd Nhdkl mßir w¾nqohlg
uqyqK § isà' f,dalfha wd¾Ól .=re;aj flakaøh
úisjk ishji ;=< f,dalfha bia,dï woykakkaf.a w;a,ka;sla id.rfha isg ^1950& bkaÈhdkq id.rh
m%;sY;h iS>%fhka by< .sh nj i;Hhls' mj;akd olajd ^2020& .uka lrñka isà' wdishdfõ ish¨
ixLHd f,aLk wkqj th 2018 j¾Ifha§ 24] ls' rgj,a iS>% wd¾Ól j¾Okhlg .uka lrñka we;'
fjka fjka jQ ls%ia;shdks ksldhka wkqj .;a l,
ls%ia;shdksh woyk msßi 29] ls' ta wkqj ysianq,a,d Y%S ,xldj bka§h id.rfha uOHfha msysgd we;s ksid
uy;d ksjerÈ ke;s nj we;eul=g ;¾l l< yelsh' fï kj f,dal wd¾Ól m%jK;dj wehg ;ukg
flfia fj;;a ls%ia;shdks rgj,a f,dalfha o< cd;sl m%;sM,odhl f,i fhdod.ekSug úYd, wjia:djla
ksIamdos;fhka 46] la md,kh lrkd úg bia,dï we;s ù we;' fmrÈ. isg yuk fjf<| iq<`.
woyk rgj, o< cd;sl mx.=j 8] la muKla nj ,xldfõ lyjkq wiajekak irelrkq we;af;a bka§h
ie,lsh hq;=h' id.rfha fudaiï jeis ,xldfõ wgqfldgq msrùug;a
jvd iS.% f,i h'
fuhska woyia jkafka wd¾Ól j¾Okh i|yd
ls%ia;shdksh jvd fyd| udÈ,shla njo@ ^fuh jir ,xldj fï jdisodhl wjia:dj veye.ekSug
2000 § mdmajykafia úiskau m%ldY lrk ,È'& iQodkï o@
tfy;a" h:d¾:h kï ish¨ rgj,a wd¾Ól ÈhqKqj
yd n,h mj;ajdf.k we;af;a foúhka weoySu wfkla w;ska f,dfõ we;s jQ ld¾ñl úma,j ;=ku
fyda fkdweoySu ^fldñhqksiaÜ fyda wfoajjd§ùu& ^1760-2010& hqfrdamh yd W;=re weußldj n,j;a
u; fkdj udkjhdf.a ;dlaIK ks¾udKYS,S;ajh" lf<a h' i;rjeks ld¾ñl úma,jh wdishdfõo
ixúOdkd;aul yelshdj wdÈh u; nj h' ks¾udKhla ù we;' fi!LH iïmkak W.;a Y%u

6 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


n,ldh me;af;ka .;a l, wjg l,dmfha rgj,g rdcH uQ,H w¾nqoh wd¾:sl w¾nqohlg;a" th
jvd ,xldj jdisodhl ;ekl isà' iudc foaYmd,k w¾nqohlg;a u`. me§fï úYd,
bvlvla mj;S'
fldaá foll" tkï ñ,shk 20l zl=iZ .ek
l;dlrñka isákjdg jvd fldaá foll inqoaêl wfkla w;ska rg foaYmd,ksl yd wd¾Ól jYfhka
zzfud<ZZ f.dvke.Su .ek kj foaYmd,k l;sldjla fukau iudcSh yd wd.ñl jYfhkao wd;;shlg
yd Ndú;hla wjYHh'
,laj we;' mdial= bßod m%ydr yd bia,dóh
uQ,O¾ujd§ oDIaájdohka úiska fiiq wd.ñl
mdßißl jYfhkao Y%S ,xldj wo isákafka
ikaêia:dkhlh' tla w;lska ¥m;a rdcHhla ùu lKavdhï ìhg m;alr we;' ta w;ru uOHia:
ksid;a" f.da,Sh WKqiqfï Nhdkl m%;súmdl wmg uqia,sï ckhdo ìhg m;aù we;' wfkla w;ska wmf.a
±ka ±fkñka we;' rfÜ tla me;a;l c, .e,Sï" foaYmd,kfha merKs u;jdoj, nr úiska we;eï
;j;a me;a;l ksh`.h f,i c, wd;;shla we;sù n,.;= foaYmd,k jHdmdr w¾nqohg hjd we;'
we;' uqyqÿ c,h msßisÿ c, uQ,dY%j,g uqiqùfï fjku rdcHhla fyda fmvr,a l%uhla ms<sn| we;eï
wk;=r fjr< ;Srfha nrm;, f,i mek ke.S fou< kdhlhskaf.a wdodk.%dyS;ajh" udlaiajdoh"
we;' ,xldj úêu;a mßir ie,iqula we;slr iudcjdoh" ,snr,ajdoh" iudc m%cd;ka;%jdoh wd§
fkd.;fyd;a bÈß oYl ;=k ;=< rfÜ jhU" W;=r" lKaKdäj,ska f,dalh foi ne,Sfï wdodk.%dyS;ajh"
W;=reueo m%foaY w¾O ldka;dr njg;a" l÷lr ;%dv f,i cd;sl yd wd.ñl ye`.Sï wjq¿jd ck;dj
m%foaY udkj jdihg kqiqÿiq m%foaY njg;a" ngysr
;=< wkdrlaIs; njla we;slr" tkï m%Yakhla
yd W;=re fjr< m%foaY c,h ms<sn| m%Yakj,g;a
we;slr" ms<s;=r ;uka hehs fmkajd fok jHdc
f.dÿreùug bv we;' fï ms<sn|j" mgq mdßißl
;%dv jHdmdr ñi" jeo.;a ixjdohla rg ;=< cd;sljdoj, Nhdkl miq.dó ls%hdldÍ;ajh wdÈh
we;af;au ke;s ;rïh' úiska Y%S ,xld iudchg w¨;ska is;kakg bvlv
iSudlr we;'
wfkla w;ska 1998 oS wvq wdodhï rgl isg my<
ueÈ wdodhï rgla njg m;aùfuka miq Y%S ,xldj ta w;r fN!;sl ÈhKqj ,enqKo kd.ÍlrKfha
ueÈ wdodhï W.=,g yiqù we;s njla fmkS hhs' wiykh ^ud¾. ;onoh" li, yd f,vfrda."
úfYaIfhka miq.sh jir 06 l ld,h ;=< ,xldfõ wOHdmk ;r.h& úiska o ;u m%d¾:kdj, ;rug
wd¾Ól j¾Okh ukao.dó ù we;' ,xldj wd¾Ól wfmalaId bgq fkdùu ksid we;sjk udkisl wd;;sho
w;ska tl ;ek m,afjk ;;a;ajhlg m;aj we;so@ iudch f,vlrjd we;' kS;sh yd iduh ms<sn| jQ
tfiakï wm úiska wd¾Ól udÈ,sh yd Wmdh ud¾.h wdh;kj, ì|jeàu yd ÿ¾j, ls%hdldÍ;ajh ksid
úma,jldÍ f,i fjkial< hq;= hq.hlg meñK iudc úkh" wjxl;ajh fmr fkdjQ úrE f,i ì|
;sfío@ jefgñka we;'

wfkla w;ska rdcH uQ,Hh nrm;, w¾nqohlg


rg foaYmd,k lvbula lrd .uka lrñka isákafka
uqyqK § we;' rcfha wdodhu Kh yd fmd,sh
fï w;r;=rh' fï ,shú,a, ta i|yd jQ ixjdofhka
f.ùug fyda 2019 m<uq yh ui ;=< m%udKj;a ù
ke;' ^wdodhu ì,shk 894la úh' Kh yd fmd,sh Wmka tlla jk w;r" wkd.; ixjdohlg
ì,shk 1100 ls&' úfYaIfhka Kh jdßlfha we;s fm<fmd;la o jkq we;' jD;a;Shfõ§ka yd ±kque;s
úfoaY mx.=j" thskq;a úfoaY uQ,H fjf<|fmdf<ka iudc ls%hdldÍka fï ft;sydisl wjia:dj u`.
,ndf.k we;s m%udKh wmf.a uQ,H w¾nqoh ;Sj%lr yeßhfyd;a fyda jHdc m%pdrl hqoaOj, isrlrejka
we;' jqjfyd;a bÈß oYlh Y%S ,xldjg b;d ìhlre
isyskhla jkq we;'
rg nxfldf,d;a ùfï wjodkulg uqyqK foñka
mj;S' mdial= bßod ;%ia; m%ydr úiska fï w¾nqoh
ish¨ fCI;%j, ;jÿrg;a ;Sj%lr we;'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 7


8 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu
úuiqu - 1

cd;sl ixj¾Ok wNsfhda. (


bkak ysf;k rglg ;j ÿro @

1987-89 hq.fha we;s jQ cúfm ikakoaO wr.,fha § irKd.;hska nj fmkS .sfha rgg iduh Wodùfuka
ke.=kq igka mdGhla jqfha uõìu ke;akï urKh miq mjd Tjqka Y%S ,xldjg fkdmeñKSsfuks'
hkakh' fuh lshqndkq úma,jfhka Wmqgd.;a
igka mdGhls' foaYfm%aufhka werô ;%ia;jd§ fld<U kd.ßlfhka msg; jeäu kd.ßl isxy,
iajrEmhlg l%ufhka m;a jQ tu ikakoaO l%shdoduh ck.ykh ´iafÜ%,shdfõ fu,an¾ka k.rfha;a"
wjika jqfha tlS le/,af,a kdhlhska" wkq.dñlhka hdmkfhka msg; jeäu kd.ßl fou< ck.ykh
yd thg iïnkaO fkdjq úYd, msßila o urKhg
lekvdfõ fgdfrdkafgda k.rfha;a Ôj;ajk njg
m;alr,ñks' ;j;a w;súYd, msßila foaYmd,k
jq jd¾;djka lshdmdkafka fï h:d¾:hhs' we;eï
irKd.;hska f,i hqfrdamh m%uqL úfoaY rgj,g
úpdrlhska Wmydid;aulj m%ldY lr we;af;a
ixl%uKh jQy' fujeksu ;;a;ajhla 1976-2009
fou< B<dï rdcHhla i`oyd jQ ikakoaO .egqfï§o uõìu ke;akï urKh fyda fou< B,u ke;akï
isÿúh' úYd, msßila urKhg m;afjoa§ ;j;a urKh hehs y`v k`.d m%ldY lrk whg ngysr
w;súYd, msßila úfoaY.; jQy' igka mdGhla rgj,g l,skau ùid myiqlu ÿkakd kï we;eïúg
f,i foaYfm%aó foaYmd,k irKd.;hska f,i fï ikakoaO .egqï f,a je.sÍulska f;drj wjika
fmkS isáho" Tjqkaf.ka id;sYh nyq;rh wd¾Ól lr.; yelsj ;snq njh'

rg yer hk wfma Y%uh


^2018 ka wjika jQ oi jir ;=< úfoia .; jQ ixLHdjka&

ldKavh ixLHdj
úoaj;a jD;a;Shfõ§ka 51,122
uOHu uÜgu 96,034
,smslre yd wdY%s; 139,215
mqyqKq Y%ñlhska 708,863
w¾O mqyqKq 40,823
kqmqyqKq 650,092
.Dyfiaúld 897,513
tl;=j 2,583,662

uQ,dY%h ( Y%S ,xld úfoaY fiajd kshqla;s ld¾hdxYh

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 9


miq.sh oYlhl ld,h ;=< úfoaY .; jQ iuia; nj fmks hhs' ,xldj bkak ysf;k ;ekla fkdjk
Y%S ,dxlsl Y%ñlhska ixLHdj ñ,shk 2'6 lg njla thska jegfya'
wdikak fõ' Tjqka úfoaYhka ys /lshd lrñka
/§ isák ld, iSudjka ms<sn|j ksYaÑ; o;a; Y%S ,xldj wid¾:l o @
fkdue;s jqjo" ñ,shk 8'5 la jk furg iuia;
Y%u n,ldh yd ii|k úg fuh úYd, m%udKhls' ,xldfõ 1948-2010 w;r ld,fha isÿ jQ f,a je.sÍï"
m%Yakh jvd;a nrm;, jkafka fï w;=ßka úYd, >d;k" w;=reoykaùï wd§ lreKq mokï lrf.k
m%;sY;hla ^wdikak jYfhka 38'5] la muK& Y%s ,xld rdcHh wid¾:l rdcHhla f,i kï
úoaj;a jD;a;Shfõ§kaf.a isg mqyqKq Y%ñlhska olajd lsßfï W;aidyhka mej;S we;' fndfyda ckm%sh
jQ ixj¾Ok ls%hdj,shg by< odhl;ajhla ,ndÈh úpdrlhska YS% ,xldj ish ckjd¾.sl in`o;d
yels msßila jk neúks' ksjerÈj l<ukdlrKh fkdl< ksid f,a je.sÍï
isÿ jQ njg ir, ks.ukhlgo t;s' ;j;a iuyre
ler,s ;;a;ajhka fkdue;sj jqj o jD;a;Sh" w¾O ta i`oyd wd¾Ól m%Yak fya;= jQ nj lsh;s' fmdÿfõ
jD;a;Sh yd idudkH Y%ñl wd§ f,io úYd, jYfhka ,xld rdcHh yd iudch .ek úfYaIfhkau
úfoaYj,g .uka lsÍuo fndfydaúg tajdfha w¾O foaYmd,lhska .ek we;af;a lgql úfõpkhls'
yd iaÓr mÈxÑùïo isÿfjñka mj;sk nrm;, zzY%S ,xldj Kh nßka fm¿k rglsZZ" zzY%S ,xldj
l%shdj,shls' úfYaIfhka wOHdmkh i`oyd úfoaY f,dalfha oßø;u rdcHhkaf.ka tllsZZ" zzY%s ,xldj
.;jk YsIH m%cdj úiska ie,lsh hq;= úfoaY úksuh mßir úkdYh w;ska wxl tfla rglsZZ" zzÔjk
m%jdyhla Y%S ,xldfjka msg;g weo.kq ,efí' nr bis,sh fkdyelZZ" zzksoyia wOHdmkh yd
fi!LHh Èfkka Èk lmamdÿ fjñka we;ZZ" zzÿ.Slu"
j¾;udkfha wfma úfoaY wdodhïj, úYd,;u ú/lshdj" kq.;alu yd frda.dndO iS>%fhka
ixrplh jkafkao úfoaY.; Y%ñlhkaf.a jHdma; fjñka we;ZZ" zzY%S ,xldj l=vq yd u;aøjH
iïfm%aIKhhs' fuh fndfydaÿrg w¾O jD;a;Sh" ;smafmd,lsZZ" zziudc iodpdrh ì`ojefgñka we;ZZ"
mqyqKq yd kqmqyqKq Y%ñl msßia ksid isÿfõ' zzwd.ñl ixia:d mjd msßfyñka we;ZZ wd§ f,i fï
jD;a;Shfõ§ka Wmhk úfoaY Okh fndfyda ÿrg úfõpkh bÈßhg hhs'
fjk;a rgj, wdfhdackh ùu fyda ,xldfõ foam<
úl=Kd Okh úfoaY .;ùu fydaa isÿfõ' we;a;gu ,xldj wid¾:l rglao@ ksoyiska miq
wm <`.d lr .;a lsisÿ ch.%yKhla ke;so@
,xldfõ wo mj;sk úYd,;u foaYmd,k úys¿j
udkj ixj¾Okh uek ne,Su i|yd Ndú;jk
kï f,dl=u foaYfm%aóka yd cd;sudulhska tlaflda
f,dj ms<s.;a ñkqïo`vq lsysmhla weiqfrka Y%S ,xldj
úfoaY rgj, mqrjeishka ùu ke;skï ore mjq,a
fuu l,dmfha rgj,a lsysmhla yd ixj¾ê; rgj,a
úfoaY rgj, mqrjeishka ùu fyda ish foafmd, lsysmhla iu`. ii|d n,uq'
úfoaY rgj, ;ekam;a l< wh ùuh'
rgl fi!LH fCI;%h ms<sn|j jeo.;a o¾Yl
;jo rfÜ ck.ykfhka ie,lsh hq;= msßila lsysmhla kï Wmf;a § wdhq wfmalaIdj <ore urK
wjia:djla ,enqKfyd;a úfoaY.; ùug iqodkï wkqmd;h yd ud;D urK wkqmd;hhs'

10 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


wdhq wfmalaIdj

rg Wmf;a§ wdhq wfmalaIdj ^2017&


cmdkh 84.1
tlai;a rdcOdksh 81.0
weußld tlai;a ckmoh 78.7
Ökh 76.3
YS% ,xldj 75.5
nx.a,dfoaYh 72.5
fkamd,h 70.6
bkaÈhdj 68.8
mdlsia;dkh 66.6

uQ,dY%h( f,dal nexl=j

<ore urK wkqmd;h ^Wm;a oyilg&


rg <ore urK wkqmd;h ^Wm;a oyilg& ^2017&
cmdkh 1.9
tlai;a rdcOdksh 3.6
weußld tlai;a ckmoh 5.8
Ökh 6.1
YS% ,xldj 7.5
nx.a,dfoaYh 26.9
fkamd,h 27.8
bkaÈhdj 32.0
mdlsia;dkh 61.2

uQ,dY%h( f,dal fi!LH ixúOdkh

ud;D urK wkqmd;h ^Wm;a oyilg&


rg ud;D urK wkqmd;h ^Wm;a oyilg& ^2017&
cmdkh 5.0
tlai;a rdcOdksh 9.0
Ökh 19.6
weußld tlai;a ckmoh 26.4
YS% ,xldj 30.0
nx.a,dfoaYh 143.0
bkaÈhdj 174.0
mdlsia;dkh 178.0
fkamd,h 258.0

uQ,dY%h( f,dal fi!LH ixúOdkh

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 11


fï ixLHd f,aLkhkaf.ka fmkS hkafka Y%S ,xldj tal mqoa., wdodhu w;ska my< ueÈ wdodhï rgla jQjdg
fi!LH o¾Yl w;ska m<uq f,dalfha rgj,aj,g iu.dó njh'

ó<`.g wOHdmkh ms<sn|j fmdÿfõ fhdod.kq ,nk o¾Yl lsysmhla ms<sn| úuid n,uq'

idlaIr;djh

rg idlaIr;djh ^2017&
isx.mamQrej 98.0
uef,aishdj 96.3
YS% ,xldj 92.4
nx.a,dfoaYh 72.9
bkaÈhdj 74.0
mdlsia;dkh 62.3
ol=Kq wdishdj 67.58

rg m%d:ñl wOHdmkhg oaù;shsl wOHdmkhg lD;Sl wOHdmkhg


msúiSu % ^2017& msúiSu % ^2017& msúiSu % ^2017&
isx.mamQrej 100.7 108.0 83.9
uef,aishdj 103.0 86.1 41.9
YS% ,xldj 101.8 97.9 18.9
nx.a,dfoaYh 111.0 67.2 17.6
bkaÈhdj 114.5 75.1 27.5
mdlsia;dkh 95.9 45.4 10.1

uQ,dY%h( f,dal nexl=j

wOHdmkh ms<sn| jQ by; o¾Ylhkaf.ka fmkShkafkao wm f,dj uq,a fmf<a rgj,g iu.dó njh; l,dmSh
jYfhka fmruqfKa isák njh'

rgl ;srir ixj¾Okh uekSu i|yd fhdod .efkk ;j;a jeo.;a fCI;%hla jkafka mßirhhs' tal mqoa.,
ldnka úfudapkh yd jk .yKh tys,d jeo.;a ;ekla .kS' Y%S ,xldfõ tal mqoa., ldnka úfudapkh fuÜ%la
fgdka 0'89 la jk w;r jk .yKh N+ñ m%udKfhka 29'7] ls'

12 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


tl mqoa., ldnka úfudapkh ^fuá%la fgdkaia&

fkamd,h nx.a,dfoaYh mlsia;dkh Y%S ,xldj bkaÈhdj w't'c' Ökh cmdkh t' rdc'

uQ,dY%h( f,dal nexl=j 2016

Y%S ,xldj fndfyda ÿrg mßir o¾Ylj,ska ;ju;a fyd| ;;a;j


a hl mj;sk nj fuu o;a; u.ska fmkajd fohs'
ú/lshdj
rg ú/lshd wkqmd;h ;reK ú/lshd wkqmd;h
cmdkh 2.4 3.6
fkamd,h 2.7 19.2
weußld tlai;a ckmoh 3.9 8.6
Ökh 3.9 10.6
YS% ,xldj 4.2 21.0
tlai;a rdcOdksh 4.3 12.1
nx.a,dfoaYh 4.4 12.8
bkaÈhdj 6.1 23.7

uQ,dY%h( f,dal nexl=j 2016 - 2018

oßø;djh
rg cd;sl oßø;d f¾Ldjg my< m%;sY;h
Ökh 3.1
YS% ,xldj 4.1
weußld tlai;a ckmoh 12.3
tlai;a rdcOdksh 14.2
cmdkh 15.7
bkaÈhdj 21.9
nx.a,dfoaYh 24.3
mdlsia;dkh 24.3
fkamd,h 25.2

uQ,dY%h( f,dal nexl=j 2016 - 2018

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 13


udkj ixj¾Ok o¾Ylh

rg ia:dkh 2018 udkj ixj¾Ok o¾Ylh udkj ixj¾Ok ldKavh


fkda¾fõ 1 0.953 b;d by<
fydxfldx 7 0.933 b;d by<
isx.mamQrej 9 0.932 b;d by<
cmdkh 19 0.909 b;d by<
YS% ,xldj 76 0.770 by<
bkaÈhdj 130 0.640 uOHu
nx.a,dfoaYh 136 0.608 uOHu
mdlsia;dkh 150 0.562 uOHu

uQ,dY%h - tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ixj¾Ok jevigyk ^2018&

wd¾Ól ;;a;ajh" wOHdmkh" fi!LHh iy we;eï mdßißl lreKq hk ish,a, tlaj .;a l, ,xldj by<
udkj ixj¾Ok w.hla ,ndf.k we;'
o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;h
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
tal mqoa., o'foa'ks' ^kdñl
w.h& fvd,¾ 2,799.6 3,200.8 3,350.5 3,610.3 3,819.3 3,843.8 3,886.3 4,104.6 4,102.5
talmqoa., o'foa'ks' ^idfmalaI
ñ,§.ekSfï yelshdj& fvd,¾ 8328.9 9155.6 10171.4 10618.2 11250.3 11830.6 12359.3 12,878.5 13,449.9
o'foa'ks' ^kdñl w.h& fvd' ì' 56.73 65.29 68.44 74.29 79.36 80.55 81.79 87.17 88.91
o'foa'ks' ^idfmalaI ñ,§ .ekSfï
yelshdj& fvd' ì' 172.28 186.76 203.84 210.76 221.21 232.29 t242.72 251.02 259.07
uQ,dY%h - f,dal nexl=j

fjf<| fYaIh ^wdkhk wmkhk mr;rh& j¾;k .sKqfï fYaIh ^ish¨ úfoaY fjf<odï yd
.kqfokqj, fYaIh&
cmdkh 2018 (o< w.h) cmdkh 2018 ( Provisional)
;reK ú/lshd wkqmd;h
we'fvd' ñ,shk re' ñ,shk
we'fvd' ñ,shk re' ñ,shk -2,814 -454,308
j¾;k .sKqfï
fjf<| fYaIh -10,343 -1,673,111 fYaIh

f.jqï fYaIfha ys`.h ( weußldkq fvd,¾ ñ,shk 1100


wd¾Ól iudcSh yd mdßißl wxYj,ska idfmalaIj hs' ^ish¨ úfoaY .kqfokq Kh mshùï iys;j&
by< m%.;shla ±lajqo wd¾Ól ;r`.ldÍ;ajh w;ska uQ,dY%h - Y%S ,xld uy nexl=j" 2018

Y%S ,xldj my< uÜgulg m;aj w;snj úfoaY


fjf<|du iïnkaO o;a; wdY%fhka meyeÈ,sfõ'
wmkhk wdodhu my< hoa§ wdkhku; mokïjq
jir 2000 jk úg o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;fhka 33%
ixlS¾K cSjk rgdjla mj;ajd.ekSug hdfï§
la muk jQ wmf.a NdKav wmkhk fï jkúg
f.jqï fYaIfha wiu;=,s; ;djhla ks¾udKh
13% olajd my< nei we;' óg m%Odk fya;=jla ù
jkw;r È.gu mj;akd úfoaY úksuh W!k;d
we;af;a f,dalfha wfkl=;a rgj,a iu. ii|k úg
mshjd.ekSu i|yd Kh u; hemSug isÿfõ'
wmf.a wmkhk f.da,Sh ;r`.ldÍ;ajhg id¾:lj
wmkhk ;r`.ldÍ;ajh j¾Okh lrf.k ta yryd
uqyqK § fkdue;sùu yd úúOdx.SlrKh lrf.k
wdkhk i|yd f.ùug m%udkj;a úfoaY úksuh
fkdue;s ùuh'

14 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


Wmhd fkd.kakd f;la wd¾Ólfha úfoaY Kh nr ² o< cd;sl ksIamdÈ;hg idfmalaIj rdcH Kh
wvqlr.; fkdyelsjkq we;' nr idfmalaIj by< w.hla .kakd njh'
² rdcH wdodhfuka id;sYh nyq;rh Kh f.ùug
mj;sk ;;a;ajh wkqj úfoaY Kh f.ùfï w¾nqoh jehfjk njh'
rg nxfldf,d;a ùfï bu lrd f.khñka we;' ² Kh ixhq;f s ha úfoaY Kh ixrplh b;d
fõ.fhka j¾Okh ù we;s njh'
Kh W.=, ² ,xldfõ Kh ixhq;h s l%ufhka jdKsc Kh
m%udKh jeäfjk w;g jQ m%jK;djhlska
rdcH Kh iïnkaOfhka .;a l, Y%S ,xldj hq;= njh' tkï jeä fmd,S" flá ld,Sk Kh
lsishï wdldrhl nrm;, Kh W.=,l meg,S m%udKh wêl njh'
we;s nj meyeÈ,sh' rdcH Kh" rdcH wdh;k yd ² úfoaY Kh f.ùï l%ufhka b;d by< w.hla
mqoa.,sl wdh;kj, Kh" iudcuh f,i jQ Kh f.k we;s njh'
wd§ f,i Kh.e;sNdjhla we;' wfkla w;ska Kh ² úfoaY yd foaYh S Kh f.ùug w¨f;ka Kh
yd wdfhdackh tlúg isÿfõ' .;a Khj,g iudk .ekSu ksid úIu pl%hla f.dvke.S we;s njh'
fyda jeä foam< we;akï Kh f.jd .; yels f,i ² úfoaY úksuh ms<n s `o .eg¨jla mek ke.S we;s
wdodhï we;akï fl;rï Kh nr ;snqK;a m%Yakhla njh'
ke;' m%Yakh we;af;a ,xldjg Khj,g iß,k ² Wmdh ud¾.sl rdcH wdh;k .Kkdjla ^f;,a
foam, we;so@ Kh f.jd .; yels mßÈ wdodhï ixia:dj" úÿ,sn, uKav,h" c, iïmdok
we;so@ Kh nr;a iu`. thg jeä fú.hlska uKav,h" jrdh yd .=jka fiajd wdh;k& wêl
wdodhï jeäùo@ hk lreKq iïnkaOfhks' Kh nr yd mdvq ,eîï ksid wd¾Ólhg ;j
;j;a nrla fjñka mj;sk njh'
miq.sh oYlhl yudrl w;a±lSï wmg mjikafka" ² Kh nr fyda Kh ixhq;h s .ek nrm;,
wjOdkhlska f;drj ckm%h s f;audjka Tiafia
² wdldr lSmhl Kh w¾nqohla we;s njh'
wdKavjq ish úohï jeälr .ksñka isákd njh'

iuia; rdcH Kh o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;fha m%;sY;hla f,i

uQ,dY%h - uynexl=j " 2018 $ f,dal nexl=j

neÆ ne,aug rdcH Kh o' foa' ks' m%;sY;hla f,i 1990-2003 ld,iSudjg idfmalaIj wvq njla fmkqko
Kh ixhq;sfha fjkialï rg wjodkï ;;ajhlg m;alr we;' 2007-2014 jljdkqfõ§ Y%S ,xldj m,uq jrg
iaffjÍ ne÷ïlr ksl=;al, w;r rdcH wdfhdack i|yd Y%S ,xld ixj¾Ok ne|ïlr;a jir 5-10 ;a w;r
ld,iSudjlska f.úh hq;= jQ iaffjÍ ne÷ïlr;a ùYd, jYfhka fhdod .ekqks' tfy;a fuu wdfhdack wd¾Ól
m%;s,dN ,efnk jHdmD;sj,g M,odhS f,i fhdod.ekqfkao hkak ms<sn| nrm;, .eg¨jla mj;S'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 15


iykodhS Kh" iykodhS fkdjk Kh iy jdKsc Kh m%;sY;hka 2005 - 2018

jdKsc Kh iykodhS fkdjk Kh iykodhS Kh


uQ,dY%h - Y%S ,xld uy nexlj

úfoaYSh jdKsc Kh ^wêl fmd,S wkqmd;& yd iuia; úfoaYSh Kh w;r wkqmd;h 2005 - 2018

iuia; úfoia Kh ;=< SLBD, ISB iy fjk;a uQ,H fjf<|


Kh ,nd.ekSï

uQ,dY%h - f,dal nexl= o;a;

úfoaYSh Kh m%udKfha iykodhS fkdjk jdKsc Kh ixrplh m%udKh nrm;, f,i by< f.dia we;'

16 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


úfoaYSh Kh ixhq;sh ^oaúmd¾Yaúl" cd;Hka;r uQ,H wdh;k" jdKsc Kh& 2005 - 2018
f.ùug kshñ; úfoia Kh ms<sn| ysñldr;ajh

uQ,H fjf<|fmd< oaùmd¾Yaúl nyqmd¾Yaúl


uQ,dY%h - Y%S ,xld uy nexlj

Kh jdßl yd fmd,S úhou rdcH wdodhug orK wkqmd;h 2005 - 2018

rcfha wdodhï i|yd iuia; Kh fiajdj

uQ,dY%h - Y%S ,xld uy nexlj

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 17


wefußldkq fvd,rhg idfmaCIj yqjudre wkqmd;h( udisl idudkHh

uQ,dY%h - f,dal nexl=j

ta wkqj Y%S ,xldj uqyqKmd we;s fuu nrm;, Kh Y%S ,xldfõ Kh w¾nqoh ms<sn|j l;d lrk
w¾nqohg uQ,sl fya;=j jkafka Y%S ,xldfõ rdcH Kh úg Ök Kh ms<sn| l;djo fndfyda úg i|yka
.ekSï l%ñlj jdksc Kh njg m;aù;a fláld,Sk fõ' Ökfha Kh m%udKh Y%S ,xldfõ iïmQ¾K
jdksc Kh È.=ld,Sk jHdmD;sj, wdfhdackh lsÍu m%Yakfhka fldgila mu‚' tajd we;eï úg rdcH
fyda m%;s,dN fkd,efnk jHdmD;sj, wdfhdackh ;dka;%slj úiod .ekSug jqj yelshdj we;' kuq;a
lsÍu;ah' tfyhska wêl fmd,shg" flá ld,Sk cd;Hka;r jd‚c fj<|fmdf<ka ,nd .;a Kh
úfoaY Kh .ekSfï úIu pl%hlg 2009 jif¾ Y%S ,xldfõ m%Odku wd¾Ól m%Yakh jk w;r" th
bÈß j¾I lSmh ;=< Y%S ,xldj wd¾Ól yd uQ,Huh
isg ,xldj yiq ù we;' WodyrKhla jYfhka
w;ska nxfldf,d;a ;;a;ajhgu m;a lsÍfï wk;=rg
2019 j¾Ifha § úfoaYkag f.úh hq;= Kh jdßl
msh uek we;'
úYaf,aIkh l< úg fmkS hkafka jdßlfhka 75 % lg
jvd wod, jkQfha 2006 - 2014 w;r § ,nd.;a flá Kh nßka .e,ùug" úfYaIfhka flÈkl fyda
ld,Sk Kh f.ùu i|yd njhs' 1950 - 2005 olajd Kh f.ùug fkdyels ù nxfldf,d;aùug fmr
uq¨ ld,iSudj ;=< ,nkd.;a Kh i|yd wod, ^.S%ish" wh¾,ka;h" whsia,ka;h" wd¾ckaákdj
jdßl m%udkh 2019 uq¨ jdßlfhka 12% ;rï iq¨ wd§& iqúfYaIs wd¾Ól m%;sixialrKhla rgg
w;HdjYHh' wd¾Ólfha jvd mq¿,a m%;sks¾udKhla
m%udkhls' fï ksid flá ld,Sk jd‚c Kh mshùug
i`oyd m%Yakh úêu;aj y`ÿkd.ekSula wjYHh'
;j;a Kh .ekSug;a" rg nxfldf,d;aùu j<lajd
.ekSu i|yd jl% nÿ ck;dj u; megùug;a ,xldj ;ju;a ueÈ wdodhï rgls'
rchg isÿj we;'
cd;Hka;r uq,H wdh;kj, w¾: ±laùug wkqj
Y%S ,xldj uOH wdodhï rgla jQ miq thg m%odkhka ,xldj ;ju;a ueÈ wdodhï rgls' f,dal nexl=j
yd iyk Kh ,eîï iSudiys; úh' kuq;a cd;Hka;r u.ska ta ta rgj, tal mqoa., o< cd;sl wdodhu
uQ,H wdh;k fukau oaù md¾Yaúl Kh uÕska újD; mokï lr.ksñka f,dalfha rgj,a ldKav y;rlg
fj<|fmdf<a Khj,g jvd iykodhS ;;a;ajhla fnod we;' tkï wvq wdodhï rgj,a my< ueo
we;s lr .ekSug yelshdj ;sì‚' tu ;;a;ajh wdodhï rgj,a" by< ueÈ wdodhï rgj,a yd by<
wfmka .s,syS f.dia we;' wdodhï rgj,a hkqfjks'

18 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


rdcH Kh w¾nqoh wd¾Ól yd foaYmd,k w¾nqohlg;a
iudc jHikhlg;a m;aùfï wk;=r

iudc jHikh

foaYmd,k w¾nqoh

wd¾Ól w¾nqoh

foaYSh Kh
úfoaY jdksc fjf<|m< fjf<|m< Wmdhud¾.sl
;=< nxfldf,d;a ùu wd¾Ólhg rdcH wdh;k ì|jeàu
nrla ùu

rdcH uQ,H w¾nqoh

ord.; fkdyels fmd,sh yd Kh jdßlh

kej; kej;;a
È.=ld,Sk jvjvd;a
mqkrdj¾;k m%;s,dN fkdue;s kdia;sldr
m%;s:, iys; flá ld,Sk
úhoï wdfhdack
wdfhdack Kh ,nd .ekSug
isÿùu

fláld,Sk foaYSh yd úfoaYSh jdKsc Kh

úfoaY Kh foaYsh Kh

rdcH Kh

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 19


wdodhï ldKavh tal mqoa., o< cd;sl wdodhu ^we't'c' fvd,¾&
wvq wdodhï rgj,a < 1,025
my< ueÈ wdodhï rgj,a 1,026 - 3,995
by< ueÈ wdodhï rgj,a 3,996 - 12,375

by< wdodhï rgj,a > 12,375


uQ,dY%h ( f,dal nexl=j" 2019

1998 jif¾ isg my< ueÈ wdodhï rgla f,i fm<kd wd¾Ól .eg¨ iu`. ;j;a oYl ;=klska
mej;s ,xldj 2019 cq,s udifha § isÿlrk ,o by< wdodhï rgla ùu flfiafj;;a ueÈ wdodhï
kj;u ldKav.;lrKh wkqj by< ueÈ wdodhï l,dmfha /`§ isàuo wNsfhda.hls' Y%S ,xldjg ish
l,dmfha wju iSudjg hdka;ñka <Õdù isáho fï úfoaY jdKsc Kh mshjd .; fkdyels jqjfyd;a
i|yd jeh l< jir .Kk yd iei£fï § ,xldj we;eï úg kej; wvq wdodhï rgla njg m;aùfï
ueÈ wdodhï W.=, kñka ye¢kafjk ukao.dó wk;=ro we;'
wd¾Ól j¾Ok ;;a;ajfhka ksoyiaj fkdue;s nj
fmkS hhs' ,xldj by< wdodhï rgla ùug fï flfia fj;;a wm wjg l,dmfha rgj,a miq.sh
hk ;d,hg .shfyd;a ;j;a oYl ;=kla muK oYl y;rl ld,h ;=< id¾:lj ueÈ wdodhï
.;jkq we;af;ah' ^2050& f,dalfha we;eï rgj,a ;;a;ajfha isg by< wdodhï ;;a;ajh olajd
ÈhqKq rgj,a f,i mej;s ueÈ wdodhï rgj,a njg mßKduh ù we;s fyda mßKduh fjñka we;'
m;ajQ wjia:do we;' tjka ;;a;ajhla ;=< ,xldj

my< wdodhfï isg by< wdodhu lrd'''


wdishdkq rgj,a lsysmhl miq.sh oYl lsysmh ;=< wd¾Ól j¾Okh

20 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


isx.mamQrej ol=Kq fldßhdj ;dhsjdkh fydxfldx tfukau f,dalfha wd¾Ól .=re;aj flakaøh l%ufhka
uef,aishdj iy úhÜkduh fï i|yd WodyrK wdishdfõ wm wjg l,dmhg .uka lrñka isá'
fõ' 1960 j¾Ifha§ talmqoa., o< cd;sl ksIamdÈ;h
jir 2000 § fvd,¾ á%,shk 33'6 l l,dmSh
weußldkq fvd,¾ 150la jQ ;dhsjdkh 2017 jir ksIamdÈ;hla iu`. iuia; f,dal wd¾Ólfhka 25]
jk úg th fvd,¾ ^24"000& olajd j¾Okh lr l m%;sY;hla ysñlrf.k isá wdishd Ydka;slr
.ksoa§" tu ld,h ;=<u ol=Kq fldßhdj fvd,¾ l,dmh jir 2016 jk úg fvd,¾ á%,shk 75'8
158 isg 36"000 olajd;a isx.mamQrej fvd,¾ 427 l l ksIamdÈ;hla iu`. f,dal wd¾Ólfhka 33] la
isg 53"000 olajd j¾Okh ùfï§ ,xldfõ j¾Okh ysñlr.ksñka f,dalfha jvd;a iS.%fhka ÈhqKqjk
fvd,¾ 142 isg 3958 lg iSud ù we;' wd¾Ól l,dmh njg m;aj we;'

f.da,Sh wd¾Ól .=re;aj flakaøh kej;;a wdishdj fj;g'''

tfiakï wehs wm ;ju;a ueÈ wdodhï rgla fyda ÿmam;a rgla ù we;af;a@ wOHdmkh" fi!LHh" mßirh wd§
fCIa;%j, wm ,nd we;s ch.%yKh wd¾Ól fCIa;%fha ch.%yKhla fkdù we;af;a wehs@

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 21


wfma wd¾Ól udÈ,s fjf<`odu o we;s úh' fuhg fjf<`o iq<x yd
wmf.a iqúfYaIS N+f.da,Sh msysàu WmldÍ úh' Ök"
merKs hq.h bka§h" wrdì fjf<`odfï uq,sl rdcHhla njg YS%
,xldj m;aúh'
fndfyda fofkla úYajdi lrkafka wmf.a merKs
hq.h lDIsl¾udka;h muKla ;snq hq.hla njh' fï ksid w;S; YS% ,xldj yqÿ lDIs rdcHhlau fkdj
udkj mßKduh ú.%y lrkakka fndfyda ÿrg l=¿nvq" uq;=" ueKsla" we;a mka;s wd§ oE yqjudre
tl`. ù we;af;a jir 15"000lg muK fmr udkj l< yd wmkhkh l< jdKsc rdcHhlao úh' merKs
mßKdufhao iudc l%shdj,sfhao uq,sl fjkila isÿ fiao udj; ;=< ,xldj jeo.;a ixêia:dkhla úh'
jq njh' tla w;lska mDÓúfha we,h iq¾hhd fj;g
WmÍu f,i <xùu ksid ^ñ,kafldúÉ wdprKh& ngysr hq.h
mDÓúfha WKqiqu jeä úh' iaÓr ysu Èhùï ksid
id.r c, uÜgu by< .sfhah' kj ìï m%foaY mD;=.Sis" ,kafoais" bx.%Sis ^m%xY yd fkda¾älajre
^W;a;r O%ej wdikakfha" olaIsK O%ej wdikakfha& we;=¿j& id.r ;rKfha fhÿfKa meyeÈ,sju jdKsc
udkj ixl%uK yd ckdjdi i`oyd újD; jQ w;r mrud¾: iys;jh' uq,skau mD;=.Sis keue;s l=vd
;j;a m%foaY c,fhka hgùu ksid wysñúh' Y%S rdcHhla" iamd[a[h;a uqi,audkqjkaf.ka ksoyi
,xldj bkaÈhdfjka fjka jQ iaÓr ÿm;la njg ,nd.ekSu;a iu`. id.r ;rKhg bÈßm;a jQy'
m;ajkakg we;af;a o fï wjia:dfõ § úh yel' tajd fndfydaÿrg mqoa.,sl Wkak;sldóka yd mqoa.,sl
jdKsc wdh;k wdl%uKYS,s rcjre yd l%sia;shdks
tfukau fjk;a úúO udkj m%fNao ^Homonid& m,a,sfha wkq.%yfhka isÿ l< l%shdj,shla úh' 13
wNsnjd kQ;k udkjhd .eàfukao" iyjdifhkao jeks ishjfia § b;d iq¿fjka wdrïN ù l%ufhka 14
n,j;a jkafkao fï hq.fha§h' tfukau ovhu yd - 15 jk ishjiaj,§ ms<sfj<ska wrdì" bkaÈhdkq yd
,enqKq fohska hemSu fjkqjg YdL yd i;aj úfYaI Ök id.r m%jdylhska yd jdKsc l%ShdldÍka wNsnjd
yS,Elrñka lDIs hq.hg t<fUkafkao fï hq.fha ^hqo n,h úiska& bkaÈhdkq id.rhg" w;a,ka;sla
§h' fï mßj¾;kh úfYaIfhka Y%s ,xldj m%uqL id.rhg yd meismsla id.rhg msúiSug fudjqka
>¾ul,dmSh rgj, isÿúh' f,dalfha merKsu j.d iu;a jQy' ,kafoaiskaf.a fmrÈ. fjf<`o iud.u
lrkd ,o OdkH" yS,Elrkd ,o .j" iqkL" ì<d," ^VOC& yd bx.%SiSskaf.a fmrÈ. bka§h iud.u ^EIC&
l=l=¿ wd§ oEo wU" oU" flfi,a wd§ m,;=re o fujeks úYd, iud.ïh' tajdfha fldgialrejka
lsß" meKs" u;aiH" wd§ kj wdydr o fï yd iu`.u f,i fjf<`ÿka fukau foaYmd,lhska" rdclShhka
ixúOdkd;aulj ks¾udKh úh' .u yd k.rh o isáfhdah' Tjqkaf.a iïmq¾K jEhu jqfha ,dNodhs
ks¾udKh úh' uqyqo yd c,;Sr w;sl%uKh flßKs' jHdmdr f,i ish hg;a úð; mj;ajd .ekSuh' ^miqj
kj wú wdhqO yd iudc ixúOdk ìysúh' udkjhd fïjd wod< rdcHhka hg;gu m;aúh'& mD;=.Siska
;ud wjg f,dalh fjkia lsßfï § Tyqo Ôjuh yd ,xldfõ wd¾Ólhg nrm;, f,i fj<`odu
iudcuh f,i fjkia úh' jvd iqug" iudcYs,S" tlal< w;r jdKsc ld¾hh u;u fjr< ;Srh
ikaksfõokh iys; iudc i;ajfhl= njg udkjhd m%Odk wd¾Ól uOHia:dkh yd tfyhskau jeo.;a
m;aúh' foaYmd,ksl uOHia:dkh njg mßj¾;kh úh'

Y%S ,xldfõ iqúfYaI;ajh jqfha th f,dalfha fjk;a jvd iqlaIu jQ ,kafoaiska n,fldgq moaO;shlao"
rgj, ke;s ;ukg wdfõKsl c,l<ukdlrKhla we, ud¾. Tiafia jq m%jdyk moaO;shlao" l=re`ÿ
^iïnkaê; jeõ& fkdfyd;a jdmS l¾udka;hla yd iy ÿïfld, wd§ f,i jq jdKsc jeú,s fCIA;%hlao"
thg neÿKq lDIs wd¾Ólhla fudaiï jeis iu`. k.r ks¾udKhkao l<y ^,xldfõ m%uqL jdia;=
f.dvk`.d .ekSuh' tfukau uq,a hq.fha§u wd§ úoHd{hska fndfyduhla ,kafoais" n¾.¾ Wreuh
jeishka úiska c,;,h w;sl%uKh lsÍu ksid iys; wh fj;s&' tfukau" kQ;k kS;s moaO;sh yd

22 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


ngysr wOHdmk moaO;sho kj foaYSsh m%N+ mka;Skao wdikakfhka ì%;dkH jd¾Isl o< cd;sl ksIamdÈ;h
ìys l<y' ^2015& fuka 17 .=Khla nj ^tkï fvd,¾ á%,shk
45la& .Kka n,d we;' ;j o 1800 § f,dalfha
bx.%SiSka úiska hqouh f,i Y%S ,xldj hg;a o'cd'ks' 23]la bka§h wd¾Ólh ì%;dkHhka hgf;a
lr.kakd ,§' ta yd iu`.u jdKsc jeú,s mdol 1950 § 3] olajd wvq jQ nj o fpdaokd t,a, ù we;'
lr.;a wmkhk jeú,s wd¾Ólhla we;s lrkd
,§' b;d iqlaIu f,i meje;s jdKsc fjf<|du yd ,xldfjkao ì%;dkHhka ie,lsh hq;= Okhla
hemqï lDIs wd¾Ólh o we.¿ï" hlv wd§ uq,sl Wmhd.;a nj meyeÈ,sh' wfkla w;ska ì%;dkHhka
l¾udka;hka o .%du rdcH l%uh o ì`o ouk ,§" meñfKk úg ,xld rdcHh ;snq ÿ¾j, wdldrh
ud¾." ÿïßh wd§ m%jdyk fCIA;%" k.r ks¾udKh" n,kd úg ,xldj fndfyda úg wrdì" m%xY fyda
isú,a rdcH fiajh" ksfhdað; m%cd;ka;%jdoh wd§ fjk;a jdKsc n,hlg hgùug o fndfyda bvlv
ks¾ñ; mßirh" iudch yd foaYmd,kfha§ wdmiq ;snq nj meyeÈ,sh'
yerúh fkdyels mßj¾;khka isÿ lrk ,§'
ì%;dkH md,kh hgf;a ,xldj bka§h id.rfha
fndfyda úg wefik m%Yakhla kï ngysr wdl%uKh jdKsc flakaøhla úh' fndfyda úfoaYslhkaf.a
,xldjg isÿ l< mßj¾;kh rgg iqnjd§ jqfhao@ ksjdvq kjd;eka fmd<la úh' bka§h kdhlhska
ke;skï ydkslr jqfhao@ hkakh' iqnjd§ jQj;a thg mjd ksjdvqjg meñKsfha msßisÿ" yß;" jvd ÈhqKq
f.jk ,o Ôú; jkaÈh yd iudc mßir jkaÈh w;s kd.ßl mßirhla iys;" foaY.=Ksl úúO;ajfhka
úYd, fkdjkafka o hkakh' hq;= ukd fjr< ;Sr iys; YS% ,xldjgh'

fmros. bkaÈhd iud.u fyda ì%;dkHh jdKsc 1950 § ,xldj bkak ysf;k rgla úh'
jeú,s m%p,s; lsßfï§;a" uydud¾." ÿïßh" f,dß"
nia r: wd§ m%jdyk udOH yÿkajd§fï§;a" úÿ,sh" m%Yakh we;af;a ì%;dkHhka f.dvke.= kùldrl
f;,a' .Eia" wd§ n,Yla;s m%fNao y`ÿkajd §fï§;a mokï u; foaYSh md,lhskag fydxfldx" isx.
jrdh" .=jkaf;dg" k.r ks¾udK jeks fN!;sl mamqrej yd ;dhsjdkh l<d fia wd¾Ól w;ska n,j;a
ie,iqïj,§;a" fiiq mßmd,kuh ldrKdj,§;a kùldrl rgla njg YS% ,xldj m;a l< fkdyels
meyeÈ,s f,i ,dNh bmehSu u; l%shd;aul úh' jQfha wehso hkakh'
ta wkqj ì%;dkHh ,xldfõ isÿl< f,a jel=Kq
m%;sixialrKh l%sia;%shdks wd.ñl jqjukdjka iajhxfmdaIs; wd¾Ólhla -
fjkqfjka ïf,aÉPhska YsIAG iïmkak lsÍula fyda
m<uq ksoyia hq.h
ldreKsl iudc iqnidOkhla fyda fkdùh' zzwd.uZZ
Tjqka isÿl< idmrdë l%shdjka idOdrKSslrKh lr
,xldfõ b;d ckm%sh igka mdGhla jqfha rg ish¨u
mqoa.,sl yDo idlaIsh uev.ekSu i`oyd fhdod.;a
NdKav yd fiajdj,ska iajhxfmdaIs; úh hq;= njh'
fuj,ula muKla úh'
fuhg wêrdcH hq.fha § n,mEfõ ì%;dkHhka
,xldfõ ì%;dkH isÿl< wdfhdackh" Tjqka úiska úiska ys;du;du Y%s ,xldfõ wd¾Ólh fn,ySk
,dNdxY fyda nÿ wdodhï f,i ,kavkhg f.k .sh lr mrdëk lrùu i`oyd foaYSh f.dú;ek yd
uqo," Tjqkf.a wêrdcHh /l.ekSu i`oyd ,dxlsl l¾udka; jkik ,o njh' wfkla me;af;ka m<uq
Y%uh hqoaOj,§ fyda j.djkays§ fhdod .;a wdldrh f,dal ix.%dufhka miq ìysjQ fidaúhÜ ix.uh yd
.ek mq¾K ú.%yhla ud kï fuf;la lshjd ke;' fmdÿfõ iudcjd§ woyia ksid rch mokï lr.;a
kuq;a bkaÈhdj iïnkaOfhka jQ tjeks ksnkaOk l¾udka; ms<sn`o jQ m%jK;djhlao úh' fuh
folla lshjd we;af;ñ' ^YIs ;re¾ - bkaf.da,ßhia fl,skau udlaiajdoh je<`o.;a foaYmd,lhskag
tïmh¾" WÜid meÜksla - ì%;dkHh bkaÈhdj wu;rj uOHia: ,snr,a u;OdÍkago ^bkaÈhdfõ
iqrdlEu& fï wkqj l%s'j' 1800 - 1945 jljdkqfõ fkare" ,xldfõ nKavdrkdhl& n,mE u;jdohla
ì%;dkH úiska bkaÈhdfjka f.k hk ,o Okh úh'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 23


1931 isg jQ rdcH uka;%K iNd hq.fha 1948-56 rdÊZZ njg m;aùula f,ih' bkaÈhdj ÈhqKqjkafka
hq.fha§;a fiakdkdhljrekaf.a;a Wmdh jQfha rcfha ld¾hd, iji y;rg jeiSfuka miq nj
w;ayer ouk ,o rcrg wiajeoaoùuh' fuh bka§h l%ufha m%n, úfõplfhla jk .=reprka odia
jdudxYslhkaf.a úfõpkhg ,lajqj o th lDIs m%ldY lf<ah ^India grows at Night)' ,xldfõ kï
l¾udka;fha mqk¾Ôjkhla <`.dlr.;a w;r" iajdëk isú,a rdcH fiajh iudcjdohg ndOdjla
bx.%Siskaf.a nqreu iy,a u; hemSfuka bj;aùulg f,i i,ld ^1970-75 jljdkqfõoS& jdudxYslfhda
u`. mEÿfõh' fiakdkdhljre l¾udka; fCIa;%hg wfydais lf<dah ^oYl y;rlg miq jdudxYslhka
;enqfõ wvq nrls' kuq;a Tjqka w;r isá chj¾Ok f.ka b;=re jQfjda iajdêk rdcH fiajdjla b,a,d
uy;d ld¾ólrKh Okh W;amdokh i`oyd isáfhdah'& bkamiq foaYmd,k m;aùï l%shdj,sh
w;HjYH nj ie,l= whqre ksoyig fmr jQ Tyqf.a werôKs' fï ksid wdKavqfõ ,hsiug wu;rj
fhdackdj,ska fmks hhs' foaYmd,k wkq.%yho jHdmdr i`oyd w;HjYH úh'
rdcH wxY b;d blauKska msßyS f.dia wd¾Ólhg
flfiafj;;a" 1956 ka miq wd¾Ól Wmdhla nrla yd ndOdjla úh'
iajhxfmdaIs; ±lau hgf;au bÈßm;a úh' th
kï l¾udka; yd fiajd iemhSula i`oyd rch i;= flfiafj;;a" 1956-75 hq.fha § fmdÿfõ wdkhk
wdh;k ìyslr,Suh' fï i`oyd we;eï fCI;%j, wdfoaYl rg ;=< ;ekSu i`oyd nrm;, W;aidyhla
^jrdh" m%jdyk" f;,a yd .Eia" rlaIK" nexl=& meje;s w;r È.=ld,Sk m%;sM, tkakg fmr
cki;=lrKh l%shd;aul flßKs' ner l¾udka; yd ue;sjrK l%uh ksid wdKavq ì`ojeàu isÿúh'
fiajd i`oyd w¨;a rdcH wdh;k msysgqúKs ^jdfka"
Lksc" frÈms<s" nexl=" Lksc f;,a" úÿ,sh wd§&' fñ ksid Y%s ,xldfõ ´kEu wd¾Ól m%;sm;a;shla"
1970-77 iufha § tjlg meje;s wmkhk uq,sl Wmdh ud¾.hla" Wml%uhla jir myla ;=<
jeú,s fCI;%hkao ^f;a" rn¾" fmd,a& cki;=lr wrUd M,±ßh hq;=ùu foaYmd,k wjYH;djhla
rdcH wdh;k njg m;aflßKs' úh' tfyhska fláld,Sk ixj¾Ok ueðla o¾Yk
ckldka;jd§ ùu wksjd¾hh úh'
fï l%shdoduh fkare-.dkaê hq.fha§ ^1948-91&
bkaÈhdfõo isÿ úh' uy;aud .dkaê mqoa.,sl wmkhk wNsuqL újD; wd¾Ól
jHjidodhlhd ie,l=fõ cd;shl Okh W;amdokh
Wmdh ud¾.h
lrkd yd ,dN ;ekam;a lrkd Ndrldrhd f,ih'
tjeks cd;sl jHdmdßlhka .dkaêf.a cd;sl wr.,hg
1975 § hïÿrlg *S,slaia vhia nKavdrkdhlo
wruqo,a iemhq w;r wêiqfLdamfNda.S Ôú; f.õfõ
1977 § fÊ'wd¾' chj¾Okf.a kdhl;ajfhka frdks
o ke;' kuq;a fkaref.a cki;= jevms<sfj<g
o ue,a yd ,,s;a we;=,;auqo,s" Wmd,s úfÊj¾Ok
fpdaokd folla t,a,úh' m<uqj Tyq foaYSh jHdmdßl
wd§kao wd¾Ólh újD; lf<dah' tfukau ksoyia
mka;sh yd tkhska foaYSsh m%d.aOkh úkdY l< njh'
fjf<`o l,dm wdÈh yryd wmkhk NdKav yd
fï fpdaokdj nKavdrkdhljrekgo t,a, úh'
fiajd imhk wmkhk wNsuqL wd¾Ólhla we;s
thg zznKavdrkdhl Ñka;khZZ ms<s;=re ÿkafka
lf<dah'
ner l¾udka; yd fiajd f.k hEug Y%s ,dxlsl
jHdmdßlhka i;=j m%d.aOk yelshdjla ke;s ksid
rch thg ueÈy;a jQ nj fmkajdfoñks' fojeksj fï u.ska jydu ckm%sh m%;sM,hla ,eìKs' tkï
fkareg t,a, jQ fpdaokdj jqfha Tyq ì%;dkH ,ndÿka mdßfNda.sl NdKav úYd, m%udKhla fj<`ofmd<g
isú,a rdcH fiajh wfydais fkdlr cki;= fiajdjka we;=¿ùfuka ck;dj wukaodkkaohg m;aúh'
we;s lr tajd md,kh ks,OdÍkag mejeÍu ksid tf;la iudcfha iSudiys; msßilg iSudjQ we;eï
rfÜ r;=má wêrdcHhka we;s ù ld¾ñl j¾Okh iqfLdamfNda.S NdKav idudkH ckhdgo újD; jQ
wekysá njh' fuh we;eï úpdrlhka l¾lI f,i w;r úfoaY /lshd wdÈh ksid ñ,§ .ekSfï iudc
fmkakd ÿkafka bkaÈhdfõ zzì%áIa rdÊZZ" zz,hsIka yelshdjo j¾Okh úh'

24 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


wfkla w;ska ,dN Y%uh" n,Yla;sh" ,sys,a Y%u fndfydaúg olajkafka chj¾Ok ckdêm;s;=udf.a
yd mßir kS;s ksido" ngysr rgj, wkq.%yjdoh wêldÍjd§ foaYmd,k l%shdoduh ksid fnÿïjdoh
ksid fj<`ofmd< újD; ùu ksido wmkhk wNsuqL yd tkhska we;s jQ bkaÈhdkq ueosy;aùu"
l¾udka;j, iS>% j¾Okhla isÿúh' ler,sldÍ;ajh yd tkhska we;s jQ cúfm le/,a,
wdÈh úiska wd¾Ól j¾Okh ì`o fy¨ njh'
tfukau n,Yla;sh" jdÍ" k.r ks¾udKh" ud¾.
wdÈh i`oyd isÿ jQ úfoaY Kh yd m%d.aOk wdfhdack we;s jQ ler,sldÍ;ajh wd¾Ól j¾Okhg >Dcqj
ksid wd¾:sl j¾Okhlao isÿù Okh nyq,ùu;a n,mE nj meyeÈ,sh' ia:djr wdrlaIl" iudc"
iu`. tkhskau WoaOukhla we;súh' foaYmd,k ;;a;ajh ´kEu rgl wd¾Ól j¾Okh
w;HjYHfõ'
;u wd¾Ól mßj¾;kh id¾:l lr.ekSu
i`oyd foaYmd,k ia:djr;djh <`.dlr .ekSug wfkla me;af;ka úkh yd wêldßjdohg rg
md¾,sfïka;= l%uh ckdêm;s l%uhla lrd f.k hk f.dvke.sh yel hkak ,xldfõ iudc moku
w;ru" m%;súreoaO foaYmd,k n,fõ. u¾okh iu`. fkd.e<fmk nj Tmamq lf<a chj¾Ok
lsßfï ms<sfj;lao chj¾Ok uy;d wkq.ukh ckdêm;s;=ud ^1978-88& muKla fkdfõ' uyskao
lf<ah' rdcmlaIo ^2005-15& th Tmamq lf<ah'

wd¾Ólh újD; lr oijirla hk úg ^1987-88&


wd¾Ól j¾Okh wekysáfhah' thg fya;= f,i

Y%S ,xldfõ wd¾Ól j¾Ok fõ.fha WÉpdjpkh ^ta ta md,k hq. ;=<&

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 25


isx.mamqrej" ;dhsjdkh" fldßhdj" jeks yd iudcfhka msgux lsßfï l%shdjkag iqnidOk
wêldÍjdÈ frðfïka;= l%ufõohlg YS% ,xldj Wml%u iEmhSu;ah' ^.ïWodj yd ckiúh&
f.dvke.sh fkdyelafla th ixialD;sl f,i
iyNd.S;ajh" ksoyi" mqoa., .re;ajh we;eïúg chj¾Ok hq.fha fï wdfõKsl ÿ¾j,;djh y`ÿkd
wd¾Ól lreKqj,g jvd by<ska i,lk ksidh' fkdf.k 2015-20 hq.fha§;a úfoaY wdfhdack
flfiafj;;a" 1978 - 87 ld,fha wd¾Ól j¾Okh n,dfmdfrd;a;=fjka l¾udka; l,dm wdÈh
wvqjQfha ;%ia;jdoh yd iudc le<ô,s ksidu fkdfõ' we;s lrkq ,eîh' hï foaYmd,k Wmdh ud¾.sl
1978-88 § wm w;aú`È ksIamdok idOl u; wdfhdack wjYH;djhka ^yïnkaf;dg jeks& fyda l¿ i,a,s
weo.ekSug yd wd¾Ól j¾Okh <`.dlr.ekSug iqÿlr,Sfï wjYH;djhla u; ñi ,dN Y%uh"
,dN n,Yla;sh" ,dN iïm;a" ,sys,a mßir yd Y%u

1977-88 wd¾Ól j¾Okh yd ì`ojeàu

m%cd;ka;%jd§ iudchl§ iajhx ú,x.=jla we;s kS;s" ia:djr foaYmd,k jgmsgdj wdÈh u; isÿjk
fõ' tkï wdfhdack we;s ù" wdodhï jeäjk j¾.fha wdfhdack ±ka isÿjkafka ke;'
úg mßfNdackh jeä fõ' tkhskau ,dN Y%uh
w;=reoyka fõ' wmkhk wdodhu mrhd wdkhk 1994 § n,hg m;ajQ pkaøsld l=udr;=x. ue;sksh
úhou by< k.Ss' fï ksid ksIamdok idOl u; újD; wd¾Ólhg udkqISsh uqyqKqjrla fok nj
wdfhdack n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk úg m<uq jir 05 m%ldY l<dh' we;a;gu weh isÿ lf<a chj¾Ok
;=< § olakg ,efnk j¾Okh tl;ek m,a ù uy;dg mqoa.,SlrKh l< fkdyels jQ we;eï
bkamiq j¾Okh weK ysàu isÿfõ' fCIa;% ^jrdh" úÿ,sn, ckkh" fg,sfldï' .=jka
fiajh" isfuka;s wd§& mqoa.,SlrKh lsÍuh'
tjeks rgj,a B<`.g l< hq;= jkafka úÿ,sn, fCIa;%h weh hgf;a ìojegqKq kuq;a
ld¾hlaIu;djh by< kxjñka" m%d.aOk iqlaIu fiiq mqoa.,slrK fCIA;% j¾Okh úh' jir 2000
l%u Wmdhhka fj; .uka lsÍuh' th isÿ lr,Sug iksgqyka jqfha újD; wd¾Ólfha WÉP;u wjia:dj
chj¾Ok ckdêm;s;=ud wiu;a úh' fm%auodi f,ih' tkï cd;Hka;r fjf<`odu o'cd'ks' by<u
ckdêm;s;=ud ixfla;j;a lf<a we.¿ï lïy,a m%;sY;hla ±refõ ta wjia:dfõ§h' fmdÿ fmruqKq
.ug f.khEu" Wod.ï jeks jevms<sfj<ska ,dN wdKavqj fï ch.%yK ,nd.;af;a m%n, ;%ia;jd§
Y%uh fidhd ksoyia fjf<`o l,dmj,ska .ug hEu;a" m%ydr ueo yd W;=re kef.kysr m<d;a Y%s ,xld
újD; wd¾Ólh hgf;a we;s jk wdodhï mr;rh wd¾Ólfhka msguxj ;snq ;;a;ajh ;=<h'

26 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


úfoaY fjf<|du o'foa' ksIamdÈ;fha m%;sY;hla f,i

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002


o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;hg wmkhk ]
33.81 35.60 34.97 36.54 36.24 35.48 39.02 37.31 34.91

o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;hg wdkhk ]


45.62 46.04 43.90 43.60 42.25 43.27 49.62 43.57 41.42

o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;hg cd;Hka;r


fjf<`odu ] 79.43 81.64 78.87 80.14 78.49 78.75 88.64 80.88 76.33

uQ,dY%h - f,dal nexl=j

2001 jif¾ § ksh`.h" úÿ,s lmamdÿj yd hqo m%ydr ksid we;s jQ wd¾Ól w¾nqoh fl,jr jqfha wdKavq
fmr<shlsks' jir 2018 jk úg cd;Hka;r fjf<|du o'foa'ksIamdos;hg ±rE wkqmd;h ixjD; wd¾Ólhlaj
mej;s ^1970 - 75& hq.hg iudk úh' fuhska fmkS hkafka cd;Hka;r fjf<|du kexùug Wmdhud¾.sl
fjkila wjYH njh'

wd¾Ól j¾Ok fõ.h 1993 - 2014

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 27


rdcmlaI hq.h ldv¾jrekaf.ka jD;a;Shfõ§kag ndr§u ksid tlS
iud.ïj,g cd;Hka;rj ;r. l< yelsj ;sìKs'
uyskao rdcmlaI ckdêm;s;=udf.a hq.fha§ Tyq fuh ishjilg fmr cmdkh;a" oYl lSmhlg
jeo.;a l%shdj,s folla Èh;a lf<ah' mqoa.,slj fmr fldßhdj;a mßKduh jQ wdldrhuh'
wlue;af;ka jqj Tyq rdcHfha wia:djr;ajhg fya;=
jQ fldá ixúOdkh uq,skqmqgd ±ïfïh' tu`.sk jir 2000 § Ök wdfhdack f,dalh ;=< jHdma;
rdcH wdrlaIdj yd ia:djrNdjh /l.;af;ah' lrñka Go Global jevms<sfj< Èh;a flreKq w;r"
tfukau W;=re kef.kysr rfÜ fmdÿ wd¾Ólhg ta hgf;a Y%S ,xldj ;=< isÿ jQ uq,au wdfhackh
tlaùfuka 2010-12 n,.;= wd¾Ól j¾Okhla 2004-2005 ld,fha§ ^pkaøsld md,kh& mq;a;,fï
,nd.;af;ah' .,a wÕ=re n,d.drhla we;s lsÍfï jHdmD;shhs'
bka miq fld<U" yïnkaf;dg jrdh" u;a;,
fojkqj rdcmlaI uy;d há;, myiqlï .=jkaf;dg" wêfõ.S ud¾." c, iïmdok l%u" W;=re
yd bÈlsÍï fCIA;%fha ±jeka; mßj¾;khla ixj¾Okh" ksjdi yd kd.ßl ixj¾Okh wd§
lf<ah' Tyq úiskau yïnkaf;dg jrdh" u;a;, lafIa;% .Kkdjlg Ök wdfhdack" Ök iud.ïj,
.=jkaf;dgqm, jeks wdfhdack we;s l< w;r fjk;a fldka;%d;a;= we§ .sfha h'
rchka úiska wdrïN l< úÿ,s n,d.dr" jdß c,dY"
wêfõ.S ud¾." fmdÿ ud¾. i`oyd fmr fkdjq úrE tla .Kka ne,Sulg wkqj 2005-2014 jljdkqfõ
wdfhdackhla isÿ lf<ah' Ökfha wdfhdackh iuia; wdfhdackfhka 42] la
úh'
rdcmlaI uy;df.a fï bÈlsÍï wdfhdackh i`oyd
;j;a l%shdj,shlao n,mefõh' th kï Ökh úiska tu ld,h ;=<u bÈlsÍï fldka;%d;a ,nd .ekSï
jir 2004 isg isÿ l< úfoaY wdfhdack Wmdh i,ld n,k l, th fvd,¾ ì,shk 9 la fyj;a
ud¾.hhs' 76]l m%;sY;hla úh'

Ökh tla rgla f,i tlafiai;a lf<a ud´ fia;=ka Ökfha —f,dalh fj;g˜ l%shdj,shg Y%S ,xldj
jqjo th wd¾Ól w;ska n,j;a lsÍug" ÿ.Slu we§ hEu ksid bÈlsÍï lafIa;%fha msïula we;s
iyuq,ska ÿrelsÍug" Okj;a rgla lsÍug ud´ úh' uq¿ rgu jev ìula njg jQ Wodk .S .dhkd
wfmdfydi;a úh' th isÿ lf<a fvka Ishd ´ fmka.a flß‚' Ök Wmdh ud¾.h ish mjqf,a ymka lula
úisks' Ökh 1978 isg fydxfldx" isx.mamqrej yd f,i;a" ;uka úYaul¾uhka nj;a" rdcmlaIjre
,xldfõ wdo¾Y wkqj wmkhk wNsuqL wd¾Ólhla m%ldY lf<da h' Tjqka úiska bjla njla ke;sj
njg m;aúh' ,xldfõ lgqkdhl wdo¾Yh wkqj isÿ l< bÈlsÍï úma,jh È.g u mj;ajd .ekSug
hñka ìysl< .=jkaIq yd fIkafika jeks wdfhdack úfoaY fjf<|fmd<ska jd‚c Kh ,nd .eksKs'
l,dm mshjr lSmhla u; id¾:l úh' tkï úfoaY tajd wdodhï kQmojk mdrj,a ;ekSï jrdh" .=jka
wdfhdack" úfoaY ;dlaIKh$ foaYsSh wdfhdack" f;dgqm," .=jka fiajd" l%Svdmsá wd§ jHdmD;sj,
úfoaY ;dlaIKh $foaYSh wdfhdack" foaYSh uyd mßudKfhka wdfhdackh flß‚' Y%S ,xldj
;dlaIKh f,ih' fï Wmdh ud¾.h ksid jir 2000 ;=< we;sjQ fï bÈlsÍï fmK nqnq< ksid o< foaYSh
jk úg Ökh bxðfkareuh f,i n,j;a ±kqula ksIamdÈ;fha j¾Okhla we;s úh' ta yd iuÕu
yd hdka;%Khla iys; jq rdcH iud.ï .Kkdjla r:jdyk iy fjk;a .Dy WmlrK f,i úfoaY
iys; rgla úh' tfukau rdcH md,kh foaYmd,k NdKav mßyrKh by< .sfha h'

28 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


o< foaYSh ksIamdos;fha j¾Okhg bÈlsÍï lafIa;%fha odhl;ajh

o< foaYSh ksIamdos;fha j¾Ok fõ.h %

bÈlsÍï lafIa;%fha odhl;ajh bj;al< úg


o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;fha j¾Ok fõ.h %

bÈlsÍï lafIa;%fha odhl;ajh


^m%;sY;h tall .Kk&

fï ish,a, ksid remsh, wjm%udKh ùu" f.jqï hymd,k hq.h


fYaI w¾nqoh ks¾udKh ùu" ud¾. ixj¾Okh
l<dg fmdÿ m%jdykh Yla;su;a fkdlr" mqoa.,sl uyskao rdcmlaI uy;d 2015 ckdêm;sjrKh
m%jdykh Èß.ekaùu ksid ud¾. ;onoh we;s ùu mrdch jqfha 2005-15 Tyqf.a ld¾hidOkfha
isÿúh' m%Yakhla ksid fkdfõ' ;%ia;jdoh meroùu" rfÜ
we;s jq wdrlaIl ia:djr;ajh" W;=re kef.kysr
tla w;lska Ök Wmdh ud¾.h ksid we;s jQ bÈlsÍï wd¾Ólhg tlaùu" rdcH yd úfoaY wdfhdackhka
úma,jh ;u Yla;sh f,i rdcmlaIjre ck.; isÿùu" bÈlsÍï úfYaIfhkau uydud¾. fCIa;%fha
l< w;r" bjlanjla ke;sj Kh .ekSu yd wdodhï we;s jq n,.;= m%j¾Okh wdÈh iu`. ,nd.;a
fkdue;s jHdmD;sj, wdfhdackh ksid úIu Kh wd¾Ól j¾Okhla ;sìKs' ta j¾Okh hg wdodhï
pl%hlao rgg Wreu lr ÿkafkah' 2005-15 isÿ fkd,nk bÈlsÍï yd Kh nr;djh yd f.jqï
l< wdfhdackh ÿIKfhka f;drj ksjerÈ fN!;sl fYaI w¾nqoh wdÈh ie.ù ;sìKs' fmd,S wkqmd; yd
ie,iqulg wkqj isÿ l<d kï" Ök wfhdack mjd WoaOuk wkqmd; md,kh lr ;snqfKao lD;sujh'
úêu;a uQ,H wOHhkhlska hq;=j isÿ jQjd kï" ck;dj" úfYaIfhka ±k W.;a uOHñl ck;dj
,xldj 2020 jkúgu by< wdodhï rgla njg rdcmlaI md,khg tfrysjqfha mjq,alduh"
m;aùug bv ;sìKs' wjkS;sh" ÿIKh" WoaOÉP foaYmd,k yeisÍï wdÈh
  ksidfjks' fou< wka;jdÈ msßia yd Ök wdfhdack
úiska le<ö.sh we;eï cd;Hka;r n,fõ. úiska
,xldj fldgq lsÍfï l%shdj,shla wrUd ;sìKs'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 29


tlÈ.g rdcH wdodhu ì`ojeáKs' wmkhk wdodhu nÿ j¾. jeäùu;a" fmd,S wkqmd; ksoyia lsÍu
tl;ek m,aúh' whjeh mr;rh mq¿,a úh' ie`. ksid th by< hEu;a" fvd,rhg idfmalaIj remsh,
jqKq w¾nqohla ks¾udKh ù ;sìKs' Kh nqnq< wjm%udKh;a tlúg isÿúh' cd;Hka;r uQ,H
yd bÈlsÍï nqnq< úiska we;s lr ;snq j¾Okh wruqo,g fodia lSjo wdKavqfõ uQ,H hymd,khla
;djld,sl tlla úh' fkdùu uq,sl ldrKdjla úh'

hymd,kfha cd;sl uq,H m%;sm;a;s f.k.sh msßia merKs Kh f.ùug w¨;a Kh .ekSu wjYH jQ w;r
úúO úfYa{hskaf.a iydh wd¾Ólfha fjdaydßl foaYmd,lhska l,a,shla isÿ l< neÿïlr jxpdj
ú.Kkhla i`oyd ,nd.;a kuqÿ lsisÿ ms<shula ksid uq,H fjf<`ofmd< úYajdiho ìojeáKs'
id¾:lj l%shd;aul jqfha ke;' 2014 j¾Ifha cd;Hka;r uq,H wruqof,a iydh .ekSfuka miq
ue;sjrKh b,lal lrf.k f.k.sh m%d.aOk rcfha úhoï iSudlsÍu" whjeh mr;rh mshùu"
úhoï i`oyd fldka;%d;alrejkg ys;=u;fha wdodhï jeälr .ekSu wdÈh w;HjYH úh' uq,H
m%odkh lr ;snq fldka;%d;a m%iïmdokhg tfrys wruqo, ke;akï cd;Hka;r uq,H fjf<`ofmdf<ka
hehs mjid fkdf.jd isák ,§' tu.ska uOHu Kh .ekSfï§ ;jÿrg;a fmd,S wkqmd; by< hEug o
m%udKfha fndfyda bÈlsÍï wdh;k ì`ojeáKs' bv ;sìKs' wêfõ.S ud¾. ksid rdcH m%d.aOk úhou
iSudlsÍug n, flreKq w;r Kh ,nd.eksuo iSud
2015 ka miq wdKavqj tlajru Ök iud.ï flf¾ oeä úh' fï ksid w;HjYHfhkau l< hq;=j ;snq f;,a
m%;sm;a;shla f.k .sfha h' jrdh k.r jHdmD;sh yd .Eia ksIamdok" f;,a msßmyÿ mqkre;a;dmkh"
k;r flß‚' uOHu yd ol=Kq wêfõ.S jHdmD;s k;r kj øj jdhq úÿ,s n,d.dr" kef.kysr jrdh
úh' tlajru bÈlsÍï nqnq< msmsÍ hkakg úh' kj m¾hka;h" .=jka f;dgqm, u.S m¾hka;h yd kj
wdKavqj n,dfmdfrd;a;= jQ fõ.fhka Ökh fkdjk .=jka m:h wd§ w;HjYH ixj¾Okhka wekysáKs'
úfoaY rgj,a ,xldjg wdfhdackh i|yd meñ‚fha
ke;' úúO uyd mßudK jHdmD;s ^iajNdúl jdhq wka;sfï § fulS fN!;sl isrùï ksid wd¾Ólh
n,d.dr" f;,a msßmyÿ l¾udka; wx.k" ol=Kq ukao.dó jq úg ish¨ m%iïmdok uq,O¾u lvlsÍugo
jrdh wd§& .ek l;d l< o tajd uy fmdf<dj u; l%shdlrkd ,§' fï w;f¾ we;sjq f.da,Sh fjf<`o
l%shd;aul jQfha ke;' fï ksid rg ;=< o" ndysrj hqoaOh;a" Ökh úiska È.=ld,Sk wdfhdackj,g iSud
o uQ,H w¾nqohla yg .;af;a h' cd;Hka;r uQ,H mekùu;a wdÈh ksid wdfhdack iSud úh' ta w;f¾
wruqof,a iydh ,nd.ekSuo" kej; bjlanjla 2018 jif¾ isÿjQ m<d;a md,k ue;sjrK m%;sM,
ke;sj Ök wdfhdack fj; yefrkakgo wdKavqjg yd jHjia:duh foaYmd,k l=uka;%Kh úiska f.k
isÿ úh' tfukau lsisÿ ixj¾Okhla isÿfkdjk njg wd foaYmd,k wia:djrNdjh uq,H fjf<`ofmd<
jq f>daIdj ksid yïnkaf;dg wêfõ.S ud¾.h" kqjr yd mßfNda.sl fjf<`ofmd< iSud lf<ah' ta w;rg
wêfõ.S ud¾.h wdÈ úYd, jHdmD;sj,g fhduq úh' ksh`.h yd .xj;=ro meñKSu ksid wd¾Ólh
tfukau nÿ l%ufha wmeyeÈ,s;djh 2015-16 jir ;jÿrg;a ú,x.=j,g neÈKs' wjidkfha§ mdial=
foflau wd¾Ól j¾Okhg n,mEfõh' miqj rdcH ;%ia;jd§ m%ydr úiska rg uQ,H jYfhka w.dOfha
wdodhu jeälr .ekSu i`oyd jeÜ nÿ yd fjk;a forgqjgu ;,a¨ lf<ah'

30 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;fha j¾Ok wkqmd;h 2015 - 2019 ^jd¾Isl ]&

fï ish,a, w;f¾ wdKavqj foaYmd,k yd wd¾Ól ;jÿrg;a ÿ¾j, ùu;a isÿúh' wfkla w;ska Ökh
ch.%yK lSmhla <`.d lr .;af;ah' tlla kï rdcH úiska w;S; uqyqÿ fiao udj; iy f.dvìï fiao
wdodhu jeälr .ekSuh' fojekak rdcH;dka;%sl udj; Tiafia Èh;a l< tla ;Srhla tla udj;la
l%shd u`.ska ngysr fjf<`ofmd< kej; újD;lr ^One belt One Road - OBOR& yd tlai;a ckmoh
.ekSuh' tfukau W;=f¾ foaYmd,kfha m%Odk uq,a jQ meismsla ikaOdkh ^TPP& wdÈfha wdfhdack
m%jK;djhka jvd iqyo f,i wdKavqj iu`. jdish ,xldjg we;súh ^tlai;a ckmoh ckdêm;s
lghq;= lsÍu;a úfoaY.; fou< fn`ÿïjdÈ m%jdyh g%ïma hgf;a meismsla ikaOdkfhka 2017 § bj;aúh&'

tla ;Srhla tla udj;la wd¾Ól l,dmh ;=< Y%S ,xldfõ msysàu

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 31


wdKavqfõ uq,H fCIa;%h yeisrjQ wh isÿlr.;a fkdj" wdKavqfõ n,.;= l,a,shla újD;j ÿIKfha
m%Odku jro jqfha wd¾Ólfha Wmdh ud¾.h y`ÿkd fhÿKy' Tjqka wo wdKavqj m%dK wemhg f.k we;s
fkd.ekSuh' th ksielfhkau ld¾hlaIu;djh njlao fmfka' tfukau wkd.; ÿIKh je<elaùug
kexùu yd kjW;amdokh u; mokï jqjla jqjo n,.;= kS;s fyda l%shdoduhla y`ÿkajd ÿkafka o ke;'
ta i`oyd fudku wdfhdackhla fyda isÿfkdùh'
fi!LHh yd wOHdmkhg jQ wdfhdack jeä jqj isõfjkqj rdcH fiajh" ue;sjrK fiajh" wêlrK
o tajdhska wd¾Ólhg >Dcqj ,efnkd m%;s,dNh fiajh" fmd,sia fiajh" w,a,ia ÿIK je<elaùfï
fjkqjg ckm%sh iqnidOk ;SrK f,i iudc.; wdh;k" m%iïmdokh wd§ fCIa;% .Kkdjla iajdêk
úh' l<o" tajd wmlaImd;Sùu fyda ld¾hlaIuùu
ms<sn`oj fudku l%shdud¾.hla fyda .;af;a ke;'
fojkqj wdKavqj ish m%d.aOk úhou úoHd;aulj fuh rdcH ld¾hlaIu;djhg ;Èkau n,md we;'
l<ukdlrKh lf<a ke;' ta fjkqjg isÿjqfha miajkqj Wmdh ud¾.sl f,i jeo.;a f;,a-.Eia"
rdcmlaI hq.fha wdfhdack l,dju jvd ÿ¾j, úÿ,sh" c,h" m%jdykh" jrdh - .=jkaf;dg jeks
f,i l%shdfõ kexùuh' h<s;a jrla wêfõ.S mdrj,a fCIa;% whdf,a hEug bvfok ,§' tajd merKs
m%Odk f;audj úh' ud*shdjkag ì,s jQ nj fmkS hhs'

;=kajkqj ÿIKh iïnkaOfhka Yla;su;aj l%shd wdKavqj wo fmf<k foaYmd,k w¾nqoh fï uq,H
lf<a ke;' w;S; ÿIKhg ovqjï fkdÿkakd muKla l<ukdlrKfha m%;sM,hls'

32 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 33
bkak ysf;k rg

Okh iudch
W;amdokh n,d;aul úu

W.;a
4 jk wdishdkq úYsIag
ksfrda.S ±kqu yd kfjda;amdokh kdúl" fjf<|" .=jka"
ld¾ñl ld,dmfha N+f.da,Sh
Y%u mokï lr.;a wd¾Ólh n,Yla;s flakaøh
úma,jh ke.su msysàu
n,ldh

lDIs" jrdh"
wOHdmk" ëjr .=jka"
kj ;dCIKsl
fi!LH" jeú,s" n,Yla;s
W;amdokh ks¾ñ;
iudc fiajd wdÈ m%jdyk
i|yd mßir
m%;sixia- wd¾Ól há;,
wdfhdackh ks¾udKh
lrK m%;sixia- myiqlï
lrK j¾Okh

ksoyia" m%cd;ka;%jd§" m%.;sYS,S iudc foaYmd,k mßirh

ú ú
k o
h Hd
l= m%d kq
i fhda yd l+
, .s w ,
;d l j wd
jd jd x Ka
o o l vq
h h ;a l
r
j K
h h

;srir ixj¾Ok m%;sm;a;s


^mßirh iy iudc idOdrK;ajh iq/flk ;=,s; wd¾Ól j¾Okh&

34 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


úuiqu - 2

2020 ka Tíng(
iqyqre hq.fha kdhl;aj wNsfhda.h

Y%s ,xldj wd¾Ól f,i bÈßhg f.khEug kï nx.,sfoaYh i;=j ;sfí' ikaksfõok WmlrK
wm jgyd.; hq;af;a ;r.ldÍ fjf<`o wr.,hla ks¾udKh i`oyd c¾uksh wd§ hqfrdamd rgj,g
mj;sk f,dalhl wmf.a yelshdjka ljf¾o hkakh' l,lg fmr ;snq idfmalaI jdish ±ka fldßhdj yd
Okh W;amdokh i`oyd cd;Hka;r fjf<`odu t;ekska Ökh olajd ú;eka ù ;sfí' wka;¾cd,h"
<ore wjêhl meje;s hq.hl§ ^18 jeks ishji& pkaøsld ;dlaIKh" kdjql n,h wdÈh ksid tlai;a
foaYmd,k wd¾Ól úoaj;l= jq fâúâ ßldfvda úiska ckmohg ;snq idfmalaI jdishg Ökh ksid ;r.hla
u;= l< woyila kï rgla ;ukaf.a ksrfmalaI we;sù ;sfí' yqjdfjhs" ZTE, wd§ isÿùïj,skao"
jdish yd idfmalaI jdish yÿkdf.k ;r.ldÍ meismsla id.rfha lD;S%u ÿm;aj,skao lr,shg
fj<`ofmd<g msúish hq;= njh' meñK we;af;a fjf<`o hqoaO i|yd weußld tlai;a
ckmoh ish jdisodhl ;;a;ajhka fhdod .ekSuh'
ksrfmalaI jdish f,i yeÈkajqfha wka fndfyda
rgj,g ke;s ;u rgg muKla we;s iïm;a yd
;dlaIKhka fukau fiajd iemhSuh' WodyrKhla
wfma yelshdjka y`ÿkd.ksuq'
f,i hqfrdamhg .Eia iemhSug reishdjg we;s
jir 2010 § w.kd lD;shla fudaiu ^MONSOON&
yelshdj" wuqøjHj,ska uhsfl%da Ñma ;ekSug hEfï§
kñka m< l< tlai;a ckmofha Ñka;lhl= jk
;dlaIKsl f,i cmdkhg yd fko¾,ka;hg
frdn¾Ü lma,dka m%ldY lf<a 19 jeks ishjfia
muKla we;s yelshdj" cd;Hka;r uq,H lghq;=j,§
id.rh w;a,dka;sla jqjd fia" 20 jeks ishjfia
fvd,rh uq,sl ùu ksid tlai;a ckmohg we;s
jdish wd§ foah' id.rh meismsla jqjd fia" 21 jeks ishjfia id.rh
bkaÈhdkq id.rh jk njh'
,xldj .;a l, ñksrka yd we;eï Lksc fukau
l=re`ÿ yd l=¿nvq j¾.j,ska fiiq rgj,g ke;s kef.kysr wm%sldj" ueo fmrÈ." uOH wdishdj"
iqúfYaIs jdishla thg we;af;ah' ol=Kq wdishdj" kef.kysr wdishdj yd ´iafÜ%,shdj
olajd úysÿKq fï l,dmfha tla w;lska f,dfõ
idfmalaI jdish jvd;a mq¿,a yd jeo.;a lreKla ck.ykfhka 1$3 la muK jdih lrhs' th jefvk
fjhs' tkï rgj,a tllg fyda lSmhlg tlu oE fj<`ofmd<ls' f,dfõ wd¾Ól .=re;aj flakaøhg
ksmoùug yels jqj;a rfÜ msysàu" Y%u n,ldfha wdikaku m%foaYh jk th jeäu kdjql yd .=jka
iajrEmh" m%jdyk myiqlï" kd.ßl myiqlï fiajd .uka lrkd l,dmhhs' tfiau f;,a" .Eia"
wdÈh úiska tla rgla wka rgj,a wNsnjd hEuh' w,aw.=re wd§ iïm;ao hqfrdamh" Ökh yd wm%sldfõ
uq,H" jdKsc" ;dlaIK yd iïm;a n,ho fnodyßkd
1978-2000 jljdkqfõ we.¿ï l¾udka;h i`oyd l,dmh jk th wdrlaIl Wmdh ud¾.sl f,io
idfmalaI jdishla ,xldjg mej;sho" wo tu jdish w;HjYH jeo.;a l,dmhla yd n, flakaøhls'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 35


wdishdkq l,dmfha ke.Su
iuia; f.da,Sh ksIamdÈ;fha ixhq;sh

ol=Kq wdishdj wdishd Ydka;slrh m%Odk ÈhqKq wd¾Ólhka iqfrdmSh ix.uh

uQ,dY%h - cd;Hka;r uQ,H wruq,

ta bkaÈhdkq id.rfha yß ueo ,xldj msysgd ;sfí' wmf.a N+f.da,Sh mqkS; flakaøh ^Geographic sweetspot)
ksjerÈj fhdod .;fyd;a ,xldj Èjhskl isg uyoaùmhlg mßj¾;kh l< yelsj we;' Y%S ,xldj f,dalfha
jdKsc fCIa;%hkag wjYH f,i kdjql" .=jka yd jdKsc flakaøhla f,i ixj¾Okh úh hq;=h'

Y%S ,xldfõ isg meh lsysmhl .=jka .uklska <`.dúh yels f.da,Sh wd¾Ól l,dm

Bangladesh
NEW DELHI 163 Million
KARACHI DHAKA
KOLKATA
MUMBAI

YONGON

BENGALURU CHENNAI
India
4 3 2 1
1.3 Billion
HRS HRS HRS HR
SRI LANKA KUALA LUMPUR
Pakistan
SINGAPORE 193 Million

Sri Lanka
2 Million

Asia - Pacific Share of


Global GDP: 42% (2017)

36 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


fï i`oyd fld<U - ;%sl=Kdu,h wd¾Ól fldßfvdaj .egqug ueÈ fkdù uOHia:j fkdne`§ isáñka
yd wïn,kaf.dv - ;siaiuydrdu wd¾Ól fldßfvdaj ish,a,kag m%fhdack .; yels iuìula njg
uq,sl úh hq;=h' m;aùuh' 1978-91 hq.fha § uy n,j;=kf.a ^tlai;a
ckmoh" fidaúhÜ ix.uh& iS;, hqoaOfha WKqiqï
fld<U jrdh yd .=jkaf;dgqm, mq¿,a lsÍu yd yjq,alrejl= ùu ksid wm yg wmf.a N+f.da,Sh
kùlrKh tys§ w;HjYH fõ' msysàu lreuhla njg m;aúh'

;%su,h jrdh yd ys`.=rlaf.dv .=jka f;dg mq¿,a ,xldj m%fõYï fkdjqkfyd;a" w§k fkdjqkfyd;a
lsÍu yd kùlrKh ;jÿrg;a w;HjYH fõ' kej;;a wehf.a úYsIag N+f.da,Sh msysàu
wehg Wreuhlg jvd lreuhla ùug bv we;'
.d,a, jrdh yd fld.a., .=jkaf;dg ixj¾Okh;a" th Wreuhla lr.ekSug ukd rdcH ;dka;%sl
yïnkaf;dg jrdh yd u;a;, .=jka f;dgqm, fufyhqula wjYHh'
Ndú;d jk ;;a;ajhg m;alsÍu;a w;HjYH fõ'
;r.ldÍ f,dalhl m<uqjekakd miqlr,Sug
fld<U wka;¾cd;sl uq,H yd jdKsc uOHia:dkhla fojekakd W;aidy lrkd úg we;sjk ;=isvhsâ
f,i kùlrKh l< hq;=j we;' tys§ W.=, ^Thucydide Trap& f,i ye|skafjk fuu N+
iaúiag¾,ka;h" isá T*a ,kavka" wh¾,ka;h" foaYmd,k yd wd¾Ól .egqu ms<sn| újrKhla
vqndhs" fydxfldx" isx.mamqrej wd§ w;súYd, f;jk msúiqu ;=< wka;¾.; fldg we;'
.Kkla jQ uq,H mdrd§ihka iu`. ;r. l< yels
ia:dkhla njg fld<U mßj¾;kh l< hq;= fjhs' 4 jeks ld¾ñl úma,jh yd W.;a
udf.a ;j;a fhdackdjla jkafka fld<U yd
ukakdru w;r l,dmh;a" uq,;sõ - ;%su,h Y%u n,ldh
l,dmh;a n,Yla;s l,dmhla f,i ixj¾Okh
lsÍuhs' úfYaIfhka uqyqfoa we;s .Eia ksê" f;,a ksê w;S;fha úúO ld¾ñl ;;a;ajhka yd ;dlaIK
Wlyd .ekSu;a" .Eia yd f;,a .nvd ixlS¾K yd yelshdjka úúO YsIagdpdrj,g meje;sho f,dju
msßmyÿ msysgqùu;a" wêfõ.S ud¾.j,g iudka;rj fj,d.;a n,.;= iy.; fjkialïj,ska hq;=
.Eia yd f;,a m%jdyk k, moaO;s t,Su;a isÿ l< ld¾ñl úma,jhka werUqfKa 18 jeks ishjfia isgh'
hq;=h' tfukau Y%S ,xldj f;,a yd .Eia iïnkaO thg fndfyda ÿrg wdishdfjka" wrdì yd hqfrdamSh
cd;Hka;r yqjudre uOHia:dkhla njg mßj¾;kh fjf<`o yd hqo wdl%uKj,ska Wlyd.;a yd fidrd.;a
l< hq;=h' ±kquo" Okho kj fjf<`o ixialD;sh yd ksoyia
iudc l%uho ^rdcdKavqjg tfrys& n,mEfõh'
wmf.a b,lal.; l,dm úh hq;af;a kef.kysr
wm%sldj" ueofmrÈ." uOH wdishdj" bkaÈhdj" udf.a ye`.Sfï yeáhg j¾I 1760-1860 w;r
bkaÿ Ökh" kef.kysr wdishdj iy úfYaIfhka ld,h m<uq ld¾ñl úma,jhhs' tys§ Y%u n,h
bkaÿkSishdj yd ´iafÜ%,shdjh' hdka;%sl n,fhka úia:dmkh úKs' uq,§ yqÿ ld¾ñl
l%shdj,shla jQ th miqj bkaOk yd úÿ,sh iys;
Y%S ,xldfõ kq;k cd;sl fN!;sl ie,iqu ^2019& kj n,Yla;s l%shdj,shla njg mßj¾;kh úh'
fï i`oyd jQ b,lal imqrd .ekSug ks¾udKh fuys kshuq rg jQfha tx.,ka;h jqj;a c¾uksh"
jqjls' tfukau niakdysr uyk.r ie,iqu ;%su,h m%xYh" b;d,sh" kef.kysr hqfrdamSh rgj,aj,
uydk.r ie,iqu" yïnkaf;dg uydk.r ie,iqu odhl;ajho by< w.hla .;af;ah'
fukau l=reKE.," oUq,a," .d,a," ud;r wd§ Wmdh
ud¾.sl k.r ie,iqïj, wruqK;a ,xldfõ Wmdh 1860-1960 hq.h ud olskafka fmdis, bkaOk" tkï
ud¾.sl msysàu wd¾Ól j¾Okhg fhdod .ekSuh' n,Yla;sh f,i f;,a" .,aw`.=re yd .Eia Ndú;d
fuys§ wm m%fõYï úh hq;af;a ±kgu;a f,dj lrñka isÿl< úma,ùh mßj¾;kh ms<sn`ojh'
weú,S f.dia we;s tlai;a ckmo - Ök fjf<`o fï ksid udkj Y%ufha hdka;%sl yelshdj ish

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 37


oyia .=Khlska j¾Okh úh' fuys m%uqL rg jqfha ;dlaIKh" Ôj ;dlaIKh" cdk ;dlaIKh"
tlai;a ckmoh jqj;a miqj thg fko¾,ka;h" frdfnda ;dlaIKh" lD;su nqoaê ;dlaIKh" yß;
tx.,ka;h" reishdj yd fjk;a rgj,ao tlaúh' ;dlaIKh wd§ ;dlaIK m%fõYhkao ;%sudK uqøK
hka;%h" ßhÿrka úrys; jdyk" ;SrK .; yels
1960-2010 ud olskafka f;dr;=re ;dlaIK hq.h mß.Kl wd§ kj Wmdx.o fuys ìysfõ' fï ksid
f,ih' tys § úfYaIfhka isÿjqfha o;a; ;ekam;a ish¨u bxðfkare úoaj;=ka" Ôj-ffjoH úoHdjka"
lr.ekSfï yelshdj ^mß.Kl& yd o;a; l<ukdlrk yd kS;s úIhhka muKla fkdj iudc
ikaksfõokfha yelshdj msïula f,i j¾Okh ùuh' yd udkisl úoHd fCIa;% mjd iS>% mßj¾;khlg
w¾O ikakdhl yd uhsfl%daÑma ksid mß.Kl wdÈh ,lafjñka we;' fuh iqyqre hq.h f,i y`ÿkajuq'
b;d l=vd fuj,ula úh' pkaøsld ;dlaIKh ksid Ôj udkjhd ^Homo Sapien& lD;su hdka;%sl iqyqre
f.da,Sh ikaksfõok cd,hla we;súh' wka;¾cd,h udkjfhla ^Cyborg& njg m;a fjñka we;'
ksid udkj in`o;d wka ljr lf,lg;a jvd ;Ssj%
úh' fï wdY%s; kj jHdmdr oyia .Kkla ìysù ,xldjg fndfydaÿrg m<uq ;dlaIKsl úma,j
f,dalfha uq,Huh w;ska úYd,;u jHdmdr njg ;=ku wysñ úh' wm yqÿ mdßfNda.slhl= muKla
m;aúh' úh' kuq;a wm fi!LHhg yd wOHdmkhg úhoï
lrkd wdfhdackfhka fyd`o m%;sM,hla ,nd.ekSug
jir 2010 isg isõfjks ld¾ñl úma,jh wdrïN ù kï wmf.a W.;a Y%u n,ldh 4 jeks ld¾ñl
we;' fuys§ isÿjkafka tlsfklg fjkia ;dlaIK úma,jhg we;=,a l< hq;=h' wmf.a wOHdmkfha
m%fõYhka .Kkdjla msïfï jeähEuh' ta w;f¾ uq,sl wdfhdackh isÿúh hq;af;a fï kj ;dlaIKsl
tajd tlsfkld iu`. iyjdi fjñka kj ;dlaIKsl m%jK;d flfrysh' wmf.a wdfhdackj, m%uqL;djh
m%fõYhka ìyslr,Suh' kefkda ;dlaIKh" lajkagï we;s úh hq;af;a kj W;amdok yd tajd ±kqï

wka;¾cd,fha
ñks;;
a j
= la'''
jir 2019 jkúg

38 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


wd¾Ólhg yiqlr.kakd m%fõYhka flfrysh' jevms<sfj<la Èh;a l< hq;=h' WodyrKhla f,i
wmf.a ksrfmalaI jdis iys; iïm;aj,ska w.hodu ,xldfõ ÿ.shka wrNhd jQ ckiúh" iuDoaêh" .%du
msrùu;a" kjW;amdokhka jdKsclrKfhka Yla;s jeks jHdmdrhka yd kd.ßl yd .%dóh ksjdi
wka;¾cd;sl fjf<`ofmd<g msúiSu;a isÿ l< hq;=h' jevms<sfj< .; yelsh' fï i`oyd ±kgu;a lrkd
wdfhdackh ksYaÑ;j wjYH;djh u; muKla"
±ka Y%S ,xldj l< hq;af;a f;a we;=¿ jeú,s foaYmd,k ys;j;alï mfil,d isÿlrkafka kï
wd¾Ólh" we.¿ï we;=¿ NdKAv wmkhk jir lSmhla ;=< m%;sM, <`.d lr .ekSug iu;ah'
wd¾Ólh" .Dy fiajl we;=¿ úfoaY Y%u fiajd bvï yd /lshd m%;sm;a;sho tjekakls' Y%S ,xldj
wd¾Ólh l%ufhka ±kqï mokï lr.;a ;dlaIK b;d by< ck>k;ajhla we;s rgls' w;HjYHfhkau
k.r" ld¾ñl l,dm yd ±kqï fiajd Y%u n,ldhla /l.; hq;= ixfõ§ mßir moaO;s" c, moaO;s
ìyslr .ekSu i|yd uyd mßj¾;khla lsÍuh' wdÈho ie,l=úg k.r" ksjdi yd ckdjdi i`oyd
b;=re jkafka b;d iSñ; bvï m%udKhls' fïjdo
2013 § ;dlaIK wud;HdxYh úiska ilialrkd ,o l=vd bvï lene,s f,i fnod ÿkfyd;a mjq,lg
±kqï wd¾Ólhla i`oyd jQ wdfhdack ie,iqu fï Ôjk whs;shla ,eîu isÿjqjo B<`. mrïmrdj
i`oyd uq,sl msgqn,hla f,i fhdod .; yel' w¾nqohg hEu wksjd¾hh fõ' 1978-94 jljdkqj
;=< fld<U kd.ßl ckdjdi i`oyd fujeks l%uhla
ieu tlg isák" l=i,;djhg uq,a wkq.ukh lr we;' we, ud¾." ldKq moaO;s"
mßir moaO;s u`.yer ckdjdi i`oyd l=vd ìïlÜá
;ek fok" ;srir rgla ^m¾pia 2-4& yd ksjdi Kh ^re' 10"000 - 15"000&
,nd § ksjdi f.dvk`.d .ekSug ckhd fmd<Ujd
Y%s ,xldj rdcH m%;sm;a;s /ila ks¾udKh lr
fmdÿ myiqlï ^c,h" úÿ,sh" u, wmjyk& ,nd
we;' úúO foaYmd,k mlaI yd wfmalaIlhska
§ we;' kuq;a B<`. mrïmrdj meñKs úg Tjqka
úiskao úúO ie,iqï bÈßm;a lr we;' wdKavqjo"
wkql%ufhka c,ud¾." u, wmjyk ud¾. muKla
mqoa.,sl wxYho jirlg ish jd¾Isl o< cd;sl
fkdj j.=re" we, ud¾. mjd ydkslr ckdjdi
ksIamdÈ;fhka y;frka tlla muK wdfhdackh
ks¾udKh lsÍu ksid uq,a mÈxÑlrejkaf.ka
lrñkao we;' tfy;a ;ju;a YS% ,xldj Yla;su;a
ie,lsh hq;= m%;sY;hla bvï úl=Kd k.rfhka
wd¾Ólhla f.dvk.d .ekSug fyda wd¾Ól iudc
msg;g ixl%uKh jQ w;r" hqoaOh wd§ lreKq ksid
m%Yakj,ska ñ§ug fyda wiu;a ù we;'
jvd fjkia Ôjk uÜgu iys; msßila k.rh ;=<g
ixl%uKh úh' tu.ska k.rh iaÓr uqvqlal=jla
ieu tlg úh' j;=lrfha .ïudkj,o wdKavqj bvï fnod§u
ckm%sh igka mdGhla lr we;' wkd.;fha tyso
wm iudcfha wdka;sl ù" fldkaù isák msßia úYd, we;sjkjd we;af;a B<`. mrmqr ms<sn`o m%Yakhhs'
jYfhka isá;s' fï msßia iudchg l=, joaod .ekSu ck;djg" mjq,g bvï whs;sh wjYH jkjd muKla
w;HjYHh' we;eïúg wd¾Ól fya;= ksid hdplhska" fkdj" ck>k;ajh yd ck wNs,dY ksid ;srir
me,am;ajdiSka" wka; ÿ.shka" ,sx.sl jy¨ka wd§ ckdjdi yd bvï m%;sm;a;shla rgg wjYHh'
f,i Ôj;ajk cklKavdhïh' iudcuh lreKq
ksid u;aøjHj,g weíneys jQjka l=, m%Yak ksid /lshd iïnkaO ;;a;ajho thuh' tla w;lska
fldkajQjka" ;ud orkd foaYmd,kh ksid msgux wdKavqfõ /lshd ùjD; jkafka n,fha isák
jQjka" ler,s fyda ;%ia; l%shd" wmrdO ksid wdka;sl mlaIhg muKs' n,hg tla fkdjk mlaIj,
ù we;s lKavdhïo fï w;r isá;s' YdÍßl yd wkq.dñlfhda yd Tjqkf.a orefjda wdKavqfjka bj;a
udkisl wdndO ksid fldkajQjka o fj;s' lr;s' we;eïúg wdKavqfõ fiajd ia:dkh fmks
fmkS /lshd wysñj isá;s ^fld<U jrdh yd fld<U
fulS msßia iudcfha fiiq wh iu`. ;r.hg f.k kd.ßl ckhd&' ;j;a w;lska WmdêOdÍka wd§
taug fmr Tjqkg úfYaI myiqlula we;slr uq,skau msßiaj, id;sYh nyq;rhla ,sÅ; ±kqu iys; wh
iudc.; l< hq;=h' ta i`oyd ksYaÑ; iudc wd¾Ól muKh' Tjqka wdKavqfõ /lshd ;=< wid¾:l jkjd

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 39


muKla fkdj wiykhgo m;aj isá;s' wdKavqj m%dfhda.sl l%shdldÍ;ajh w.hk úfYaI tallhla
fukau mqoa.,sl wxYfhao ish /lshdj, iajrEmh ^Delivery Monitoring Unit& ;sìh hq;=h' tfukau
wkqj wOHdmkh m%;sixialrKh úh hq;=h' tjeks rdcH fiajfha ;r.ldÍ msßia mßmd,khg
m%;sixialrKh jq wOHdmkhl ,sÅ; úNd." iïuqL iïnkaO lr.ekSug fmdÿ rdcH mßmd,k fiajhla
mÍlaIK" m%dfhda.sl úNd. yryd úúO jD;a;Skag l=i,;djh u; ielish hq;=h'
n`ojd .ekSfï mámdáhla ieliSfuka fï fndfyda
ÿ¾j,;d u`.yer .; yel' WodyrKhla f,i ,xldfõ fndfyda fCIa;%j," tkï jHdmdßl" jD;a;Sh"
fi!LHh" Ôj úoHdj" ridhk úoHdj" jeks úIhhka mßmd,k" lS%vd" l,d wd§ fCIA;%j, l=i,;djdoh
wod< idudkH fm< yd Wiia fm< úNd. m%dfhda.sl fndfyda ÿrg l%shd;aulh' th fndfyda ÿrg wvmK
lvbï njgo m;a l<fyd;a ffjoHjrhd" fyÈh" ù we;af;a foaYmd,k fCIa;%fhah' foaYmd,kfha
ffjoH fiajdjka" Wmia:dhl" lïlre wd§ ish¨ ;, lSmhl we.e¨ïlï u; wkq.%dyl;ajhla
jD;a;Sh ;;a;ajhka i`oyd tu lvbu fhdod .; f.dvkef.a'
yel' ffjoHjrhl=" fyo fiajlhl= ùug yqÿ ,sÅ;
úNd.h m%udKj;a fkdjk nj;a" ta i`oyd ldreKsl ;u mdlaIslhka iu`.
wjia:djg WÑ;j yeisfrk jD;a;ShfõÈhl=o ;u Pkaoodhlhkaf.a m%foaYh iu`.
wjYH nj;a meyeÈ,sh' ;u ys;ñ;=rka iu`.
;u {d;Ska iu`.
fï wdldrhg ksYaÑ; m%dfhda.sl l%shdoduhka
wkq.ukh lsÍfuka iudcfha wdka;sl fldgia fyd`ou foa {d;skago" B<`.g ys;ñ;=rkago" bkamiq
id;sYh nyq;rhla idudkH iudch ;=<gu mdlaIslhka yd m%foaYhgo ,nd§u foaYmd,kfha
l=,joaojd .ekSug yelsjkq we;' wd¾Ól yd uq,H iajrEmhhs'
l<ukdlrKfha§ fï o;a; yd wdfhdackh ksYaÑ;j
y`ÿkd.ekSu wjYHh' tfukau wOHdmkfha id'fm< Pkaoodhlhdf.a leue;a; ,nd.ekSug Tyq iu`.
lvbu úiska ;r.ldÍ isiqka cSj bxcsfkare in`o;djh we;s lr .ekSug ixj¾Ok l%shd" /lshd
fCIa;%j,g muKla we§hEu ksid mßmd,k - kS;s ,nd§ï" fjk;a wkq.%y ,nd§ï w;HjYH ù we;'
wd§ lafIa;%j, we;sù we;s l=i,;d msßySu fjkia kuq;a ,xldfõ th bka Tíng .ukalr {d;Ska yd
lsÍug" id' fmf<ka miq jD;a;Sh ksmqK;djh ys;ñ;=rka w;r l=Üáh fnod .kakd l%shdj,shla
,eîfï úl,am ud¾.o we;sjk f,i úIhOdrdj, ù we;'
n,.;= fjkialula isÿl< hq;=h'
ksoyiska miq ,xldfõ zzfoaYmd,k mka;shZZ foi
l=i,;djhg uq,a;ek ne,Sfï§ fmkShkafka Tjqka ì%;dkH md,lhska f,iu
l%shd l< njh' tkï ish¨ uyck ksfhdað;hka yd
úoHd;aul wdKavqlrKhla id¾:l ùug rdcH ks,OdÍka úYajdi fkdlr l=vd CIqø l,a,shla
l=i,;djhg uq,a ;ek Èh hq;=h' úOdhlfha f,i ;SrK .ekSï yd l%shd;aulùï isÿ l< njh'
j.lSï orkakka ta i`oyd iqÿiq njg ksYaÑ; we;eïúg th mjq,a l,a,shla jq w;r" ;j;a
ks¾Kdhl meje;sh hq;=h' tkï" uyck leue;a;g úfgl .cñ;=re l,a,shla úh' fï CIqø l,a,shg
wu;rj Tyqf.a jD;a;Sh ksmqK;djh" Tyq jHdmdr ;snq foaYmd,k w;a±lSï yd mßK;Ndjh u;
fkdlrkakl= nj" Tyqg ÿIs; b;sydihla fkdue;s wdKavqfõ id¾:lNdjh /`§ meje;sK' tfukau
nj" Tyq rdcH fiajh y`ÿkkakl= nj tys§ ue;sjrKj,g wjYH wruqo,a yd m%;srEmh mj;ajd
i,ld ne,sh hq;=h' rdcH wdh;k ksYaÑ; f,i .ekSug wjYH wruqo,a i`oyd jHdmdßl mka;skaf.a
wud;HdxYj,g fjka l< hq;= w;r tlS iEu wkq.%dyl;ajh wjYH jQ w;r" we;eïúg fï CIqø
wud;HxYhlu wud;Hjrhd" ks,OdÍka" wdh;k l,a,sj, n,.;= jHdmdßlhkao isáhy' m%pKav
m%OdkSka mqoa.,sljo" wud;HxYhla yd wdh;k l%shd meje;=Kq hq.hkays§ zz;=jlal=lrejkaZZ wjYH
w.hk we.hSï l%shdj,shla iajdëkjo meje;sh jQ úg md,k ;ka;%hg Tjqkao w;HjYH úh' miqj
hq;=h' tfukau rdcH m%Odkshd hgf;a wdh;kj, th wkq.%dyljd§ md;d, n,fõ.hla úh' thskq;a

40 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


miqj zzl¿ udOHZZ kñka m%p,s; jQ CIQø l,a,shla mr§ù hk ìh ksidh' wêrdcHjd§ hq.fha isg wo
úiska fufyhjk udOH l%shdj,shlao werôKs' ±ka olajd cd;Ska mrdcs; ù we;af;a Okh" n,h w;r
fuh CIqø l,a,shla jgd t;=kq Okh yd msßi iys; jQ ine|shdj ksidh'
n,.;= nQj,a,l= ù we;'
,xldj ;ju;a ldnka úfudapkh" Ôj úúO;ajh"
Y%S ,xldj n,.;= iudc fjkila isÿ fkdl<fyd;a msßisÿ c,h" mi yd jdhqj w;ska iyuq,skau
w;S;fha fuka úma,j we;sùu fyda úma,jhla úkdY fkdjq rgls' tfukau f.dú;ek" l¾udka;"
ke;=ju jD;a;Sh ksmqK;djh we;s msßia rg yer m%jdykh" ckdjdi bÈlsÍï" n,Yla;s ksIamdokh
hEu isÿúh yel' l=i,;djh" l=i,;djh we.hSu" wdÈfha§ ;srir Wml%u ms<sn`o wjfndaOhlao miq.sh
thg m%;s,dN ,eîu iy;sl ùu" wdKavqlrKh yd oYlhg jvd we;' WodyrKhla f,i" jy,
rdcH fiajfha isÿúh hq;=u fjkils' rdcH fiajfhao u; iq¾h mek, ud úiska 2010 § y`ÿkajd fok
fcHaIaG;ajh" fmdÿ mäjeãùï" Wiiaùï wdÈhg úg th ,xúu ks,OdÍka mjd úYajdi fkdl<
l=i,;djh yd thg m%;s,dN ,efnkd we.ehSï l%shdjla úh' th wo n,.;= jHdmD;shla ù ;sfí'
l%uhla w;HjYH ù we;' ±fjk m%Yak úi`§u fuh fyd`o m%jK;djhls' wm úiska me/oúh
i`oydo fhda.H jkafka ta l%uhhs ^WodyrKhla f,i hq;= wka; folla we;' tlla kï nd, mßirldó
YS% ,xldfõ úúO kvq 750"000 lg jeä m%udKhla ckldka;jdohhs' mßir m%Yak w;sYh ixfõ§
isr ù we;s nj mjid 2018 jif¾§ úksiqrkaf.a yd ckm%sh lreKq njg m;alsÍfï l%shdj,shhs ^fld<U
kS;sm;s fomd¾;fïka;=fõ jegqma by< kxjk ,§' l=Kq wmg tmd" wdiksla ksid jl=.vq Èhfõ
tu`.ska fiiq jD;a;Sh fiajdjka ^ffjoH" bxðfkare" wd§&' wfkl kQ;k ;dlaIKh yd uq,H idOlh
l<ukdlrk" .KldêldÍ& jD;a;Sh wr.,hlg úiska muKla mßir m%Yak úi`Èh yel hkakh
le`ojd .kakd ,§ ^2018-19&' kvq jir ;=kla ;=< ^uq,ska i,a,s fidhd miqj mßirh rlsuq&' mßir
úi`Èu i`oyd l=i,;djhg yd m%;s,dN ,ndfok
úkdYfha m%Yakh fjf<`ofmd<g iEu jákdlulau
l%uhla wkq.ukh lf<a kï fï wiykh rdcH
we.hSug fkdyelsùuh' ta ksid uq,H fuj,ï
fiajfha we;sjkafka ke;'
fukau kS;S moaO;s yd ixialD;sl yslaóu wdÈh
mßir ixrlaIKhg" mßir mqk¾Ôjkhg wjYH
mßir ;srir;djh fõ' fï ish,a, leálr .;fyd;a Y%S ,xldfõ bÈß
foaYmd,k wkd.;h uQ,O¾u ;=kla u; ls%hd;aul
;dlaIKh úiska mßir m%Yak ch.kakd njg úh hq;=h' tkï"
jQ úYajdih ;ju;a mj;Ss' flfiafj;;a" úúO
;dlaIKhka u`.ska Okh bmehSu fõ.j;a lr • ;srir ixj¾Ok uQ,O¾uh
we;s ksid;a" tajd u; rdcHhka" mqoa.,hskaf.a n,h • ±kqu mokï lr.;a wd¾Ól uQ,O¾uh iy
yd ms<s.ekSu r`od mj;sk ksid;a mßir úkdYh • l=i,;djhg uq,a;ek fok" od¾Yksl jdo
l,aouñka we;' jir 1991 § fmdis, bkaOk m%Odk fjkqjg m%dfhda.sl;ajh tlu o¾Ykh lr.;a"
fya;=j f,i olsñka f.da,Sh WKqiqu ms<sn`o iïuq;Ska" úkh .rel" kS;s .rel wjxl foaYmd,k yd
kS;srduqka ^1997& we;s jqjo tajd m%dfhda.slj rdcH fiajhla i|yd jQ uQ,O¾uh u;h'
l%shd;aul fkdjkafka fjf<`o ;r.h ;=< ;uka

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 41


foaYSh Kh w¾nqohg úiÿu

rdcH wdodhï
rdcH úhoï l<ukdlrKh
jeä ÈhqKq lr,Su

Wmdhud¾.sl rdcH
rdcH wdodhï wdh;k wdh;k mdvq fkd,nd
;dlaIKlrKh yd mj;ajd .ekSug
kj wdodhï ud¾. jD;a;Sh l<ukdldÍ;ajhla
ÈhqKq lr,Su iy cd,.; ixúOkhla
we;slsÍu

rdcH Kh l<ukdlrKh rdcH wdfhdack i`oyd


i`oyd iajdëk jD;a;Sh wdodhï bmhSfï kj
wdh;khla msysgqùu ks¾Kdhl u; m%uqL;dj
we;s lsßu

iDcq yd jl% nÿ w;r rdcH fiajh


wkqmd;h iudc l=i,;djdoh mokïlr.;a"
idOdrk;ajfha ¥IKfhka f;dr
uq,O¾uj,g WÑ; ld¾hCIu fiajdjla
f,i ieliSu njg m;alsÍu

úoHdkql+, f,i wdh;k"


wud;HxY iy rdcH
j.lSï m%;sixúOdkh

42 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


úfoaY wruqo,a ;rlr .ekSfï
Wmdh ud¾.h

úfoaY Okh jehùu


úfoaYSh Okh bmhSu
l<ukdlrKh

wmkhk úúOdx.SlrKh
wdkhk wmkhk
yd ;r`.ldÍ lsÍu"
fCIa;%j, ;lafiarelrK
kj fjf<|fmd<j,a
jxpd md,kh
fidhd hEu

iaÒr úfoaY.;ùu"
kfjda;amdok yd Wiia úfoaY ixpdr ksid
;dCIKh mokï lr.;a úfoaYhkag .,d hk
fiajd wmkhkh Okh l<ukdlrKh

ixpdrl jdKsc wdkhk wdfoaYl


yd fjk;a fiajdjka úêu;a lsÍu
úfoaYslhkag ,nd§u

n,Yla;s" T!IO" fmdfydr


úfoaY /lshd lafIa;%h wd§ lafI;%j,
úêu;a lsÍu foaYSh ksmehqï j¾Okh

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 43


msúiqu - 1

úoHdkql+, wdKavqlrKh (
yeu remsh,gu Wmßu w.hla

f,dalfha wdKavq úúOdldrfhka l%shd;aul fõ' ² úoHd;aul wdKavqlrKh - fuys§ jD;a;Sh


fõ úúO l%u wdikakfhka j¾. lSmhlg fnÈh uÜgfï msßila úiska cd;sl fN!;sl ie,iqula
yelsfõ' tkï" ;kkq ,nk w;r wd¾Ól fhdackdj,ska m%uqL;d
f;dard.kafka ie,iqulg wkqjh' tu ie,iqug
² ckldka;jd§ wdKavq l%uh - ckhdg iyk wkqj wdKavqj yd uyck ksfhdað;hka ±kqj;a
,nd§u" m%N+ jHdmdßl yd foaYmd,k mka;sh ù" wkq.; ù l%shdlrkq we;' we;eïúg
úfõpkh lsÍu" we;eïúg l=vd lKavdhula ixj¾Ok fhdackd i`oyd ish,q ckhdf.a woyia
úiska ish¨ wd¾Ól yd foaYmd,k ;Skaÿ .ekSu ksfhdackh ùula isÿ fkdùug bv we;af;ah'
fuysoS isÿfõ'
tfiajqjo" fuysÈ iSñ; jQ uQ,H" fN!;sl yd
² m%N+jd§ wdKavq l%uh - f;dard.;a m%N+ l,a,shlg" udkj iïm;a fhdod.ksñka rgla jYfhka
jHdmdßl yd foaYmd,ksl ish¨ m%;s,dN ,efnkd Wmßu iudc wd¾Ól ixj¾Ok m%;s,dN ;yjqre
whqßka wd¾Ólh yd foaYmd,kh l<ukdlrKh jk wdldrhg ish¨ ixj¾Ok ld¾hhka
lsÍu fuys§ isÿfõ' l=vd lKavdhula - {d;Ska- ie,iqï lr l%shd;ul flf¾' úúO jevigyka
f,i yd ys;ñ;=rka f,i tlaj ish¨ ;Skaÿ l%shd;aul lsÍu i|yd wjYH uQ,H iïm;a fnod
.ekSu tys§ isÿ fõ' fjkaflfrkafka ta ta jevigykaj, iuia;
wdfhdackh yd iei|Sfï§ tajdhska ckkh
² m%cd;ka;%sl wdKavq l%uh - fuysoS úfYaIfhka jk iudc wd¾Ól m%;s,dN uQ,sl ks¾Kdhlh
wdKavqj lrkd lKavdhfï woyia" m%uqL;d u; f,i i,lñks' tkï —wdfhdackhg idfmalaI
ish,a,kaf.a tluq;=fjka wd¾Ól yd foaYmd,ksl m%;s,dN˜ ;Srl ks¾Kdhlh f,i fhdod.ksñks'
;SrK .kq ,nhs' we;eï úg th ckldka;jd§ WodyrKhla f,i wOHdmk lafIa;%h
ùu fukau m%N+jd§ ;Skaÿ .ekSulao úh yelsh' ie,l=jfyd;a tys§ md:ñl wOHdmkh"
th ;SrKh jkafka n,fha isák lKavdhfï oaù;sl wOHdmkh" ta ta úIhOdrdjkays
uyck moku u;h' úYajúoHd, wOHdmkh iy jD;a;Sh mqyqKqj hk

44 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


lafIa;%hkays idfmalaI m%uqL;djhka y÷kd. .Kkl mdvqjla ú`o .;af;ah' úoHd;aul li,
kq ,eîuo" wk;=rej tlS m%uqL;djhka wkqj l<ukdlrK jHdmD;s i`oyd miq.sh oYl ;=kl
ta ta lafIa;%hkag wod< jevigyka i|yd uQ,H ld,h ;=< isÿl< úfrdaO;dj, m%;sM,ho tjekakls'
m%;smdok fhoùuo isÿ flf¾' fi!LH lafIa;%h fï ksid ck;dj ixj¾Okh i`oyd odhl lr.;
.;al, mj;akd ;;a;ajhka hgf;a idfmalaIj hq;= kuq;a uq.aO" we;eïúg foaYmd,k wjYH;d
jeä wdfhdackhla fhoúh hq;af;a fyÈhka u; fufyhjk úfrdaO;dj,ska kï ixj¾Ok l%shd
mqyqKq lsÍugo ffjoHjreka mqyqKq lsÍugo lsisfia;a wdmiaig .; hq;= ke;'
úfYaI{ ffjoHjreka mqyqKq lsÍugo" fndajk
frda. u¾okhgo" fndafkdjk frda. u¾okhgo" ,xldfõ ue;sjrK .Kkdjla mj;ajhs' ta m<d;a
tfia;a ke;akï uyck fi!LH wOHdmkh md,k" m<d;a iNd" uyue;sjrK yd ckdêm;sjrK
i|ydo hkak rfÜ m%uqL;d wkqj úoHd;aulj f,ihs' fïjdhska wdKavq fmr<shla we;sjkafka
;SrKh flf¾' m%jdyk lafIa;%h i|yd fjkal< uydue;sjrKh yd ckdêm;sjrKfhks' fï ksid
yels uQ,H m%;smdok m%Yia; f,i wdfhdackh m<uqj ,xldj fï ue;sjrK jir 05l ld,h
l< yelafla iSñ; msßilg fi; ie,fik ;=< úêu;aj fm<.iajd .; hq;=h' kelskï
wêfõ.S ud¾. bÈlsÍfukao" fmdÿ uydud¾. wdKavqjl uq¿ ld,hu ue;sjrKj,g hgùug;a"
ixj¾Okfhkao" ke;fyd;a kd.ßl fmdÿ ckldka;jd§ igkamdGj,g f.dÿreùug;a isÿfõ'
m%jdyk fiajdjka jeäÈhqKq lsÍu ;=<skao hk fï ksid ´kEu wdKavqjl jir 05lg ie,iqula
we.hSu u; m%jdyk lafIa;%hg wod< wdfhdack ilia úh hq;= w;r th úoHd;aul yd m%cd;ka;%jd§
;Skaÿj,g t,öu isÿfõ' wdKavqlrKfha úêu;a iïñY%Khla úh hq;=h'
we.hSu yd ld¾hidOkh
fndfydaúg wdKavq l%shd;aul jkafka fï ljr
.Khlg fyda nrfjk wdldrhgh' we;eï úg ixj¾Ok ie,iqï tajd m%fhda.slj isÿjk wdldrh
wdKavqlrKfha§ fïjdfha iïñY%Khla ±l ms<sn`oj fidhdne,Su i`oyd iajdêk we.ehSï
.ekSugo yelsh' iNdjla w;HjYHh' tfukau jHdmD;s" wdh;k"
mqoa.,hska wdÈfha ld¾hidOkh wdh;k" wud;HxY
YS% ,xldj m%cd;ka;%jd§ rdcHhls" wdKavqjls" yd cd;sl uÜgfï isÿùï fidh ne,Sug l%shdj,shlao
iudchls' ljr úoHd;aul fyda ÈhqKq ixj¾Ok wjYHh' ,xldfõ fndfydaÿrg fï l%shdj,Ska
fhdackdjla fyda ixjdohlska f;drj" n,y;aldrfhka ish,a, uqo,a wud;HxYh jgd frdlaù we;' uqo,a
l%shd;aul fõ kï thg m%;súfrdaOh mdkd iudc wud;HxYho we;=¿ wdh;kj, ld¾hidOkh
yelshdjlska hq;=h' tfukau b;du uq.aO f,i iajdëk" rdcH kdhlhd m%uqL wud;H uKav,hg
we;eï ixj¾Ok l%shdj,Skag tfrys ù tu`.ska rgu j.lshk wdh;khla u.ska isÿúh hq;=h' iuyr
wk;=f¾ oukd wdldrfha foaYmd,k m%jK;djhkao rgj,a yd wdKavq fï u`.ska úmq, M, ,ndf.k we;'
m%p,s;h' WodyrKhla f,i fiakdkdhljre rcrg uúiska md,kh l< iEu wdh;khlu wdh;k yd
wiajeoa§ug .sh l, jdudxYSlhkaf.ka t,a, jQ mqoa., ld¾h idOkh uekSfï úoHd;aul l%ufõo
uq.aO úfrdaOh .; yel' uef,aßhdjg f.dùka úúOdldrfhka fhdod.kakd ,§' uqo,a wud;HxYh
ì,sfok njg jQ m%pdrh úiska ìh.kajkq ,enQjo fyda fjk;a ndysr wdh;kj, n,mEfuka ñÿKq
tlS f.dúckmo rfÜ wd¾Ól iuDoaêhg" iudc iEuúgu tlS l%shdoduh úmq,M, ,enqfõh' uúiska
ÈhqKqjg fukau cd;sl wdrlaIdjgo bjy,a jQ nj md,kh l< fndfyda wdh;k uq,Huh f,i id¾:l
oYl .Kklg miq fmkS .sfhah' úÿ,s n,d.dr jQfha tlS we.ehSï l%shdj,sh ksidh' tlS wdh;kj,
i`oyd jQ úfrdaO;d ksid wvqu ;rñka oYl folla m%Yak mek ke.=fKa rdcH kdhlhd fyda Tyqf.a
úÿ,sh ys`.hla ksidfjka Y%S ,xldfõ wd¾Ólh wkq±kqu we;sj uqo,a wud;HxYj, ks,OdÍka yd
miqnEug ,lajQ w;r" úÿ,sn, uKav,h m%fldaá wud;HxY ks,OdÍka thg ueÈy;a jQ úgh'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 45


f;dr;=re ;dlaIKh mokïlr.;a ld¾hidOk we.hSï moaO;sh - uydk.r yd niakdysr ixj¾Ok wud;HxYh

uydk.r yd niakdysr ixj¾Ok wud;HxYh .=Khla olajd jeälsÍugo" bvï f.dvlsÍfï yd


;=< mqoa., yd jHdmD;s ld¾hidOkh ms<sn|j jQ ixj¾OkhlsÍfï ixia:dfõ wdodhu o< jYfhka
;;H f;dr;=re tiekska iqmßlaIKh lsÍu i|yd ;=ka .=Khlska by< kexùugo fjdag¾ia taca
wm úiska j¾;udkfha y÷kajd§ we;s f;dr;=re wdh;kfha wdodhu o< jYfhka fo.=Khlska by<
;dlaIKh mokïlr.;a ld¾hidOk we.hSï kexùugo yelsj we;af;a wm úiska wkq.ukh lrk
moaO;sh u`.ska fukau wdh;ksl ld¾hNdrhkays ,o m%Yia; l<ukdlrK l%ufõoh ksidh' ta fndfyda
ld¾hlaIu;dj iy M,odhS;dj by< kexùu rdcH jHjidhhka mdvq ,nuka isák miqìulh' Y%S
i|yd ;dlaIKh m%Yia; f,i Wmfhda.Slr.ekSu ,xld md¾,sfïka;=j u`.ska uE;lÈ isÿlrk ,o
i|yd jQ wfkl=;a jevigyka u`.skao m%Yia; jQ iajdëk we.ehSul§ furg ish¨ wud;HxY w;=frka
l<ukdlrKhla i:dms; lsÍug yelsj we;' úYsIaG;u uQ,H l<ukdlrKh iys; wud;HxYh
f,i uydk.r yd niakdysr ixj¾Ok wud;HxYh
kd.ßl ixj¾Ok wêldßfha wdodhu o< jYfhka y÷kd.kq ,eîu tlS úoHd;aul jQ;a" m%Yia; jQ;a
fo.=K lrñka tys ,dNh o< jYfhka isjq l<ukdlrKfha ch.%yKhls'

46 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 47
msúiqu - 2

rdcHh" wdrCIdj iy cd;sl;ajh -


kj f.da,Sh m%jK;d

rdcH wdrlaIdj yd rdcHh msßia m<jdyer Tjqkf.a bvï yd YsIagdpdrh


wfydaislr kj bvï whs;shla yd YsIagdpdrhla we;s
2019 wfma%,a 21 - mdial= bßod t,a, jq bia,dóh l< rgj, fld,a,lrejka ish wdrlaIdùu i`oyd
;%ia;jd§ m%ydrh;a iu`. rdcH wdrlaIdj yd rdcHh mqoa.,sl .sks wú j¾;udkh olajdu Ndú;dfõ'
l=ulao hkak .ek nrm;, ixjdohla Y%S ,xldj wfkla w;g rdcHhl fjfikd hï cklKavdhula
;=< yg.;af;a h' fï m%ydr iu`. rdcHh lrjk ;ukg rdcHh wdrlaIdj fkd§ isàh hkak u; fyda
rdcHh ;ukg mSvdldÍ f,i wú fhdojk njg
wdKavqj flfrys jq ck;d úYajdih" ke;fyd;a
u;hla we;s jq úgo wú w;g .ekSu isÿfõ' Y%S
wdKavqjla úiska ck;dj ;=< mj;ajdf.k hk
,xldj fujeks wdldrfhka wú w;g .ekSï isÿ
u;jd§ wdêm;Hh ì`o jeáKs' isÿùïj,ska
jq rgls' wfkla w;ska úfoaY rgj,a úiskao rgj,
i;shlg miq wdKavqj wdrlaIl ;;a;ajh ia:djr
wNHka;r .egqï ikakoaO .egqï njg mßj¾;kh
yd wk;=re úrys; ;;a;ajhlg m;al< nj lSjo"
lr foaYmd,k jdis ,nhs' ,xldjgo 1980 oYlfha
wd.ñl kdhlhska yd fmdÿ ck;dj th úYajdi tjeks w;a±lSula we;'
fkdlr udOH yd iudc udOHho" lgl;d wdÈho
u; úYajdih ;eîu isÿúh' mdi,a újD; l<o kq;k foaYmd,k úoHdfõ§ w;s ir, f,i rdcHfha
isiqka meñKsu wdrïNfha§ isÿfkdjqfKa yd wd.ñl uq,sl wx. f,i jHia:dodhlh tkï kS;s mekùu"
yd fjk;a ckhd .ejfik W;aij l,a±uqfKa fyda úOdhlh tkï kS;s yd m%;sm;a;s l%shd;aul lsÍu"
wj,x.= flrefKa ta ksidh' wêlrKh tkï ms<s.;a kS;s Í;ss yd m%;sm;a;sj,g
wkqj úOdhlh l%shd;aul fõ±hs fiùu wd§ f,i
rdcHh flfrys ck;dj ne`o ;nk uq,slu wx. ;=klska iu;aú; h'
m%;sm;a;sh ck;djf.a wdrlaIdj rdcHh imhkq
we;s njg jq úYAjdihhs' f,dalfha fndfyda rgj,a flfia fj;;a fndfyda iudc foaYmd,k úoaj;=ka
^tlai;a ckmoh jeks rgj,a lSmhla - mrdfrdamS yd l%shdOrhka fuf,i kS;sfha fldaKfhka rdcHh
rdcHhka yereKq úg& mqoa.,hd i;= ;ukaf.a ú.%y lsÍu .ek tl`.;djhla ke;' Tjqkg
wdrlaIdj ;uka imhd .kakd wúwdhqO kS;s úfrdaë wkqj rdcHh oKavkh l%shd;aul lrk ikakoaO
lr" wdhqO ikakoaO kS;s rlsk" cd;sl wdrlaIdj n,ldhlsska" wd¾Ólh yiqrejk m%d.aOk yd ks¾ñ;
;yjqre lrk fmd,Sis yd ikakoaO fiajd we;s lr mßirhlska" iudch yiqrejk u;jd§ wdêm;Hh
we;af;a ta ksidh' úfoaY rgj,ska lvdje§ foaYSh f.k hk WmlrKj,ska iukaú; h'

48 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


rdcHh fM;sydislj ìysùu ms<sn`oj;a ir, u; ks¾Ok mka;sfha rdcHhla fjkqjg" fldñhqksiaÜ
folla we;' tlla kï foajjrïjdoh hs' tkï mlaIfha ks,OdÍ rdcHhla meje;s nj;a meyeÈ,s
f,dal md,k uejqïldr foúhl=f.ka ,enqKq úh'
jrula f,i hï mjq,a fldÜGdihla - rdcjxYhla
hï ck lKavdhula - f;dard.;a ck;dj úiska fidaúhÜ ix.uh ì`ojeáu;a iu`. f.da,ShlrKh
rdcHh lrùuh' udkj b;sydih mßKdukh ms<sn`o ixl,amh me;sÍ .sfha h' tkï cd;sl
jkúg fmkShkafka iudchka mq¿,a jkúg jvd rdcHhl iSud udhsï fkd;ld ksoyia m%d.aOkh"
úYd, m%n, foújreka ks¾udKh ùu;a" ksYaÑ; ksoyia fjf<`odu" ksoyia iudc l%uhka jHdma;
rdcjxYhla fjkqjg f,dalhu md,kh l< yels ùuh' ta yd iu`.u u;= jq kj u;jdohkaf.ka
foaj leue;a; u; f;dard .;a ck;djla" iqúfYaIS lshjqfKa mereKs rdcHh úúO l%uj,g Èhù hk
cd;shla - u;=ùu;ah' hqfoõjka" uqia,sïjreka" njh' tla w;lska n,h fn§u fyda úuOH.;lrKh
l%sia;shdkSka ;uka udkj YsIagdpdrh bÈßhg f.k hgf;a uOHu rcfha n,h m%foaYj,g me;sÍhEuh'
hEug foúhka úiska f;dard.;a ck;dj f,i úúO wfkla w;ska úúO wka;¾cd;sl .súiqï" iïuq;s
wjia:dj, u;=ùu mD;=.Siska" ,kafoaiska" bx.%Siska" ixúOdk hgf;a rdcHfha iaffjß;ajfhka
c¾udkqjka" tlai;a ckmÈlhka ;uka fiiq whg fldgila msg;g mjrd§uh' wfkla w;ska m%d.a
jvd fYa%IaG" udkj YsIagdpdrh md,khg jvd iqÿiq Okh" fjf<odu" iudcl%u wd.ñl weoys,s yd
cd;Ska f,i is;Su" iqÿ cd;slhka ;uka udkj Ôj fjk;a jákdlï Tiafia meje;=Kq rdcHfha ks¾ñ;
mßKdufha jákdu yd fY%aIaG j¾.h f,i is;Su mßirh" wd¾Ólh" iudc l%uh" fjkia fjñka Èhù
wdÈh foajjrïjdofhau úúO iajNdjhkah' hk nj h' tlai;a ckmoh we;=¿ ngysr rdcHhka
fï ;;a;ajh úia;r lf<a ish ,snr,a iudc
fojeks u;h jkafka iudc iïuq;sjd§ rdcHhh' l%uh ,enq ch.%yKhla f,ih' kej; kj iudc
ck;djf.a leue;a; u; f;dard.;a ksfhdaÔ;hka l%uhla w;ayod ne,Sug wjYH fkdjk wjidk
msßila md,lhska njg m;alr fiiq mqrjeishka mßmq¾K úYaùh jákdlï iys; iudch ìysù
jHjia:dj - kS;sh yd fjk;a iudc iïuq;Skaf. we;s njh ^m%ekaisia *ql=hdud - The End of History&'
ka md,l- md,s; iïuq;shla we;s lr rdcHh ikaksfõokfha we;s jq úma,ùh mßj¾;kh iu`.
md,kh tys iajdNdjhhs' tys§ md,s;hdg md,lhd fuh ;jÿrg;a ia:dms; u;hla úh' ±ka f,dalh
bj;alr,Sug yels ^ue;sjrKh& l%ufõohla mj;S' tlu úYaj .ïudkhla hehs Woï wekSsulaao isÿ úh'
fï l%ufõoh jvd udkùh l%ufõohla f,i
i,lkq ,nhs' flfia fj;;a f,dalfha ±kg mj;sk
f.da,ShlrKhg tfrysj kef.k
rdcHhka 200 lg wdikak m%udKfhka 40 la muK
kdñlj fyda merKs rdcjxY mj;ajd .kakd w;r" ckldka; cd;sljdoh
we;eï taldêm;s md,lhska úiska ish mjq,aj,
md,kh oYl .Kka we;eï rgj, mj;ajd .kq tfy;a 2010 ka miq rdcHhkaf.a kj iajrEmhka mek
,nhs' ke.S we;' ngysr rgj, me;sÍ .sh ckldka;jdoh
(Populism) iu`. fï kj m%jK;djh we;s úh'
1989 - 91 jljdkqfõ§ fldñhqksiaÜ iudcjdoS ckldka;jdofha j¾. folls' tkï jdudxYsl
fidaúhÜ rdcH moaO;sh ì`ojeàfï§ rdcH ms<sn`oj ckldka;jdoh yd olaIsKdxYsl ckldka;jdohhs'
;snq ;j;a n,.;= lShùulao ì`ojeáKs' tkï fï fomsßigu fmdÿ ldrKh kï Tjqka ndysr
rdcHh hkq wêm;s iudc mka;shl iudc mSä; n,mEïj,ska ^f.da,ShlrKfhka& ish rdcHh
WmlrKhla hkakh' udkj b;sydih oajkaO mka;s .,jd .ekSug W;aidy lsÍu;a" ish rdcHh lrjk
wr.,hla f,i ú.%y lr.ekSu tys od¾Yksl ^ue;sjrK meje;ajqKo& m%N+jd§ wêm;s l,a,sj,g
miqìu úh' flfia fj;;a" fidaúhÜ ix.uh ^1971- olajk úfrdaOh;ah' fudjqka w;r jk fjki
91& ;=< fyda fjk;a fldñhqksiaÜ rdcHhka ^Ökh" jkafka olaIsKdxYsl ckldka;jd§ka ish rdcHfha
úhÜkduh" kef.kysr hqfrdamSh rgj,a" lshqndj iqúfYaIS cklKavdhïj,g ^ixl%uKslhka $uqia,sï
jeks& ys mka;s úrys; iudchla fkdmeje;s nj;a" jHdma;jdoh& iqúfYaIS úfrdaOhlao ±laùuh'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 49


tlai;a ckmofha fvdk,aâ g%ïma l%shdj,sh" l%shdl< yels kj W;amdok fl<sìula - kj
m%xYfha cd;sl fmruqK ^udÍ ¨fmka&" ì%;dkHfha fjf<`ofmd<la we;s lf<a h' fuhska isÿjqfha
fn%laisÜ mlaIh ^khsc,a *rdÊ&, c¾uksfha cd;sl iudcfha tf;la n,h bis¨ jHdmdr yd foaYmd,k
mlaIh (AFD) yd fkda¾fõ" iaùvka" fvkaud¾la" mlaIj, weojeàug n,.;= iudc n,hla
fko¾,ka;h jeks rgj, uqia,sï úfrdaë foaYmd,k mqoa.,slj yd lKavdhï f,i we;sùuh' wfkla
m%jK;do" yxf.aßhdj" ´iaá%hdj" fmda,kakh" w;ska kQ;k cdk yd iakdhQ ;ka;= ;dCIK l%shdjka
;=¾lsh jeks rgj, cd;sljd§ m%jK;do" .S%ish" úiska ,snr,ajdofha tk iajhx ;SrK ^Free Will&
hqlaf¾kh" b;d,sh" iamd[a[h jeks rgj, m%p,s; .ekSfuka mqoa.,sl yelshdj ì|jeàfuka we;s
kj iudcjd§ m%jK;do fï ckldka;jdofha úúO njgo ;dCIKsl u; ìysfjñka we;'
m%jK;dh' tfukau" reishdfõ mqákajdoh" Ökfha
Ihsðkamskaf.a kj iudc fjf<`ofmd< l%uh" ta iu`.u wd¾Ól bÈßu`. i`oyd tlu ^,snr,a&
bkaÈhdfõ fudaÈf.a yskaÿ cd;sljdoh" cmdkfha wdlD;shla ke;s nj;a" úúO wdlD;s mj;sk nj;a
wdfí w.ue;sf.a kj cd;sl ,snr,ajdoh wdÈho ms<s.efkñka we;' WodyrKhla f,i Ökh"
úúO wdldrfhka f.da,ShlrKhg tfrys kj cd;sl úhÜkduh iy isx.mamqrej fmkajd § we;af;a
rdcHhla ms<sn`o woyia /f.k hñka we;' ;ks mlaIhl md,kh hgf;a rdcH wdh;k yryd
iS>% wd¾Ól ÈhqKqjla ,nd.; yels njh' wfkla
fï ;;a;ajhg fya;= jq uq,sl idOl lSmhla we;' miska wd¾Ól w;ska ì`o jegqKq we;eï rdcHhkays
tlla kï 2008-11 ld,h ;=< ngysr f,dalfha we;s kj iudcjd§ m%jK;d u;=ù we;' ^.S%ish" b;d,sh&
jq uq,H wdh;k ì`ojeàu" n,Yla;s yd wd¾Ól ,snr,a jdohg m%;smlaIj ckldka;jdoh yd rdcH
w¾nqohhs' Okjdoh fmrg wjq;a we;s w;r" f.da,ShlrKhg
tfrysj rdcHhka ish rfÜ l¾udka;" ;dlaIKh
fojekak" 2011 we;s jq wrdì jika;h kï l%h s dj,sh /l.ekSu i`oyd ixjD;" cd;sl rdcHhka Yla;su;a
,snr,a m%cd;ka;j % dofha zzuqi,
a ï
s fudfyd;ZZ f,i lrñka we;' fuys fmruqK f.k we;af;a g%ïma
f;areï.;a ngysr rdcHhkaf.a ueÈy;aùu úiska ckdêm;sf.a tlai;a ckmohhs' tfukau iudc
we;sl< zzbia,dóh ovìuZZh' bia,dï wkd:hska f,dj udOHj, ksoyia me;sÍu md,kh lsÍu i`oydo
mqrd .uka lsÍuo" Tjqka úiska l=rdKhg wu;rj ^Christchurch call - m%xYh yd kjiS,ka;h&
wrdì ixialD;sh jHdma; lsÍu o" Ôydoa ;%i; a jdoh úúO rgj,a kj kS;s f.ktñka isá;s' tfukau
kj ;%i; a jdohla f,i f,djg bÈßm;a lsÍuo isÿúh' ixl%uKslhka yd uqia,sï jHdma;jdoh md,kh
fuh m<uqj W;=re wm%l s dj yd ueofmrÈ. wjq,a l< lsÍu i`oyd f.dvìï ;dmam" uqrlfmd¨j,g
w;r" bkamiq hqfrdamh wjq,a lf<ah' ±ka fï Ôydoa wu;rj cd;sl ixialD;Ska /l.ekSfï kj Í;s
kj ;%i; a jdoh bkaÈhdj" Y%S ,xldj" nx.,dfoaYh" y`ÿkajd foñka we;' ^´iafÜ%,shdj" lekvdj yd
ms,m
s k
S h" uef,aih s dj" bkaÿksih s dj wd§ rgj,go m%xYh& fï ish,a, fmkakd fokafka wm ±ka miq
f.da,hS lrKh fjñka we;' lrñka isákafka 1990 § we;s jq" f.da,ShlrKh jQ
újD; ,snr,a úYaj .ïudkh njh'
;=kajk m%jK;djh jkafka f;dr;=re ;dlaIKfha
jHdma;sh yd kj ;dlaIK úma,jhhs' f;dr;=re
;dlaIKh yd iudc udOH cd,d úiska rdcH yd rdcHh yd hqla;sh mis`o,Su
m%Odk udOHj,g tfrysj mqoa.,sl udOHhla we;s
lrkq ,eìKs' B<`.g inqoaêl lreKq fjkqjg Y%S ,xldfõ w¾nqohg ,laù we;s fCIa;%hla kï
fndrej ^Fake News&" wi;Hh ^Misinformation& wêlrKhhs' ksYaÑ; kS;s kj ;;a;ajhkag iß,k
fjkia lshùï iys; jd¾;dlrKhla njg f,i fkdmej;Su" ^bf,lafg%daksl hqoaOhg" kj
m;ajQ hq.hla - ^mYapd;a nqoaêjd§ - Post Truth& ;%ia;jdohg uqyqKq Èh yels kS;s& wêlrKh iajdëk
f.dvke.sKs' wfkla w;g f.dvke.=Kq iqyqre jqj;a wmlaImd;s yd ld¾hlaIu fkdùu" ^Okh yd
;dlaIK m%jK;d úiska uyd ;dlaIK rdcHhkag n,h we;a;jqkg we;s úfYaI mlaImd;S;ajh" oYl
^t'ckmoh" c¾uksh" cmdkh" Ökh& tfrysj .Kkla wefok kvq mudj& úúO cklKavdhï

50 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


;ukaf.a jq kS;s rduqka ;kd.ekSu ^Ißhd kS;s& úúO ,xldfõ wOHdmkh úldYh jQfha mkai, yd
m%foaY yd cklKavdhïj, úfYaI;d i,ld kS;s msßfjk Tiafiah' Y%S ,xldj f:rjdoh jHdma;
mj;ajd .ekSu" ^f;aij,dfuhs" Wvrg wd§ f,i& lsÍfï wOHdmk uOHia:dkh ^uyd úydrh& úh'
jHdmdßl yd wdfhdack i`oyd jq kS;s yd wêlrK tfukau .syshkag jevodhl yeg y;rla jQ Ys,am
moaO;sh úfoaYslhka ms<sfkd.ekSu wdÈ f,i fï Ydia;% bf.k .kakd l%shdj,shlao úh' tkï
w¾nqoh y`ÿkd.; yel' meúÈ-.sys f,i wOHdmkh" tkï" oekqj;a yslaóu
^wd-odmkh& isÿúh'
Y%S ,xldjg n,.;= kS;s m%;sixialrKhla wjYHh'
wêlrKh iajdëk" wmlaImd;S yd ld¾hlaIu úh ngysr wdl%uK iuÕ kj wOHdmkhla rg
hq;= w;r kvqfõ iajdNdjh u; th wid ksulrk ;=< we;súh' c¾uksh uq,a lrf.k we;sjQ Y%u
ksYaÑ; Èk od;ï iys; úh hq;=h' úfYaIfhkau úfNaokhg WÑ; l%shdlrejd ìyslrk lïy,a
wdh;ksl yd mqoa.,sl ÿIKh yd jxpdj j<lajd udÈ,sh ^Factory Model& tx.,ka;h yryd ,xldjg
.ekSug Yla;su;a kS;s yd tajd l%shd;aul lsÍula o we;=¿úh' tkï iudchg wjYH mßmd,lhd"
^fydxfldx" isx.mamqre& wjYHh' tfukau úúO bxðfkarejd" ffjoHjrhd" ,smslrejd" .=rejrhd
cklKavdhïj, ixialD;sl wkkH;d ms<s.ekSu ìyslrk ksYaÑ; jhia ldKav iys;" ksYaÑ; ld,
wjYH jqj;a ish¨ fokdg tla kS;shla yd ish¨ fokd igyka iys; lïy,a udÈ,sfha mdi,a moaO;shla
kS;sh bÈßfha iudkùu iy;sl l< hq;=h' Ißhd ìysúh' fï mdi,aj, iqúfYaI;ajh jQfha tajdg
fyda fjk;a iudka;r wêlrK jHqyhka meje;Su uqo,a f.úh hq;= ùu;a" tajd wd.ñl wdh;kj,
wfydais l< hq;=h' wfkla w;ska rfÜ kùlrKh YslaIKh hgf;a mej;Su;ah' m<uqj ksoyia
fkdjq" ksYaÑ; kshdukhka ke;s m%Odku jD;a;Ska wOHdmkh ^lkakka.r uy;d& we;sjq w;r miqj
jkafka kS;s yd wêlrK fiajdjkah' fï ksidu ta mdi,a rdcHh hg;g .kq ,eîh ^nKavdrkdhl
i`oyd ;r.ldÍ mqoa.,hska ^ffjoH" bxÔfkare" ue;sksh&' fuh Y%S ,xldfõ we;sjQ kùk;u
.KldêldÍ fiajdjka fuka& we;=¿ fkdfõ' úma,jhhs' fï ksid fyd| idlaIr;djhla" fyd|
jD;a;Sh kshdukhka yd úYajúoHd, m%;smdok W.;alula" fyd| fi!LH ;;a;ajhla we;s m<uq
fldñiï hgf;a muKla md,kh jk ;r.ldÍ kS;s mka;sfha rgla njg wms m;a jQfhuq'
wOHdmkhla rgg wjYHh'
oeka Y%S ,xldfõ wOHdmkfha m%Yak lSmhla we;'
Y%S ,xldfõ iEu mqrjeisfhlau ms<s.;a udkqIsl tlla kï iud.ï f,i ixúOdkh ù we;s úfoaY
kS;sj,g hg;aúh hq;=h' fojkqj fmdÿ Y%S ,dxlsl mdGud,d i`oyd orejka iQodkï lrk wka;¾cd;sl
kS;sj,g hg;aúh hq;=h' ;=kajkqj ixialD;sl mdi,ah' fojekak mQ¾Kld,Sk f,i bia,dóh
wkkH;d mj;ajd .; yelsh' wOHdmkh ,nd fok Ißhd mdi,a ^uødid& yd
úYajúoHd,hkah' fndfyda fofkl= fhdackd
rdcHh yd wOHdmkh lrkafka fïjd fjk fjku kshdukh l< hq;=
njh'
wOHdmkfha mrud¾: lSmhla we;' bka m<uqjekak
kï ksjfia Ôj;ajk orejd iudcfha fldgila wka;¾cd;sl mdi,a yd Ißhd mdi,a ksid Y%S ,dxlsl
lsÍuh' iudc Í;Ska" iudcfha we;s úúO mqrjeishka ìys fkdfõ' th úfoaY.; ùug tla
fjkialï" ish rfÜ NdIdj" wd.ï yd b;sydih w;lska orejka fmd<Ujk w;r" wfkla w;ska ðydâ
wdÈh W.;a jeo.;a mqrjeishl= njg orejd m;a wka;jdofhka wjika jk iudc fnÿïjdohla
lsÍuh' fojkqj mqoa., ÈhqKqjh' tkï" ˜W.;ukd we;s lrhs' Ißhd mdi,a yd úYajúoHd, fj;ska
Ys,amhuhs u;= /flkd˜ lshukg wkqj /lshdjla jD;a;Shfõ§ka fyda ks¾udmlhka ìys jkafka ke;'
ilidf.k wkd.;h iqrlaIs; lsÍuh' ;=kafjkqj tu`.ska isÿ jkafka wrdì ni W.;a" l=rdkhg úúO
iudc ÈhqKqjh' tkï" kj woyia" kj ksmehqï" újrK Èh yels ujq,ú msßila ìys ùuh' tu
kj l<ukdlrK úê yd kj kdhl;ajhka rgg" ujq,újre we;eïúg iudch uOHld,Sk hq.hg
iudchg" f,dalhg ìys lr .ekSuhs' weof.k hk kdhl;ajhla imh;s'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 51


,xldfõ iEu orefjlau cd;sl - wd.ñl fNaofhka y;rjk ld¾ñl úma,jfha iqúfYaI;ajh jkafka
f;drj idudkH fm< olajd fmdÿ wOHdmkh ,eìh tlsfklg fjkia ;dlaI‚l oyrd msmqreï iy.;j
hq;=h' ,xldfõ wOHdmkh meúÈ-.sys f,i wvq j¾Okhùu;a" tajd tlsfkl iuÕ uqyqkaùu;a"
;rñka Wiia fm< isg fjkaj b.ekaúh yelsh' mdr-h;d¾:h" h;d¾:h iuÕ fouqyqkaùu;a"
tfukau wOHdmkh kj W;amdokh b,lal lr.;a ì,shk .Kkl udkjhska cd,.;ùu;ah'
kj úIh ks¾foaY iys; kj l%shdj,shla úh hq;=h'
tfukau th rch úiska kS;s-Í;s yd kshdukh fï l%shdj,sh rdcHh blaujd we;s w;r" we;eï
fukau md,kho l< hq;=h' ck lKavdhï mdr-h:d¾:fha cd;Ska f,i
ixúOdkh ù we;s w;r ^f,dj mrdð; we;eï
mqoa.,sl wOHdmk wdh;k fyda úYajúoHd, we;eï fnÿïjd§ka wka;¾cd,fha cd;sh f.dv kÕñka
úIhka i`oyd ^f;dr;=re ;dlaIKh l<ukdlrKh& isá;s&" ;j;a wh kj ;%ia;jdoh wka;¾cd,h
mej;sh yels kuq;a tajd ,dN fkdWmhk rcfha yryd úiqrejd,ñka isá;s ^whsisia jeks&' wfkla
fmdÿ wOHdmk úIh ud,dj kshdukhg yd m%ñ;shg w;ska rdcHfha u;jd§ wdêm;Hh fï kj udOH
hg;a úh hq;=h' iud.ï mk; hgf;a Wiia wOHdmk úiska wNsfhda. flÍ we;' fï ksid rdcHhka fï
wdh;k mj;ajd .ekSu k;r lr ish¨ wdh;k kj udOH jdrKh lsÍug W;aidy lrhs' kj udOH
cd;sl wOHdmk kshdukhlg hg;a l< hq;=h' nyq;rhla mßyrKh jkafka ´md¥m" úfkdaoh"
fndre me;srùu" jHik me;srùu wdÈh i|yd nj
rdcHh yd udOHh we;a;h' ta i|yd l< hq;af;a kj udOH myiqlï
imhkakka fukau iuyr udOH whs;slrejkao
i;aj mßKdukfha§ fmkS hkafka kQ;k udkjhd kshdukh yd ck;dlrKh lsÍuh' ,xldfõ iudc
^fydafuda fiamshka& wdikakfhka mj;sk úúO Wm udOHj,g fodia lSjo" rdcHh yd mqoa.,sl udOH
udkj j¾. ^Homonid& úis .Kkla mej;s njh' id;sYh nyq;rh whs;slrejkaf.a jHdmdßl yd
úúO mdßißl fya;+ka ksido" kQ;k udkjhd iuÕ foaYmd,k jqjukd u; fufyhfj;s'
uqyqkaùu ksido" kQ;k udkjhdf.a wdl%uKhg
,laùu ksido fulS udkj j¾.hka j|ù f.dia fï ksid f¾äfhda ;rx. ixLHd; mrdih ^Radio
we;' kQ;k udkjhd id¾:lùug m%Odku fya;=j Frequency Spectrum& m<uqj cki;= l< hq;=h'
Tjqkaf.a ks¾udKYS,S njh' tys§o úfYaI jkafka bka miq rchg jeäu wdodhula ,efnk f,i
Tjqka úiska ixfla; yd NdIdj ks¾udKh lsÍu;a" ;r.ldÍj wf,ú l< hq;=h' tu`.ska bf,lafg%dksl
tuÕska id¾:l ikaksfõokhla iys; udkj udOH wêldßh fjf<`ofmd< ;=< ck;dlrKh l<
iudchla ks¾udKh lsÍu;ah' hq;=h'

udkjhd NdIdj ,sÅ; l%shdj,shla njg m;alr fojkqj ixLHd; mrdih yd iudccd,d kshdukh
.ekSu;a iuÕ Tyqf.a iudc mßKdukfha fukau l< hq;=h' tys§ cd;Hka;r iïuq;s wkqj l%shd lsÍu
Ôj mßKdufhao bÈß msïula iksgqyka úh' uqøK fukau úêu;a uyd o;a; fõÈldjla ^Big Data
Ys,amh" leurd Ys,amh" .=jka úÿ,sh" rEmjdysksh" Flatform& u; hdka;%sl md,khg wjYH ;dlaI‚l
o;a; .nvd lsÍu mß.Klh" o;a; ikaksfõokh yelshdj rch ,nd.; hq;=h' iudc cd,d wjysr
pkaøsld uÕska ùu" wka;¾cd,h ìysùu" iqyqre lsÍu we;eï úg wjYH jqj;a th rdcHh m%;sm;a;sh
ÿrl:kh" uqyqKqfmd; yd fjk;a iudc cd,d ìysùu úh hq;= ke;' isÿúh hq;af;a fndreldrhska"
yd ìysfjñka ;sîu úYauh ckl f,i bÈßhg hhs' ffjrh m;=rjkakka" ;%ia;jd§ka y÷kd .ekSu yd
l%ufhka wka;¾cd,h yd mdr-h:d¾;h ^Hyper- ksIal%ShlrKhhs'
reality& tÈfkod Ôjk lghq;= tkï" uQ,H .kqfokq"
fjf<| .kqfokq" m%jdykh" wOHdmk yd fi!LH
fiajd wd§ ish,a, w;sl%uKh lrñka we;'

52 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


rdcHh yd kj ;%ia;jdoh B<Õg lshefjkafka isxy, yd fou< ckhd
bia,dóh NS;sldjlska ^Islamophobia& fmf<k
mdial= bßod m%ydrh;a iuÕ l,t<s nei we;s njh' fuh fndfydaúg ngysr iudchkag yd
bia,dóh ðydâ ;%ia;jdoh kj ;%ia;jdohla uqia,sïjre >d;kfha fhfok iqÿ l%sia;shdks j¾.
^New Terrorism& f,i ie,fla' tys m<uq wruqK jd§kag t,a, jk fpdaokdjls' bia,dóh NS;sldjla
jHikhhs (Savage&' fojkqj" jHikh W;aikak ,xldfõo" f,dalfhao we;' f,dalfha wo we;s .egqï
lrñka ;u rdcHh-bia,dóh l,smd;h ^Caliphate& ish,a,u mdfya bia,duh iïnkaO .egqïh' fmr,d
msysgqùuhs' oeka ,xldj uqyqK § we;af;a fuys m<uq tlai;a ckmohg tfrysj úhÜ fldkajre igka l<
mshjrgh' tkï yels;dla jHikh jHdma; lrkd wdldrh fyda .u,a wíÿ,a kid¾" iqjia w¾nqohg
;%ia; Wmdh ud¾.hgh' uqyqK ÿka wdldrh w,alhsod" whsisia" fndfldayrdï"
;f,andka ,laId b fgdhsnd fyda fjk;a bia,dóh
we;eï jdudxYslhka whsisia fyda fjk;a bia,dóh ;%ia; ixúOdkj, ke;' Tjqka .egqug lsisÿ
;%ia;jdohka y÷kd .kafka mSvlhskag tfrysj iïnkaOhla ke;s msßia fndre weoys,slrejka f,i
m%pKav;ajh wúhla lr.;a w;S; l%shdoduhkaf.a i,ld >d;kh lr;s ^úhÜ fldkajre fjdIskagkhg
kQ;k l%shdj,shla f,ih' fuh iyuq,skau jerÈ urdf.k uefrk m%ydr t,a, lf< ke;&'
újrKhls' bia,dóh ðydâ wka;jdofha wruqKq
folla mj;S' tfukau rdcHhla ;=< Wm rdcHhla" iudchla ;=<
fjkia iudchla wd§ f,i iEu rglu Wm rdcHhla
² m<uqj ;uka mSvdjg ,la lrkakd jvd jeä yd iudchla f,i ^wrdìlrKh& uqia,sïjre jHdma;
mSvdjlg ,la lsÍuh' jk w;r" iduQysl úfrdaO;d yd m%pKav l%shdj,g
² fojkqj" ;uka mSvdjg m;a fkdl<o ;u fm<fU;s ^/äl,alrKh&' fï ksid uqia,sï wrdì
foúhka ksjerÈj fkdwoykakd ^Non Believer& jHdma;jdohla we;ehs hk NS;sh fiiq iudchg
úkdY lsÍuh' oefka'

mdial= m%ydr ie,lsh hq;af;a fuhska fojeks .kfha tfyhska" fï kj ;%ia;jdoh wdrlaIl wxYj,g
m%ydrhla f,ih' muKla md,kh l< fkdyel' th fjf<|fmd<"
kS;sh" wOHdmkh" iudcl%shd" wdydr yd mej;=ï
Y%S ,xldfõ bia,dóh wka;jdohla ìysjQfha isxy, iys; úúO l%shdldrlïj,ska iukaú;h' fï ksid
fn!oaO wka;jd§kaf.a m%pKav l%shd ^fírej," uOHia: uqia,sï ckhd tkï ish,a,kag fma%u l<
uykqjr& ksid yd fou< fnÿïjd§kaf.a m%pKav hq;= nj weoyQ iQmsjre n,d;aul l< hq;=h' iudc
>d;k yd m<jdyeÍï ^ld;a;kal=ä >d;kh" fnÿïjdohl isákd uqia,sïjre ks¾wrdìlrKhlg
hdmkfha uqia,sï ckhd úm%jdih& ksidh' ,la lr Y%S ,dxlsl l< hq;=h' tlu foúhka w,a,d
muKhs" tlu f;dard.;a ck;dj uqia,sïjre
uqia,sï iudchg tfrysj wka;jd§ m%pKav l%shdjka
muKhs" hk wdia:dkfha msysgd isáñka fiiq
isÿ jQ nj yd isÿfjñka mj;sk nj i;Hhls'
foújre yd fiiq weoys,s úkdY l< hq;= nj woyk
tfy;a" mdial= bßod m%ydrh ,dxlsl iudcfha
/äl,a u;jdo ks¾-/äl,a l< hq;=h' m%pKav
m%N+ uqia,sï me,eka;shl ðydâ wka;jdohla yd
cd;Hka;r ;%ia;jdohl m<s.ekSula ñi" th ðydâlrejka úkdY lsÍu yd ksYal%ShlrKh l<
Y%S ,xldj ;=<ska ìys jQjlaa fkdfõ' fkdtfia hq;=h'
kï Tjqka ls;=Kq iudchg myr fokafka ke;'
frdayska.hd m%Yakh we;s ñhkaudrh ñi" Y%S ,xldj kj bia,dóh ;%ia;jdoh Y%S ,xldj ;=< mrdch l<
m%ydr i|yd fhdod .kafkao ke;' yelafla tf,i wm iuÕ Ôj;a jk uqia,sï m%cdfõ
úúO ia:r ^m%pKav ðydâjd§ka" m%pKav;ajhg

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 53


iydh olajkakka" /äl,a u;OdÍka" wrdìlrKh wdrlaIl fiajdjla yd iudc m%;sixialrKhla
uqia,sïlrKh f,i i,lkakka jk Y%S ,dxlsl uÕsks'
iïm%odhsl uqia,sïjre& y÷kdf.k ta ta ia:rj,g
.e<fmk Wmdh ud¾. l%shd;aul lsÍfuks' rdcHh yd wd.u
bia,dóh ;%ia;jdoh mrdch lsÍug uqia,sï mdial= bßod ;%ia; m%ydr úiska Y%s ,dxlSh
iudcfha il%Sh odhl;ajh wjYH jkjd fukau foaYmd,kfha yd iudcfha kj uq,sl fn§ula we;s
Tjqka úiska yd rdcHh ueÈy;a ù isÿ lrk Y%S ,dxlsl lrñka we;' ta wd.u yd weoys,a, u; iudch
uqia,sïjrfhla ìyslr,Sfï mßj¾;khla wjYHh' uq,sl jYfhka fn§ hEug ;=vq §uhs' ta yd iu`.u
fuys§ fiiq iudchkaf.a j.lSuo wjOdrKh rdcHh yd rdcH md,khg wd.fï we;s ineÈhdj
flf¾' fn!oaOlu mdov uer msßila úiska wh:d kej;;a újdo fjñka we;'
f,i Ndú; lsÍug tfrysj fn!oaO iudcfha keÕS
isàula isÿúh hq;=h' tfukau fou< yskaÿ iudch frdau wêrdcHfha mSvkh hgf;a fhaiqia l%sia;=ia
iuÕ mer‚ isxy,-fou< .egqï wu;l lr kj
jykafia foaYkd lf<a foúhkaf.a foa foúhkag;a"
ine¢hdjla we;s lr .; hq;=j we;'
iSi¾f.a foa iSi¾g;a fokak lshdh' tkï" rdcHh
yd wd.u fjkaj meje;sh hq;= njh' nqÿrcdKka
bia,duh fuka fkdj" l%sia;shdkSka furgg wdfõ
wdl%u‚l fõYfhks' fï ksid ksoyiska miq jykafia ish Y%djlhskag foaYkd lf<a rdc kSs;shg
l%sia;shdks úfrdaë .egqï .Kkdjla we;súh' miqj wkqj ish Ydiksl l%shd isÿ l< hq;= nj h' isoaOd¾:
tajd fndfyda ÿrg iuyka jQfha lf;da,sl m,a,sh f.!;uhka jykafia rdcH;ajh muKla fkdj
Y%S ,dxlsl ùu ksidh' kuq;a" miq.sh oYl ;=kl f,!lsl ðú;hu ksIal%uKh l< fndai;ajrfhls'
muK ld,hl isg mj;sk tjekac,sl wd.ïlrKh uyu;a;=ud u§kd k.rfha md,kh ish o¾Ykhg
fn!oaO yd lf;da,sl iudcfha is;a ßojd we;' fï wkqj ilia l< w;r bkamiq ìys jQ uqia,sï rdcH
ksid tlS l%sia;shdks iudcfhao Y%S ,dxlsllrKh yd wêrdcHh l=rdkhg wkqj md,kh úh' nqÿ oyu
w;HjYH ù ;sfí' yd l%sia;shdkska fuka mqcH - mqcl mlaIhla uqia,sï
oyfï ke;s w;r .sys wd.ñl W.;=ka úiska rdcHh
fuys§ wkHd.ïlrKh je<elaùug kS;s Í;s fukau
yd iudch fufyhjhs' uqia,sï rdcHj, rdcH
wjYH jkafka W;a;Í;r wd.ñl uKav,hl
l%shdldÍ;ajhhs' kj bia,dóh ;%ia;jdoh kdhlhd ^fyda md¾,sfïka;=j& fjku meje;sho thg
je<elaùugo th w;HjYHh' iudka;rj wd.ñl úh;=kaf.a iNdjkao mj;ajd
.kS' ^Wf,aud uKav," Iqrd uKav,& jHjia:djka yd
f,a ì|laj;a fkdfid,ajd ksoyi ,nd.;a;d hehs wKmk;a iïu; jkafka tlS wd.ñl uKav,j,
lshd Woï wekQ wms miq.sh oYl y;l ld,h ;=< leue;a;g hg;ajh' yskaÿka fndfyda ÿrg ish
we;s ;rï f,a j.=rejd we;af;uq' m<uq oYl lSmh rdcHh n%yaukaf.ka jrï .;a rdcjxYj,g iSud
^1947-1982& f.ù.sfha foaYmd,k fn§ï u; ^ju- lr we;'
ol=K& .egqï yd >d;k isÿlr,ñks' fojeks oYl
lSmh ^1983-2009& NdIdj yd ck j¾.h u; .egqï" od¾Ykslj ljrla mejiqjo" jHjia:dj, ;u
>d;k yd úfoaYSh ueÈy;aùï isÿúh' mdial= bßod
rdcHh wkd.ñl nj mejiqjo rdcHhkag ksr;=rej
m%ydr yd ðydâ ;%ia;jdoh md,kh lr uqia,sï
wd.ï ms<sn`o jQ ine`Èhdj w;HjYH fjhs' ta
iudch mßj¾;kh fkdl<fyd;a bÈß oYlh fyda
oYl .Kk .;jkq we;af;a ðydâ" l=rei wd.ñl foajjrïjdoh ksid fkdj ckiïu;jdofha§o
hqoaOhlajh' wd.ñl leue;a; biau;=ùu ksid h'

thg uqyqK Èh hq;af;a kùk" nqoaêu;a" rdcH wd.u yd rdcHfha úldYhg fyd`ou WodyrKh
wdrlaIl m%;sm;a;shla yd m%;sikaOdkh l< ,efnkafka frdau wêrdcHfhka yd hqfrdamfhks'

54 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


frdau wêrdc l%shdj,sh hq. ;=klska hq;=úh' fm!r mdlsia;dkh yer nx.,dfoaYh" uef,aishdj"
rdcHhla f,i mej;Su" iuqydKavqjlaùu yd Y=oaO bkaÿksishdj wd§ ±jeka; wdishd;sl uqia,sï rgj,a
frdau wêrdcHh ìysùu f,ih' fldkaiagkaghska Tjqka wkd.ñl fkdjqj;a bia,duh rdcH md,kfhka
úiska frdaufha rdcH wd.u f,i l%sia;shdksh ÿria; lr we;' tlS rgj, újD; kQ;k ÈhqKqjg
ms<s.ekSu;a ^l%s'j' 4 jeks ishji&" th jHdma; lsÍu fï wdl,amh ;Èka WmldÍ ù we;' Y%S ,xldj .;a
ish rdcH j.lSu f,i .ekSu;a iu`. Y=oaO frdau l, tys jHjia:dfõ nqoaOd.ug m%uqLia:dkh fok
wêrdcHh we;súh' flfia fj;;a oaú;aj n,hla nj;a ^9 jeks j.ka;sh&" iïnqoaO Ydikh /lSu
wêrdcHhd yd mdma jykafia wf;a úh' fuys§ rcfha j.lSula nj;a m%ldYlr ;snqKo tys wfkla
Y=oaO frdau wêrdcHfha ì`ojeàu ^16-17 ishjia& j.ka;Ska ^10 jeks j.ka;sh" 12 jeks j.ka;sh" 14
.ek i,ld ne,Sfï§ udáka ¨;¾ úiska we;s l< jeks j.ka;sh& u`.ska fiiq wd.ï iu ;;a;ajfha ,d
mqoa.,hdg w;rueÈhl=f.ka f;drj ^mdma jykafia" i,ld we;' rdcHhg" nqoaOd.ug m%uqLia:dkh §u
rdcHh" m,a,sh& foúhka yd tlaúh yelsh hk .ek ksis kS;suh újrKhla fyda ta ms<sn| jq rdcH
mKsjqvh ;Èka n,mEfõh' l%shdoduhla m%dfhda.slj rg ;=< isÿ fkdfõ'

B<`.g ta jk úg wdishdj" weußldj yd ;rula ÿrg ta wkqj wdKavql%u jHjia:dfõ 9 jeks j.ka;sh yqÿ
W;=re wm%sldj fld,a,lEfuka Okj;a jq hqfrdamhg jHjia:d ieris,a,la muKla njg m;aù m%dfhda.sl
ksoyia fjf<|fmd<la yd ksoyia mqrjeishl= Ndú;h ;=< Y%S ,xldj wkd.ñl rdcHhla njg
wjYHj ;sìKs' ;sia wjqreÿ hqoaOfhka miq we;s jq m;aj we;'
fjiaÜmd,shd iïuq;sfhka kQ;k cd;sl rdcHhla
ìysùu we;súh' ta wkqj ;ks l%sia;shdks wêrdcHhla f:rjd§ O¾uh wdl%uK bÈßfha wdrlaId lr
fjkqjg l%sia;shdksh woyk fjf<| rdcHhka .ekSu yd jHdma; lsÍu .ek Y%S ,xldjg iqúfYaIS
/ila ìysúh' flfia fj;;a idka; welajhskdia ia:dkhla ysñj we;' nqoaO foaYkdj ^;%smsglh& yd
úiska we;slrk ,o l%sia;shdks rdcHh ^Christendom& o¾Ykh f,aLk.; lr úêu;aj f,dalhg ,nd
yd hqla;s hqoaOh ^Just war& B<`. ishjia lSmh ÿkafka isxy, NslaIqka jykafia úisks' wfkla wd.ï
;=< hqfrdamSh cd;Skaf.a f,dal wdl%uKfha f;audj fuka ish wd.ñl jHdma;sh i|yd wkH rgj,a
úh' Y=oaO ;%s;ajh ^uejqïlre" fhaiqia jykafia" wdl%uKh fyda n,y;aldrfhka wd.ólrKh isÿ
Y=oaO wd;auh& iu. Y=oaO zCZ ;%s;ajh tkï fkdl< tlu O¾uho nqoaO O¾uhhs' tys yrh
YsIag;ajh" jdKscHh yd l%sia;shdksh ^Civilization, rdcHfhka muKla fkdj f,!lsl Ôú;fhkao"
Commerce, Christianity& tlg .uka lf<a h' ;uka uu keue;s ixl,amfhkao ksIal%uKhhs' kuq;a"
ljr wdldrfhka wkd.ñl rdcHhla nj lSj;a Y%S ,dxlSl Ydiksl iïm%odh jq l,s O¾uh /lSu
^m%xYh" c¾uksh& ish¨u hqfrdamSh rdcHhka ish yd jHdma; lsÍu i|yd rdcH wkq.%yh ,nd .ekSuh
wkkH;djh l%sia;shdks ixialD;sh iu`. uqyqka lr ^,kafoaiSka mjd isÿ lr we;&' tys§ rcqka m;a lsÍu"
we;' úfYaIfhka kj ckldka;jdoh;a" kj ;reK bj;a lsÍu wd§ lghq;=j,g NslaIqka jykafiaf.a
jHdmdr ^Generation Identity& wdÈh iqÿ j¾.h yd Rcq inÈhdjla mej;S we;' rcq" NslaIqka yd
l%sia;shdks oyu tlg .eg.id we;' ck;dj w;r iïuq;shla f,i merKs Y%S ,xld
rdcHh f.dvke.S ;sìKs'
wdishdfõ fndfyda fn!oaO rgj,a ish rgj,a
wkd.ñl lr we;' ^cmdkh" Ökh" ;dhs,ka;h" ì%;dkH hq.fha rdcH wd.u njg weka.s,sldkq
fldßhdj& bkaÈhdjo jHjia:dfjka wkd.ñl ù ls%ia;shdksh m;aúh' fi!LH" wOHdmkh" kS;sh
we;' flfia fj;;a fldñhqksiaÜ mlaI hgf;a yd iduh /lSu wd§ ish¨ lafIa;%j, l%sia;shdks
md,kh jk rgj, mjd wd.ñl Ñka;khka rdcHhg mqclhkaf.a kdhl;ajh meje;sKs' ksoyiska miq
n,mEï lrñka we; ^hqfrdamfha ;rï fkdfõ&' l%ufhka fï ;;a;ajhka fjkia úh' we;eïúg

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 55


.egqï we;súh ^mdi,a cki;=j 1961&' flfia kùk Y%S ,xldjla f.dvke.Sug rdcH yd wd.u
fj;;a" fmdÿfõ wd.ñl ixia:d wjia:dj,g wkqj w;r ineÈhdj ;SrKh l< hq;=h' fï i|yd
rdcH md,khg úáka úg ueÈy;aj we;' iqÿiqu l%uh jkafka wd.ñl yd iudchSh lreKq
ms<sn|j rdcH kdhl;ajhg WmfoaYk ,nd§ug
fï wkqj fmkSs hkafka wd.ñl uq,afmd;aj, ljrla wd.ñl uKav,hla ia:dms; lsÍuh' tfukau fjkia
i`oykaj ;snqKo j;auka iudchg .e<fmk f,i
wd.ñl ixia:djka rdcHh hgf;au md,kh lsÍuh
tlS uQ,O¾u fyda O¾u;d fhdod .ekSu;a" tajd
^wOHdmkh" fi!LHh&' ta w;r wd.ñl wka;jdoh
wd.ñl l;Djre foaYkd l< iudchg wkqj kej;
kS;suh f,i uev,Su;a" wd.ñl ;%ia;jdoh
lshùu;a w;HjYH njh' Y=oaO .%ka:j, i|yka oE
^f,dalh me;,sh jeks& yd h:d¾:h w;r mr;rhla wdrlaIl f,i úkdY lsÍu;a" úfoaYSh ino;d
we;s jQ úg inqoaêl udkjhd h:d¾:h u; ls%hd l< mq¿,a" fkdneÈ ms<sfj;lg wkqj mj;ajd .ekSu;a
hq;=h' isÿúh hq;= h'

56 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 57
58 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu
msúiqu - 3

úfoia fjf<|du iy úfoia in|;d (


f,dj Èkk u`.

Y%S ,xldfõ w;súYsIag N+f.da,Sh msysàu .ek f,i fyda jdKscuh f,i md,kh lsÍfï yelshdj
ish,a,ka w;r tl`.;djla we;' tfukau tys tlai;a ckmohg ,eìKs' tlai;a ckmoh fojeks
ckhdf.a W.;aluo" tys mj;sk ksoyia iudcho" f,dal ix.%dufha§ ì%;dkHhg Wmldr lf<a Tjqka
tys we;s jákd mßir moaO;sho ms<sn|j fndfyda merKs kEhka ksid ^weka.af,da ielaika& fyda meisiaÜ
fofkl=f.a meye§ula we;' tfy;a Y%S ,xldj - kdiS wlaIh me/oùu ish udkùh j.lSu f,i
ihqf¾ msysáfï yd ;u fN!;sl yd udkj iïm;aj, ie,l+ ksid fyda fkdj hqoaOfhka miq ì%;dkH kdjql
Wmßu m%fhdackh f.k ke;s nj;a" we;eï l|jqre md,kh lsÍfï fmdfrdkaÿj u;h' ta wkqj
wxYj,ska rfÜ m%;srEmh fndfydaÿrg le,,a ù Y%S ,xldfõ fld<U yd ;%sl=Kdu,h yereKq úg
we;s nj;a meyeÈ,sh' wm wjg we;s ud,Èjhsk fï fndfyda N+f.da,Sh kdjql l|jqre tlai;a ckmoh
lsisÿ iïm;lska f;drj" ish tal mqoa., wdodhu i;=úh'
Y%S ,xldj fuka fo.=Khla lr .ekSu .ek ^fvd,¾
9"000 muK - 2019& wm keje; úuish hq;=h' fojk f,dal ix.%dufhka miq ì%;dkHfha ysre
fkdnisk wêrdcHh ì| jeáKs' Bðma;=fõ isg ol=Kq
jir 2010 ckdêm;sjrKfha§ uyskao rdcmlaI wm%sldj olajd;a" bkaÈhdfõ isg nqreuh olajd;a kj
ckdêm;s;=udf.a m%;sm;a;s m%ldYhg zwdishdfõ ksoyia rdcHhka we;súh' f,dalfha md,kh ish;g
mxpn, flakaøhZ njg Y%S ,xldj m;aúh hq;=hehs jq .ekSug kï f,dalfha uq,H fjf<|fmd< md,kh
woyi uúiska bÈßm;a lrk ,oaols' tys§ fjf<|" l< hq;= njg jQ woyi túg bÈßm;a úh' ta i|yd
kdjql" .=jka" ±kqu" n,Yla;sh" wdÈh ms<sn|j hqfrdamSh wdo¾Yhlao meje;sK' ta iaúiag¾,ka;hhs'
woyia ±laúKs' l=vd iaúiag¾,ka;h yd iaúia nexl= f,dal uq,H
yd jdKsc n,hla jQfha m<uq f,dal ^hqfrdamd&
tx.,ka;h fojk f,dal hqoaOhg fmr f,dalfha ix.%dufhka miq ì%;dkH" m%xY" c¾udkq" b;d,s"
n,j;a kdjql n,h úh' weh ;ukg jvd wd¾Ól ;=¾ls" reishdkq Ok l=fõrhska uqyqKÿka whnÿ yd
w;ska ^c¾uksh& ck.ykh w;ska ^bkaÈhdj" rdcH yUdhEï ksidh ^fldñhqksiaÜ&' Tjqkaf.a uqo,a
wm%sldj& N+f.da,Sh w;ska ^m%xYh" iamd[a[h& nÿj,ska f;drj ;ekam;a lrkd uOHia:dkh njg
úYd, rdcHhka miqneiaijQfha" hg;a lr.kq iqßÉ m;aúh' tx.,ka;h" ,kavkh ;=< fjku
,enqfõ fï iqúfYaIS yelshdj ksidh' fojk f,dal kS;s iys; mqr ,kavkhla ^City of London& we;s
uyd ix.%dufhka miqj f,dfõ kdjql wdêm;Hh yd lf<ah' tu`.ska ish merKs hg;a úð;j, Ok
fjf<| ;Srhka" jrdhka Rcqj fyda jl%j" hqouh l=fõrhskao" f;,a yd .Eia l=fõrhskao" ish¨u

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 59


wdldrfha l¿" ÿUqre" iqÿ fjf<kaokao wdl¾YKh úh' kuq;a th miqj id¾:lj ch.;af;a vqndhsys
lf<a h' tfukau nexl= yd jdKsc kS;s" ta ms<sn| jq ish¨ kS;s moaO;s tys jrdh" .=jka fiajh" ixpdrl
wOHdmkh ,nd fok uOHia:dkhlao" jdKsc .egqï m%j¾Okh nÿ úrys; lafIauN+ñh njg m;afjñks'
fíreïlrK uOHia:dkhlao njg m;aúh' wo 1970 .Kkaj, f,nkkhg ysñ jQ ;ek wysñlr
,kavkh tx.,ka; wd¾Ólfhka 1$5 la ,ndfok wrdìfha mdrd§ih njg vqndhs m;aúh' fuf,iu
iqrìfokls' miqj isx.mamqrej" fydxfldx" j¾ðka f;,a .Eia yd .,aw`.=re fjf<| uOHia:dkhla
Èjhsk" uldfjda" wh¾,ka;h wd§ fujeks uQ,H njg isx.mamqrejo m;aj we;'
lafIauN+ñ ^Tax Haven& úYd, m%udKhla ìys úh'
fuh Y%S ,xldjgo isÿl< yelalls' fld<U"
Y%S ,xldfõ isg meh ;=kl .=jka ld,hla ;=< ;%sl=Kdu,h" yïnkaf;dg yd ukakdru hd lrkd
fvd,¾ ì,shk 4"000 l muK wd¾Ólhla yd fmdis, bkaOk cd,hla yd ukd jrdh" .=jkaf;dgqm,
ñksiqka ì,shkhla muK jdih lr;s' Y%S ,xldjg yd kd.ßl myiqlï cd,hla u.ska Y%S ,xldjo
bkaÈhkq id.rfha uQ,H flakaøh úh fkdyelafla n,Yla;s fjf<|fmd<g mßj¾;kh l< yelsh'
wehso hkak u; jir 2010 § Y%S ,xldj wdishdfõ
jdKsc yd uQ,H flakaøh njg jq fhdackdj bÈßm;a wfkla fjf<|fmd< jq l,S ±kquh' ol=Kq wdishdfõ
lf<ñ' fuh kdjql" .=jka hk lafIa;% folgo kj W;amdok mrd§ih yd is,slka ;srh njg
;ju;a wod<h' Y%S ,xldj myiqfjka m;al< yelsh' tys§ bkaÈhdj"
úfYaIfhka nex.f,darh úiska isÿlr we;s
,xldj jgd uqyqfoa f;,a yd .Eia iïm; mj;sk mßj¾;k wmg wdo¾Yhls'
nj 2008 § isÿl< ukakdrï fødaKsfha ihsiñl
o;a; ^TGS NOPEC& jd¾;dj,ska Tmamq úh' miqj 2016 § niakdysr uyd k.r ie,iqug fydaud.u isg
ukakdrï fødaKsfha isÿl< leKSïj,ska (CAIRNS) ud,fí olajd jq ;dlaIK k.rhla yd tys fiajd
uOHu m%udKfha .Eia m%Nj folla ^Baracuda, imhk fydrK l¾udka; k.rh wm úiska fhdackd
Dorado& - 2011 iema;eïn¾ - yuqúh' ldfõß lrkq ,enqfõ fï ksidh' jrdh k.rh" ;dlaIK
fødaKsh" kef.kysr yd ol=Kq l,dmj, ;ju;a k.rh yd .=jka k.rh Tiafia muKla fvd,¾
úêu;a wOHkhla lr ke;' fï ksid 2015 § ì,shk 15 - 20 w;r wdfhdackhla bÈß oijir
ukakdrfï .Eia Wlyd .ekSug rcfha iud.ula ^2030 olajd& isÿlr .;fyd;a Y%S ,xldfõ tal
^fkda¾fõ fuka ck;djg j.lshk m%;s,dN fok mqoa., wdodhu tl iekska fvda,¾ 1"000 lska by<
bkaOk iud.ula& msysgqùug;a" m<uq jgfha§ ,xld hkq we;'
úÿ,sn, uKav,hg .Eia ,nd §ug;a" fojkqj
wêfõ.S ud¾.j,g iudka;rj .Eia yd f;,a 2015 - 2018 ld,h ;=< Y%S ,xldj id¾:l jq lafIa;h
% la
fmdïm cd,hla bÈlsÍu;a fhdackd lf<uq' wfma jqfha ixpdrl jHdmdrhhs' wmf.a .=jkaf;dgqmf,a
b,lalh jqfha 2030 § n,Yla;sfhka fmdaIKh we;s iSudjka ^kj .=jka m:hla fkdue;s nj" m¾hka;
ùuhs' n,Yla;s lafIa;%fha ud*shdj úiska fï jákd f.dvke.s,s iSudjka" kùlrK yd wdrlaI; s .=jka
l%shdoduh wjq,al<o th ;ju;a <.dlr .; yels f;dgqm,la fkdùu& ksid fkdjkakg myiqfjka wmg
iïm;ls' wmf.a ixpdrl wdodhu fo.=K lr,Sug yelshdj
,efnkakg bv ;sìKs'
tfukau udf.a wjOdkh fhduq jq ;j;a ia:dkhla
kï vqndhsys msysgd we;s f;,a yd .Eia cd;Hka;r fld<U jrdh m¾hka;h bÈlsÍu ^kef.kysr yd
wf,ú uOHia:dkhhs' vqndhs rdcHhg f;,a yd ngysr m¾hka;$ ol=Kq jrdh& mud lsÍu" kj úÿ,s
.Eia iïm; fkdue;sjqj;a th cd;Hka;r f;,a yd c, iemhqï ,nd§ug yels jHdmD;s l%shd;aul
yd .Eia wf,ú uOHia:dkhla njg 2008 jif¾§ fkdlsÍu" fmdÿ m%jdykh kùlrKh yd Yla;su;a
m;ajqfha ksõfhdala k.rfha mj;ajdf.k .sh tjeks fkdlsÍu ksid wd¾Ól j¾Okhg ndOd we;súh'
uOHia:dk ^Oil Merc& weiqre lrf.kh' tys§ fñ ksid úYsIag N+f.da,Sh msysàula iys; jqjo tys
wdrdìfha meje;s Ißhd kS;sh Tjqkg uq,§ ndOdjla M, m%fhdack fk<d.; yels fkdjkd f,i ks¾ñ;

60 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


mßirh yd fN!;sl myiqlï j¾Okh isÿù ke;' ðydoa ;%ia;jdoho úfoaY yd tajdfha mqrjeishka
Y%S ,xldfõ úYsIag N+f.da,Sh msysàu u;aøjH ixúOdk iu`. YS% ,xldj isÿlrkd .kqfokqj
fnodyßk f.da,Sh uOHia:dkhla njgo" wka;jd§ ms<sn`oj wmg ,eî we;af;a f,a jel=Kq w;a±lSï h'
;%ia;jdoh f.da,Sh f,i m%pdrKh lrkd
uOHia:dkhla njgo m;ajqfha th úêu;aj cd;sfha iS;, hqoaOh h<s;a
wkd.;h fjkqfjka fhdod fkd.;a ksidh'
tod mej;s ^1948-91& tlai;a ckmo - fidaúhÜ
Y%S ,xldfõ .egqï h<s;a iS;, hqoaOh jeks ;;a;ajhla kej; werö we;' ta
tlai;a ckmoh yd Ökh w;rh'
cd;Hka;rlrKh fõúo@
2019 wfm%a,a 29 od tlai;a ckmofha rdcH
Y%s ,xldjg ish ckjd¾.sl in`o;d md,kh l<
fomd¾;fïka;=fõ m%;sm;a;s y ie,iqï wOHlaIsld
fkdyels jQ nj;a" úáka úg we;s jq isxy, - fou<
.egqu m%n, ;sia wjqreÿ hqoaOhlg u`. mEÿ nj;a lsrka ialsk¾ ^Kiran Skinner& m%ldY lf<a
m%p,s; lr we;s u;hls' Y%s ,xldj ;=<ska mek zzfidaúhÜ foaYh iu`. wm l< iS;, hqoaOh ngysr
ke.=Kq ;reK le/,a,la ^1971 wfm%a,a 05& §k iqÿ mjqf,a wNHka;r wdrjq,ls' kuq;a b;sydifha
lSmhla ;=< u¾okh l< wdrlaIl yuqodjla isá m<uqjrg wms fldflaishdkq - iqÿ mjqf,a - fkdjk
rglg fou< fnÿïjdoh mrdch l< fkdyels n,.;= n, hqoaOhlg uqyqK foñka isáuq'''ZZ lshdh'
jqfha 1983 cq,s fou< ùfrdaê flda,dy,j,ska miq fï n,.;= fldflaishdkq fkdjk n, i;=rd Ökhhs'
wLKavj fou< ;reKhska fnÿïjd§ ixúOdkj,g
tlajQ ksido@ Ökh 80 oYlfha isg l%ufhka ish rg úfoaY
wdfhdackj,g újD; l< w;r" —wmkhk
fou< fnÿïjd§ hqoaOh ieye,a¨ .skswúj,g wNsuqL˜ wd¾Ól m%;sm;a;shla l%shd;aul lf<ah'
iSud fkdù ld,;=jlal=" u,aáner,a" iíueÍka" tfukau ta i|yd tf;la mej;s fldñhqksiaÜ
ieye,a¨ .=jkahdkd" uqod fkd.;a n, m%foaY wd¾Ól m%;sm;a;sfhka fjkia fjñka —iudcjd§
wd§h olajd jHdma; jqfha tlS m%Yakh cd;Hka;rj fjf<|fmd<˜ l%uhla ish wd¾Ól m%;sm;a;sh lr
l<ukdlrKh lr.ekSug Y%S ,xldjg fkdyels .;af;ah' uq,ska bvï whs;sh" tkï wmkhk yd
ùfuks' we;eï ngysr rdcHhka 1978 ka miq jkaks f;dard.;a m%foaYj, mj;ajdf.k .sh wmkhk
m%foaYfha bkaÈhdkq fou< ckhdf.a ckmo ^mQß ieliqï l,dmj,g iSud fjñka md,s; fjf<|fmd<
ie,eiau hgf;a bkaÈhdjg hd hq;=& msysgjQ nj;a" l%uhla wkq.ukh lf<ah ^,xldj 1977 § tlajru
tajd miqj hqo ckmo jQ nj;a" m%Ndlrkaf.a uqod rg újD; l< w;r" fidaúhÜ ix.uh 1987 §
fkd.;a rdcHfha uqr fin¿ka jqfha tlS ckmoj,
ld¾ñl ksIamdok yd kd.ßl fjf<|fmd< újD;
;reKhska ñi hdmkfha fou< ;reKhska fkdjk
lf<ah' ta l%shdj,Ska folu rdcHhg md,kh lr.;
nj;a miqj wjfndaO úh' tfukau 1984 isg
fkdyels úh&'
bkaÈhdj" Y%s ,xldj tlai;a ckmoh foig we§hEu
úiska thg tfrysj jl% hqoaOhla i`oyd wruqo,a"
wúwdhqO yd wú mqyqKqj fou< ;reKhskag ,ndÿka fï md,s; fjf<|fmd< l%ufha m%Odk wx.hla f,i
njo meyeÈ,sh' 1987 bka§h yuqod meñKsu yd foaYmd,k lafIa;%fhao m%;sixialrKhla flß‚'
thg tfrys m%ydr úiska rg hqOlrKh úh' 1991 oS fldñhqksiaÜ mlaIhg ys;jd§ msßia ;kslru
rÔõ .dkaê uy;d >d;kfhka miq bkaÈhdj W;=f¾ úOdhlh fufyhùu fjkqjg jD;a;Shfõ§ka"
ueÈy;aùfuka bj;a úh' úfYaIfhka bxðfkarejka fhdodf.k úOdhlh
yeisrùu lf<ah' l%ufhka fldñhqksiaÜ mlaIfhao
bkamiq m%Ndlrka .,jd.ekSu i`oyd úfoaY.; mßj¾;khla isÿ flß‚' rdcHh iud.ï
fou< ckhdo we;eï n,.;= úfoaY rdcHhkao l%shd msysgqùfï§ isx.mamQrefõ ;udfi;a udÈ,sh"
l< nj ryila fkdfõ' fldá ;%ia;jdoh fukau cmdkfha lhsfrÜiq udÈ,sh" fldßhdfõ lhsfnda,a

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 61


udÈ,sh wd§ úúO jHdmdßl udÈ,s fukau ngysr Belt, One Road& f,ih' tfukau Ökh wdishd
id¾:l udÈ,so weiqre lr .;af;ah' há;, myiqlï nexl=j ^AIIB& ia:dms; lf<ah' fï
l%shdoduhka foflau wruqK wvqu ;rñka fvd,¾
tfukau ish olaI isik q a úfoaY úYajúoHd,j, kùk á%,shkhl ixj¾Ok wdOdr f,dalh fj; uqod
mdGud,d yeoEÍu i|yd heùuo" tu mdGud,d yeÍuh'
Ökh ;=< wdrïN lsÍuo isÿ lf<a h' wdfhdack
yd l¾udka; i|yd ksoyia fjf<| l,dmj,g 2010 j¾Ih" tlai;a ckmoh jir 135la f,dal
meñ‚ úfoaY iud.ïj,g ,dN Y%uhg wu;rj ish wd¾Ól n,j;d f,i isÿl< b;sydi .ufka
;dlaIKh yd m%d.aOkh B<Õ mshjrj,§ Ökh yd ikaêia:dkhla úh' tys§ o< cd;sl ksIamdÈ;h
fnod .kakg isÿ úh ^fuh wfma l¾udka; l,dm ^PPP w.h& u; Ökh f,dfõ wxl tfla rdcHh
fyda fjf<| l,dmj, isÿ fkdùh&' Ökh ish rfgka úh ^j¾I 2019 § cd;Hka;r uq,H wruqo,g wkqj
;dlaIKh fidrd .;a;d hehs fpdaokdjla g%ïma idudkH o'cd'ks' wkqj tlai;a ckmoh fvd,¾
ckdêm;sjrhd kÕñka isákafka fï oekqu ,nd á%,shk 20'4la yd Ökh fvd,¾ á%,shk 14'1 fõ'
.ekSfï Ökfha l%h s dj,Ska folo" Ökh ;dlaI‚l kuq;a PPP w.h u; Ökfha o'cd'ks' fvd,¾ á%,shk
T;a;= fiajdjl kshe<S isákafka hehso fpdaokdlrñks 27 ls&' tfukau Y=oaO wmkhkh u`.ska Ökh f,dfõ
^fuh tlai;a ckmo T;a;= fiajdjkao isÿ lrk m%uqLia:dkhg m;aù we; ^2017 o;a; wkqj Ökh
njg c¾uksh jrla fpdaokd lf<ah&' fvd,¾ á%,shk 2'157 lao" tlai;a ckmoh fvd,¾
á%,shk 1'576la o" c¾uksh fvd,¾ á%,shk 1'401la o
Ök md,s; fjf<|fmd< l%uh oYlhla hk wmkhk isÿ lr we;&' 1990 .Kkaj,§ cmdkho"
úg úYañ; m%;sM, ÿkafkah' nv.skafka ñksiqka 1970 .Kkaj,§ fidaúhÜ ix.uho fujeksu
ñhhEu k;r úh' ÿ.S núka ñ,shk ish .Kkla wd¾Ól ;r.hla tlai;a ckmohg ,ndÿkako
.e,ù ueÈ wdodhï Wmhkakka njg m;aúh' Ökh fuka tlai;a ckmoh miqlr hkakg Tjqka
ú/lshdj fjkqjg jD;a;Shfõ§ ckldhla we;s úh' iu;a jqfha ke; ^flfia fj;;a tal mqoa., wdodhu
b;sßlsÍï jeäù oejeka; m%d.aOk ixÑ;hla cks; w;ska tlai;a ckmoh Ökh fuka ;=ka .=Khls&'
úh' wmkhkh Yla;su;a ùfuka oejeka; úfoaY
úksuh ixÑ;hla we;s úh' tfukau isú,a" ld¾ñl" jir 2010 jkf;la f;dr;=re ;dlaIKh" kdjql
úÿ,s" bf,lafg%dksl" ikaksfõok" kdjql" .=jka" ;dlaIKh" wNHdjldY ;dlaIKh wdÈfha§ tlai;a
hqO wú wd§ ish¨ lafIa;%j, iajdëk bxðfkare ckmoh úYd, mr;rhla iys;j bÈßfhka
oekqula yd w;aoelSula we;s úh' kj Ökhla" wd;au isáfhah' kuq;a 2018 jk úg f,dfõ jeäu wdodhï
úYajdifhka hq;=j f.dvkeÕsK'
iys; ;dlaIK iud.ï 10ka 5la u Ök tajd jk
w;r 2009 § tl u Ök iud.ula fyda m<uq 10 g
jir 2000 § f,dalh fj;g ^Go Global) jevms<sfj<
we;=<;a fkdùh' ±ka wem,a" weufidka" we,amnÜ"
Èh;a flß‚' B<Õ mia wjqreÿ ie,iqï fofla§u
uhsfl%dfidamaÜ" f*aianqla w;rg yqjdfhhs" fÊ'ã'
^2001-2005 yd 2006-2010& fuh l%shdj,shla úh'
fldï" fgkafikaÜ" w,snnd yd nhsÿ meñK
rdcHh iud.ï m%d.aOkh bxðfkare oekqu" Y%u
n,ldh iys;j f,dalh mqrd ÈhqKq fjñka mj;sk we;' 2018 jif¾§ id¾:l wNHdjldY .;lsÍï
yd fkdÈhqKq rgj,g uyd mßudKfhka we;=¿ úh' tlai;a ckmoh 38la o Ökh 39la o isÿ lr
2000-2014 w;r Ökh" tlai;a ckmo fvd,¾ ì,shk we;' cd;Hka;r uÜgfï by< .kfha fmagkaÜ yd
705 la ixj¾Ok wdOdr f,i uqod yer ;snQ w;r" kfjda;amdokfha§o fujeksu ;r.hla we;s ù we;'
2005-2017 w;r wdfhdack yd ixj¾Ok fldka;%d;a Tndud ckdêm;s;=ud Ökfha ke`.Su yd n, wNsfhda.h
f,i fvd,¾ ì,shk 1800 l w.hla iksgqyka lr ch.ekSu i`oyd Ökh fldgqlsÍu" yqol,d lsÍu
;sì‚ (Global Chinese Official Finance Data Set). f,i jQ ^Containment& m%;sm;a;shla f.k .sfhah'
ta wkqj wdishdjg yefruq ^Pivoting Asia& yd wdishd
2015 § Ökh ish fojeks f.da,Sh ixj¾Ok m%h;akh Ydka;slr iïuq;sh ^Trans pacific partnership& we;s
Èh;a lf<ah' tkï tla ;Srhla" tla udj;la ^One lr .;af;a h' cmdkh" ´iafÜ%,shdj yd bkaÈhdj

62 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


iu`. wdrlaIl tl`.;djlao we;s lr .kakd ,oafoa w;%sl%uKh lsÍu" frdauh úiska .S%ish wdl%uKh
Ökh olqKq Ök uqyqfoa yd bka§h id.rfha jHdma; lsÍu tx.,ka;h úiska iamd[a[h yd m%xYh
ùu je<elaùugh' w;%sl%uKh lsÍu" c¾uksh úiska tx.,ka;h
w;%sl%uKh lsÍu" tlai;a ckmoh úiska ì%;dkH
Ökh tlai;a ckmofha fï fldgqlsßfï m%;sm;a;sh yd hqfrdamh w;%sl%uKh lsÍu" tlai;a ckmoh
wNsnjkh lsÍu i`oydo ish wkd.; j¾Okh yd fidaúhÜ ix.uh w;r iS;, hqoaOh" tlai;a
i`oydo úfoaY.; wdfhdack jeä lf<a h ^2005- ckmoh yd cmdkh w;r ;dlaIKsl yd fjf<`o
2015 w;r 20 .=Khlska muK&' B<`.g 2015 § ;r.h" wdÈh fï i|yd WodyrK fõ' thska
zztla ;Srhla tla udj;laZZ ixj¾Ok jevms<sfj< fodf<dia j;djla m<uqjekakd f;dard.ekqfKa
bÈßm;a lf<a h' tys § reishdj uOH wdishdj hqoaOfhka njo Tyq fmkajd ÿkafkah' we;ekaia yd
yryd hqfrdamhg f.dvìï ud¾.hlao" kef. iamdgd w;r m<uqjekakd ùu i`oyd jQ wr.,h
kysr wdishdj ol=Kq wdishdj" kef.kysr wm%sldj" .ek ;=isvhsâ kï .S%l od¾Ykslhd l< ú.%yh
ueofmrÈ. yryd uqyqÿ ud¾. cd,hlao tajd hd u; fï ;;a;ajh zz;=isvhsâ W.=,ZZ kñka Tyq
lrkd wd¾Ól fldßfvdajka .Kkdjlao fhdackd úia;r lr we;' tlai;a ckmoh yd Ökh fldgia
lr l%shd;aul lrkd ,§' fjf<`odfï isg wka;¾cd,h olajd;a" olqKq Ök
uqyqfoa kdjql l`ojqrej, isg wNHdjldYh olajd;a
g%ïma ckdêm;s;=ud Tndud ckdêm;sf.a Ökh ish iS;, hqoaOh f.khk w;r rgj,a ta wkqj n,
fldgqlsßfï m%;sm;a;sh fjkqjg ish rg .egqïldÍ l`ojqrej,g fn§u wdrïN ù we;'
m%;sm;a;shlg ^Confrontation& f.k .sfha h'
f.da,ShlrKfhka yd ksoyia fjf<`o .súiqïj,ska 1991 § fidaùhÜ foaYh ì`ojegqKq úg b;sydifha
^TPPo we;=¿j& bj;aúh' fjf<`o nÿ yryd iDcqj .egqu k;r ù we;ehs we;eï ,snr,a Ñka;lhska
Ökh iu`. fjf<`o hqoaOhla wdrïN lf<ah' Ökfha woyia m<l< wjia:dfõ wkd.;fha we;sjkafka
;dlaIKsl bÈß .ukgo tfrysj ^yqjdfhhs& ish YsIagdpdrfha .egqula nj;a ^Clash of Civilization&
fjf<`o n,h mßyrKh lf<ah' tfukau reishdj" th we;sjkafka l%sia;shdks f,dalh - uqia,sï f,dalh
fjksishq,dj" brdkh jeks rgj,a iu`.o .egqulg yd isksla - Ök - YsIagdpdr w;r nj;a ieuqfj,a
.sh w;r W;=re fldßhdj iu`. jQ .egqu w¨;alr ykaákagka úiska fmkajdfokq ,eìKs'
.;af;ah' ;u ñ;=re rdcHhla f,i isá lekvdj
yd tlai;a hqfrdamh iu`.o kj .egqï we;slrf.k fï isÿfjñka ;sfnkafka tjeks
we;' YsIagdpdr w;r .egqula o@
ta yd iu`.u reishdj" brdkh" mdlsia;dkh yd f,dal b;sydih yd fjf<`odu .ek i,ld n,kúg
we;eï hqfrdamSh rgj,a ^b;d,sh" hqlaf¾kh& Ökh 13 jeks 15 jeks ishjia olajd jeo.;a jkafka wrdìh
iu`. jQ in`o;d ;rlr .;af;ah' iS;, hqoaOhhla yd Ökhhs' bkaÈhdj iemhqï uOHia:dkhka f,i;a"
werö we;s nj meyeÈ,s h' kef.k hqfrdamh fjf<`ofmd<la f,i;a meje;sK'
ksi, uOHOrKs uqyqo jgd ;snq YsIagdpdr uq,oS êjr
zz;=isvhsâ W.=,ZZ l¾udka;hg;a" t;ekska kdjql l¾udka;hg;a"
cd;Hka;r fjf<`odug;a msúiqKy' Ökh f.dvìï
miq.sh jir 500l f,dal b;sydifha .egqï ud¾.fha yd uqyqÿ ud¾.h Tiafia wdishdj" ol=Kq
wOHhkh l< .%eyeï we,sika ^Graham Allysom wdishdj" kef.kysr wm%sldj yd uOHOrKs l,dmh
– Destined for war& fmkajd fokafka f,dalfha iïnkaO lf<ah' ñka.a rdcjxYfha fhdaka.a,S
m<uq n,j;d bj;alr ta ;ek .kakg fojekakd wêrdHhdf.a hq.fha fIkafyda kï wrdì iïNjhla
16 j;djla W;aidy lr we;s fyda m<uqjekakd iys; fifkúhd yryd uyd mßudK kdjql jHdmD;s
úiska fojekakd m<uqjekshd ùu je<elaùug fyda yhla isÿúh ^1405-1433&' bkamiq Ökh úiska uyd
l%shdlr we;s njh' m¾ishdkq wêrdcHh .S%sish úiska mßudK kdjql lghq;= w;ayer oukd ,§'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 63


tjlg Y%s ,xldfõ fírej, yd ukakdru ksoyia wkqj th hg;a úð; fidhd kef.kysr hqfrdamhg"
fjf<`o f;dgj,a jQ w;r ;%Su,h ^f.dalkak& yd ol=Kq hqfrdamhg yd wm%sldjg .uka lf<a h' 1875
yïnkaf;dg ^f.dvjdh& wdishdj foig újD;j oS tlai;a ckmoh f,dalfha f,dl=u wd¾Ólh úh'
meje;sK' bkaÈhdfõ l,algdj yd le,slÜ w;r th W;=re yd ol=Kq weußldj md,kh lsßfuka
,xldj jgd isÿl< fjf<`odu iïnkaOfhka uq,§ iekiqko fojk f,dal ix.%dufhka miq
Yla;su;a ine`Èhdjla úh' újD;j f,dal wdêm;Hh i`oyd l%shd lf<a h'
thg fidaúhÜ ix.ufhka wNsfhda.hlao" miqj
b;d l=vd cd;shla jk mD;=.Ssiska 1425 § cmdkfhka wNsfhda.hlao meñKs w;r tajd úúO
fudfrlafldafõ fjf<`o uOHia:dkhla jq l%uj,ska wNsnjkh lrkd ,oS'
ishqgd w,ajd.ekSu;a" uqia,sï wrdîkag fjf<`o
wNsfhda.hla bÈßm;a lsÍu;a iu`. jdKsc wo Ökh yd fjf<`o hqoaOhla m%ldY lr we;s
l%shdj,sfha wdêm;Hh i`oyd mD;=.d,h - wdldrhg 1980 isg cmdkh ms<sn`ojo ielfhka
iamd[a[h yd wrdîka w;r .egqï we;sfõ' wrdîka lghq;= lsÍug tlai;a ckmoh l%shd lf<ah'
úiska fldkaia;ka;sfkdam,h w,a,d .ekSfuka miq cmdkfha kj ;dlaIKsl ksmehqï tlai;a ckmo
^1204 - i;r jeks l=rei hqoaOh& wm%sldj yryd fjf<`ofmd< jHdma; ùu tlai;a ckmofha f¾.ka
wdishdjg meñKsu hqfrdamShhkag wksjd¾hh fõ' md,kh ie,l=fõ zzwd¾Ól m¾,a jrdh m%ydrhZZ
l%ufhka ngysr wm%sldkq fjr< Tiafia meñKs f,ih' 1989 § ;reK fvdk,aâ g%ïma tlai;a
mD;=.sis hd;%slhka" iqnm%d¾:kd ;=vqjg;a" t;ekska ckmoh cmdklrKh ùu .ek l;d lr we;'
kef.kysr wm%sldkq fjr<g;a meñfKhs' kef.kysr fï i`oyd tlai;a ckmoh ish wdrlaIl yelshdj
wm%sldfõ§ wrdîka iu`. .egqï we;slr fkdf.k fhdodf.k ma,did .súiqu ^Plaza Accord& cmdkh"
jy,a fjf<`odu" we;ao, yd fjk;a oE yqjudre c¾uksh" m%xYh yd ì%;dkHh iu`. we;s lr.;a
lr.kakd w;r wrdîkaf.a u`.fmkaùfuka 1498 w;r cmka fhka ^yd c¾uka ud¾la& wêm%udKh
§ bkaÈhdfõ ol=Kq fjr<g - le,slÜ - ^flar,h& lf<ah' 100] nÿ cmdk NdKavj,g mkjkq ,eîh'
f.dv fj;s' bkamiq u,laldj yryd f.dia 1513 fu.ska cmdkh 1995 ka miq wmkhk ì`ojeáulg
§ Ñkhg;a 1543 § cmdkhg;a h;s' mD;=.Ssiska yd .uka lf<ah' tfukau tlai;a ckmohgo NdKav
iamd[a[h w;r kdjql yd jdKscHfha m%uqLhd ñ, by< hEu ksid .eg¨j,g uqyqK §ug isÿúh'
ùfï .egqu mdma jykafia ^wef,laiekav¾ 6& fuf,iu Ökho fjf<`o hqoaOhlska mrdch lsÍu
úi`o;s' 1494 cqks 07 jk od fgdfvis,dka .súiqu tlai;a ckmofha wNs,dIh ù we;'
u`.ska ngysr f,dalh iamd[a[hg ^lekaá,dj& yd
fmrÈ. f,dalh mD;=.d,hg f,i fn§ hhs' bkamiq tlai;a ckmofha kj ;dlaIKsl yelshdj"
wjia:d .Kkdjl§u ngysr f,dalh m%xYh yd kdjql yelshdj" wNHdjldY yelshdj" fvd,rfha
ì%;dkH" m%xYh" ì%;dkH yd c¾uksh f,dalh ;uka uq,H yelshdj" fj<`ofmdf<a úYd,;aj yelshdj"
w;r zzfnod.ekSuZZ isÿ lr we;' wka;¾cd,fha yelshdj wdÈh fidaúhÜ foaYh yd
cmdkh wrUhd jq ch.%yK i`oyd n,mEfõ h'
fuys§ wdishdfõ wdêm;Hh i`oyd cmdkh iu`.;a"
^m<uqj reishdj" fojkqj ì%;dkH" ;=kafjkqj Ökh ta ish¨ flaI;%j, tlai;a ckmohg wNsfhda.
tlai;a ckmoh& wm%sldfõ wdêm;Hh i`oyd lrñka isà' fuh YS% ,xldj f;areï fkd.;fyd;a
c¾uksh yd ;=¾lsh iu`.;a ^m<uqj m%xYh fojkqj n,j;=kaf.a .egqug YS%s ,xldj h<s;a f.dÿre jkq
ì%;dkHh& uyd hqoaO we;s ù we;' we;' ish úYsIag N+f.da,Sh msysàu n,j;=kaf.a
.egqulg f.dÿre ùug ;=vq fok lreuhla ùug
l%s'j' 1820 § ì%;dkHh f,dalfha Okj;au rg úh' bv fokq fjkqjg Toj;a" f;oj;a" n,j;a rgla
ta m%xYh kefmda,shka hqoaOj,ska yd kdjql n,fhka f,i ke.S isàu i|yd jQ Wreuhla lr .ekaug kï
mrdch lsßfuks' Ökh yd bkaÈhdj jdKsc n,fhka wksjd¾hfhkau fulS N+ foaYmd,kh yd N+ wd¾Ól
miqneiaiùfuks' c¾uksh tlai;a ùu;a iu`. jir m%jK;d ms<sn|j ;shqKq inqoaêl ±laula Tiafia
1870 § c¾uksh f,dalfha f,dl=u wd¾Ólh úh' ta wmf.a úfoia ms<sfj; fufyhjkq ,eìh hq;=h'

64 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 65
66 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu
mßYsIagh 1

wdY%s; ixLHd f,aLk

tal mqoa., ldnka úfudapkh

rg fuÜ%la fgdka ^talmqoa.,&


fkamd,h 0.27
nx.a,dfoaYh 0.46
mdlsia;dkh 0.85
YS% ,xldj 0.89
bkaÈhdj 1.92
weußld tlai;a ckmoh 15.56
Ökh 7.45
cmdkh 9.68
tlai;a rdcOdksh 5.59
uQ,dY%h( f,dal nexl=j ^2016&

rdcH Kh o< cd;sl ksIamdÈ;fha m%;sY;hla f,i ^1950 - 2018&


o'foa'ks' m%;sY;sh

foaYSh Kh úfoaYSh Kh

uQ,dY%h ( Y%s ,xld uy nexl=j

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 67


iuia; rdcH Kh o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;fha m%;sY;hla f,i

2018
1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017
^wjia:dkqrEmj&
96.58 96.94 90.61 71.59 77.70 78.30 76.90 82.90

iykodhS Kh" iykodhS fkdjk Kh iy jdKsc Kh m%;sY;hka 2005 - 2018

2018
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
^wjia:dkql+,j&
iykodhl 93% 83% 85% 72% 63% 57% 49% 50% 48% 49% 47% 45% 45%
Kh
iykodhl 3% 3% 4% 4% 7% 10% 16% 16% 15% 14% 13% 12% 5%
fkdjk Kh
jdKsc Kh 4% 14% 11% 23% 30% 33% 34% 34% 37% 37% 40% 43% 50%

uQ,dY%h - Y%S ,xld uy nexlj

úfoaYSh Kh ixhq;sh ^oaúmd¾Yaúl" cd;Hka;r uQ,H wdh;k" jdKsc Kh& 2005 - 2018

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

nyqmd¾Yùh 38% 33% 31% 31% 31% 29% 28% 27% 25% 24%
oaúmd¾Yùh 39% 37% 36% 37% 28% 25% 25% 23% 21% 20%
uQ,H fjf<`ofmd< 23% 30% 33% 32% 42% 46% 47% 50% 54% 56%
uQ,dY%h - Y%S ,xld uy nexlj

wdishdkq rgj,a lsysmhl miq.sh oYl lsysmh ;=< wd¾Ól j¾Okh

f,dalnexl=j | f,dal
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2018
ixj¾Ok o¾Yl
YS% ,xldj 142.8 183.9 267.7 463.6 869.7 2,799.6 4,102.5
;dhs,ka;h 100.8 192.1 682.9 1,508.9 2,007.7 5,076.3 7,273.6
isx.mamQrej 428.1 925.8 4,928.1 11,861.8 23,852.3 47,237.0 64,581.9
uef,aishdj 234.9 357.7 1,774.7 2,441.7 4,043.7 9,040.6 11,239.0
fydxfldx 429.4 960.0 5,700.4 13,485.5 25,756.7 32,550.0 48,717.3
bkaÈhdj 82.2 112.4 266.6 367.6 443.3 1,357.6 2,015.6
fldßhdj 158.2 279.1 1,704.5 6,516.3 11,947.6 22,087.0 31,362.8
;dhsjdkh 150.0 396.0 2368.0 8178.0 14877.0 19,278.0 25,026.0

68 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


Y%S ,xldfõ wd¾Ól j¾Ok fõ.fha WÉpdjpkh

ld,
1951-1955 1956-1960 1961-1976 1977-1987 1977-1994 1995-2005 2006-2009 2010-2014 2015-2018
jljdkqj
j¾Ok
4.3 2.7 3.8 5.1 4.9 4.6 6 6.8 4.0
fõ.h

1977-88 wd¾Ól j¾Okh yd ì`ojeàu

1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
o'foa'ks j¾Okh 5.100 5.654 6.404 5.846 5.700 4.141 4.814 5.099 4.999 4.356 1.726 2.473

o< foaYSh ksIamdos;fha j¾Okhg bÈlsÍï lafIa;%fha odhl;ajh

j¾Ih o' foa' ks' j¾Okhg bÈlsÍï lafIa;%fha o' foa' ks' j¾Okh
odhl;ajh ^m%;sY; tall .Kk&
2011 1.38 8.40
2012 1.29 9.14
2013 0.51 3.39
2014 0.74 4.96
2015 (0.18) 5.00
2016 0.57 4.48
2017 0.31 3.42
2018 (0.15) 3.20

o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;fha j¾Ok wkqmd;h 2015 - 2019 ^jd¾Isl ]&

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018


4.961 5.008 4.487 3.420 3.209

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 69


Y%S ,xldfõ rdcH wdfhdack m%udKhka 2005 - 2018

wOHdmkh fi!LH fmd,sia iy uyck wdrCIdj

isú,a mßmd,kh ksjdi iy fmdÿ myiqlï m%cd fiajd


lDIsl¾u yd jdßud¾. n,Yla;s iy c,iïmdok m%jdyk yd ikaksfõok

fjk;a

wmkhk ixhq;sh 2018

uQ,dY%h( Y%S ,xld f¾.=j$ uy nexl= jd¾;dj

70 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


https://oec.world/en/visualize/tree_map/sitc/export/lka

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 71


wdkhk ixhq;sh 2018

uQ,dY%h( Y%S ,xld f¾.=j$ uy nexl= jd¾;dj

72 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


https://oec.world/en/visualize/tree_map/sitc/import/lka

jHdmdr myiqlï o¾Ylh f.da,Sh kfjda;amdok o¾Ylh

2019 ia:dkh 2018 o¾Yl w.h


Ökh 46 iaúÜi¾,ka;h 1 67.24

YS% ,xldj 100 iaùvkh 2 63.65


isx.mamQrej 8 58.37
weußld tlai;a ckmoh 8
ol=Kq fldßhdj 11 56.55
tlai;a rdcOdksh 9
fydxfldx 13 55.54
cmdkh 39
Ökh 14 54.82
bkaÈhdj 77
cmdkh 15 54.68
nx.a,dfoaYh 176
uef,aishdj 35 42.68
mdlsia;dkh 136 úhÜkduh 42 38.84
fkamd,h 110 bkaÈhdj 52 36.58
úhÜkduh 69 YS% ,xldj 89 28.45

uQ,dY%h( f,dal nexl=j uQ,dY%h( f,dal nqoaêuh foam, ixúOdkh 2019 jd¾;d

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 73


wdishdkq l,dmfha ke.Su

iuia; f.da,Sh ksIamdÈ;fha ixhq;sh

1990 2000 2010 2019


ol=Kq wdishdj 4.87 5.49 7.43 9.79
wdishd Ydka;slr l,dmh 27.47 30.59 38.41 46.07
G - 7 wd¾Ól n,j;=ka 50.66 43.72 34.43 29.63
hqfrdamd ix.uh 27.36 23.55 18.89 16.02

uQ,dY%h - cd;Hka;r uQ,H wruq,

74 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 75
76 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu
mßYsIagh 2

fN!;sl ixj¾Ok ie,iqï

kd.ßl wd¾Ól
l,dm y;rla

m%Odk Wmdhud¾.sl
k.r kjhla

kd.ßl uOHia:dk
ishhla

uydud¾. iy m%jdyk há;,


myiqlï ixj¾Okh
i|yd m%Yia; ie,iqï

c,dOdr iy jk N+ñ
ixrlaIK l,dm

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 77


niakdysr uyk.r ixj¾Ok ie,iqu

78 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


The Big Pictute : Megapolis Master Plan

fld<U jrdh k.rh

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 79


80 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu
Greater Trinco Master Plan

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 81


Y%S ,xld m¾fhaIK yd ixj¾Ok wdfhdack ie,eiau

^;dCIK yd m¾fhaIK wud;HxYh 2014&

Sri Lanka - 2020


Towards a Knowledge Economy
5 - year R & D Investment Framework
Ten Technology Thrust Areas &
Ten Interventions
Thrust Area

3T

Traditional Knowledge
Technologies, Basic
 6. Mineral Resources

Software Industry
and Knowledge
10 X 10 Textile Industry
Environment

Sciences and
10 Emerging
Matrix
Services
Shelter

Energy
Health
Water

3.

4.

5.

7.

8.

9.
1.

Interventions
Policy Studies
Pure and Applied Research
Innovations
Information and Communication
Technologies
Nanotechnology
Biotechnology
Indigenous knowledge and
Intellectual Property Rights
Testing, Standardization
& Accreditation
Capacity Building*
Popularization

82 bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu


miqjok
Y%S ,xldj bosß udi lSmh ;=< ckdêm;sjrKhlg rdcH uQ,Hh ms<sn| w¾nqohg fláld,Sk úi÷ula
yd uyd ue;sjrKhlg uqyqK fokq we;' ±kgu;a fukau uOH yd È.= ld,Sk úi÷ulao wjYHh' ;srir
m%Odk n,l|jqre fol fukau ;=kajeks l|jqre ixj¾Ok iqiudo¾Yh (Paradigm) ;=< l%shd;aul
lsysmhlska wfmalaIlhska bÈßm;a ù we;' jkakdjQ" oekqu mokï lr.;a kfjda;amdokh Wmdh
fujr ckdêm;sjrKh ch .kakd l|jqr B<`. ud¾.h lr.;a cd;sl wd¾Ólhla f.dvke.Su
md¾,sfïka;= ue;sjrKho ch.kakjd we;' ta ksid w;HjYHh' tfukau" l=i,;djg uq,a;ek fok"
2020-25 jljdkqj ;=< foaYmd,k ia:djr;ajhla m%dfhda.sl;ajh o¾Ykh lr.;a" kS;sh wjxlj
we;sùug bv we;' ls%hd;aul jk úkh.rel iudchla ±ka w;HjYHh'
ta i|yd uq,aúh hq;af;a wjxl jD;a;Shfõ§ka yd
foaYmd,k fõÈldfõ ±kg wefikafka wkdrlaIs; ±kqj;a iudc ls%hdldÍkah' tfukau inqoaêl
nj ms<sn| ìhla lD;S%suj we;slr thg úi÷u wd.ñl yd ixialD;sl kdhlhskah'
;uka nj m%ldY lr n,hg tafï W;aidyhka
yd ckm%sh iqnidOkjd§ m%ldYkhkah' ;=kajeks f,dalh fndfydaÿrg inqoaêl" ks¾udKYS,S" tä;r
md¾Yjj,ska úOdhl ckdêm;s OQrh wfydais lsÍu" ixúOdkd;aul msßilf.a ks¾udKhls' f,dalfha
¥IKh ;=rka lsÍu jeks foaYmd,k m%;sixialrK fndfyda rgj,a my<g jefgk úg th j<lajd
fhdackd fjñka we;' .ekSug ljr fyda ixúOdkd;aul lKavdhula
bÈßm;a fjhs' we;eï rgj, th yuqodjhs' we;eï
tfy;a" wo Y%S ,xldfõ uQ,slu m%Yakh ù we;af;a rgj, th wêlrKhhs' we;eï rgj, th iajdëk
rdcH uQ,H ms<sn| w¾nqohhs' rcfha wdodhu Kh ks,OdÍ ;ka;%hhs' we;eï rgj, th jHdmdßl
yd fmd,sh f.ùugj;a m%udKj;a ke;s nj 2019 mka;shhs' we;eï rgj, th jD;a;Shfõ§ mrmqr
m<uq udi 06 fmkajd ÿkafka h' úfYaIfhkau fõ'
úfoaY uQ,H fjf<|fmdf<ka ,nd.;a Kh ksis
l,g f.ùug fkdyels jqjfyd;a rg nxfldf,d;a ,xldj m%cd;ka;%jdoS rgla ksid wêm;sjd§ yuqod
ùfï wk;=rlao bÈß jirj, mj;S' fï uQ,H md,khla lsis fia;a iqÿiq fkdfõ' fï rfÜ hqla;sh
wd.dOhg fkdjeà .e,ù .kafka flfiao hkak mis|,Sfï ls%hdj,sh rfÜ ÿ¾j,u fCI;%hls' wmf.a
ms<sn|j m%Odk n, l|jqre folu ;ju;a n,.;= jHdmdßl mka;sho ,xldjg Tífnka .sh m%.;sYS,Ss
úYajikSh m%;sm;a;shla m%ldY lr ke;' cd;sl" iudchla fkdfõ ^m%.;sYS,s mqoa.,hska isáhs&'
wd.ñl" wdrCIl yd iqnidOk ldrKd ms<sn|j ,xldjg b;=rej we;af;a jD;a;Sh yd ±kqj;a iudc
flfrk wfkalúO jQ l;kaor ;=<ska uQ,sl m%Yakh ls%hdldÍkaf.a ueÈy;a ùula muKls' fï ,shú,a, ta
hgm;a ù we;' fjkqfjks'

bkak ysf;k rglg | cd;sfha bÈß u. i|yd jQ úuiqu yd msúiqu 83