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Mr. Steiner
Is Chemistry Hard??
Maybe! --- but you will
develop skills that are
valuable for the rest of
your life!

In chemistry a mole is not an
1 mole (mol) is Avogadro’s Number of
anything = 6.02 x 1023

A useful conversion factor is

1 mol_____________

6.02 x 10 23 of whatever you are counting

In chemistry we count
“representative particles (rp’s)”

The name of the rp’s in a substance depends on the type of

bonding present. There are 3 types we will deal with.
RP’s in metallic bonding

In metallic bonding, the

rp’s are atoms. i.e., in 1
mole of solid aluminum
there are 6.02 x 1023
aluminum atoms
RP’s in a covalent compound

In a covalent compound
the rp’s are molecules.
In 1 mole of ethanol
(CH3CH2OH) there are
6.02 x 1023 molecules.
RP’s in an ionic compound

In an ionic compound the

rp is called a formula
unit = the lowest whole
number ratio of atoms
in a compound e.g.
The Mass of a Mole
Consider and compare these samples:

1 mole of C atoms , 1 mole of H2O molecules, 1 mole of NaCl

formula units.
How are they the same?
How are they different?
Do the samples have the same

Does 1 dozen bunnies weigh the same as 1 dozen

No, you have 12 of each but the bunnies weigh less
than the elephants.
So how much does a mole of something weigh??? It
all goes back to the mass standard…What was it?
C is the mass standard
1 amu = 1/12th the mass of a C-12 atom

1 mole of carbon atoms in 12g of pure carbon-12 is

experimentally determined to be 6.02 x 1023 atoms.
Because all masses in the PT are made relative
to 12C, a whole world of conversion factors

1 mole of any element

its atomic mass expressed in grams

E.g. 1 mol of He atoms

4.003 g He

E.g. 1 mole of Na
22.99 g of Na

What is atomic mass? Mass number? Atomic number?

Putting it all together using the
We Are Here
1.3 in the Syllabus
● Objectives:

● Be able to calculate theoretical yields from chemical equations

● Determine the limiting reactant and the excess reactant

● Solve problems involving theoretical, experimental and % yield

● Apply the concept of molar volume at STP in calculations

The Limiting Reactant
● In a reaction, we can describe reactants as being ‘limiting’ or in
● Limiting – this is the reactant that runs out
● Excess – the reaction will not run out of this
2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

● For example, if you have 2.0 mol H2 and 2.0 mol O2

● H2 is the limiting reactant – it will run out
● O2 is present in excess – there is more than enough
● To determine this, divide the moles of each reactant by
its coefficient in the equation. The smallest number is the
limiting reactant:

● H2: 2.0 / 2 = 1.0 – smallest therefore limiting, O2: 2.0 / 1 = 2.0

● H2: 2.0 will need 1.0 mol of O2. There is more than enough O2
so it is in excess, making H2 limiting.
Theoretical, actual and percentage
● Theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product you would make if the limiting
reactant was fully converted to product.

● Use the limiting reactants maths to work this out.

● Actual yield is the actual amount of product collected after a reaction

● It is always less than the theoretical yield

● Percentage yield reflects how close you got to achieving the theoretical yield:
Example: After the thermal decomposition of some calcium carbonate, I
collected 0.437 mol of calcium oxide, which was a 77.4% yield. How much
calcium carbonate did I start with?

Check for
● CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 balanced

Rearrange yield
● equation

Sub-in the
theoretical yield numbers
● = (0.437 / 77.4) x 100
● = 0.565 mol
Limiting Reactants
Limiting Reactants
n(NH3) = 1.06 mol, n(CuO) = 1.14 mol

Divide by their coefficients in the equations

1.06/2 = 0.53; 1.14/3 = 0.38

The one with the smaller number is the L.R. and the other is in excess. So CuO is
the limiting reactant.
Molar Volumes of Gases
We Are Here
In Calculations….
● What volume of H2 gas is produced when 0.0500 mol Mg reacts
with excess acid at S.T.P.?
Check for
● 2 Li(s) + 2 HCl(aq) → 2 LiCl(aq) + H2(g) equation

n(H2) = n(Li) x 1/2 = 0.0500 x 1/2 = 0.0250mol Determine moles

of product

● V(H2) = 0.025mol x 22.7 dm3/mol = 0.568 dm3

Time to practice
1. What is the minimum volume of H2 gas required to fully reduce 10.0 g copper (II)
oxide to copper?

CuO(s) + H2(g) → Cu(s) + H2O(l)

2. In a car airbag, sodium azide (NaN3) decomposes explosively to make N2 gas. What is
the minimum mass of sodium azide required to fully inflate a 60.0 dm3 airbag,
assuming STP?

2 NaN3(s) → 2 Na(s) + 3 N2(g)

3. 500 cm3 methane reacts with 600 cm3 oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
What are the final volumes of each of the three gases on completion of the reaction?

CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)

Using 22.4dm3 at stp.
We Are Here
The Ideal Gas Equation
● Objectives:

● Solve problems involving the relationship between

temperature, pressure and volume for a fixed mass of an ideal

● Solve calculations using the ideal gas equation

Get down on the Dance floor!
Imagine a large group of dancers
on an enclosed dance floor
represents gas molecules
bouncing around inside a
container. The dancers move
back and forth across the floor,
but not off the floor.
Dance Floor Analogy
Decide which of the four variables,
volume, temperature, pressure or
number of molecules is most like
each of the following.
Explain your choices.
● The number of dancers
● The size of the room
● The beat of the music
● The number and force of collisions among
Dance floor analogy
● How does each of the following situations relate to kinetic
molecular theory of gases?

● The beat of the music and the number of dancers remain the same,
but the size of the dance floor increases

● The size of the dance floor and the number of dancers remain the
same, but the beat of the music becomes faster.

● The size of the dance floor and the beat of the music are kept the
same, but the number of dancers increases
Molar Volume of a Perfect Gas
● We learnt about the molar volume of gases ….how can they be the same?
● The distance between particles is much bigger than the size of the
particles….so particle size makes very little difference:

● The blue particle is twice the size of the red particle, but the blue particles are
not taking up twice the amount of space.

10 units

10 units

● In reality, the relative distance between the molecules is much greater

than this.
The Ideal Gas Equation
● The volume a gas takes up is determined by:
● Pressure
● Temperature
● Moles of gas

● This combines to form the ideal gas equation

PV = nRT

● Where:
● P = pressure in Pa
● V = volume in m3
● n = moles of gas (remember n = m/Mr)
● R = gas constant, 8.31 J K-1 mol-1
● T = temperature in K
Ideal Gas Assumptions

● Particles occupy no volume

● Particles have zero intermolecular forces

● These are not always valid, particularly at:

● Low temperature – when intermolecular forces become significant
● High pressure – when particle volume becomes significant
Study the equation and predict the lines you would
expect on these graphs (assuming the third factor is
Volume fixed):  

Temperature Temperature

● ,
Example 1: 1.048 g of unknown gas A, occupies 846 cm3 at 500K and
standard pressure. What is it’s molecular mass?
State ideal gas

Rearrange for
chosen subject

Sub in numbers
with unit

Complete the

Molecular Mass = mass/moles = 1.048g /0.0204 mol = 51.4g/mol

Example 2:
● The volume of an ideal gas at 54.0 °C is increased from 3.00 dm3 to
6.00 dm3. At what temperature, in °C, will the gas have the original
Where does this
come from?

● Use a modified version of the ideal gas equation:

Since original and final pressure should be the same, we can remove
this from the equation as they cancel out:

54.0 converted to
Kelvin by adding
3.00 / 327.0 = 6.00 / T2
T2 = (6.00 x 327.0 / 3.00) = 654 K
Key Points
● The Ideal Gas equation:

PV = nRT

● Also:

● Provided that:
● Molecules have zero volume
● Molecules experience no attraction to each other
We Are Here
● Objectives:

● Understand the relationship between concentration, volume

and moles

● Solve problems involving concentration, amount of solute

and volume of solution.
Solutions Basics
● Aqueous copper sulfate solution:


● This is the strength of a solution.

Most Concentrated Least Concentrated

● The number of moles of a substance
dissolved in one litre of a solution.
concentration x volume

Units: moldm-3
● Units often abbreviated to ‘M’ (do not do this
in an exam!)
● Volume must be calculated in litres (dm3) not
ml or cm3.
Preparing a Standard Solution
● A standard solution is one whose
concentration is well known. The
mass of the solid is accurately
measured and transferred to a
volumetric flask. Distilled water
is then added to the mark.
● And usually a round number like
1.00 or 0.250 mol dm-3
Example 1:
● 25.0 cm3 of a solution of hydrochloric acid contains 0.100
mol HCl. What is its concentration?

● Answer:
● Concentration = moles / volume
= 0.100 / 0.0250
= 4.00 mol dm-3

● Note: the volume was first divided by 1000 to convert to dm3

Example 2:
● Water is added to 4.00 g NaOH to produce a 2.00 mol dm-3 solution.
What volume should the solution be in cm3?

● Calculate quantity of NaOH:

● n(NaoH) = mass / molar mass
= 4.00/40.0
= 0.100

● Calculate volume of solution:

● Volume = moles / concentration
= 0.100 / 2.00
= 0.0500 dm3
= 50.0 cm3
● To find the concentration of an unknown solution we may use
an example of volumetric analysis. A common technique is
called a titration.

● Pipette – Used to measure a known solution into a conical flask.

● Another solution is put in a burette. This solution is added to the
conical flask.

● The point at which the two solutions have completely reacted is

called the equivalence point.

● This is usually determined by an indicator.

● Titration Example 1
● 35.0 cm3 of 2.00M NaOH was titrated with 2M H2SO4. Calculate the volume of
sulfuric acid used.

2NaOH + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Volume, dm3 35.0/1000

Conc, M 2 2

Moles 35.0/1000 X 2

Since the ratio is 2:1, the moles of H2SO4 is also 35.00/1000 mol

Now we can calculate the volume of sulfuric acid,

Volume = mol/conc = 35.0/1000 mol = 0.0175 dm3

● 2

● 35.0 ml of 2.00M NaOH was titrated with 2M H2SO4. Calculate the
volume of sulfuric acid used.

2NaOH + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Moles of NaOH =

35.0 ml X 1 L X 2.00M NaOH = 0.0700 mol NaOH

1000ml 1L

Volume of H2SO4 =

0.0700 mol NaOH X 1mol H2SO4 X 1L

2mol NaOH 2.00mol H2SO4

= 0.0175L
● Titration Example 2
● 20.0 ml 1.00M NaOH was titrated with 10.0 ml HCl. Determine the concentration of HCl.
● Concentration = mol/vol in L or dm3
● NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O

Volume, L 20.0/1000 10.0/1000

Conc, M 1

Moles 20.0/1000 X 1

Since the ratio is 1:1, the moles of HCl is also 20.0/1000 X 1mol

Now we can calculate the concentration of HCl.

Conc = 0.020 dm3 X 1 mol/ dm3= 2.00 mol/ dm3

● 0.010 dm3

● 20.0 ml 1.00M NaOH was titrated with 10.0 ml HCl. Determine the
concentration of HCl.

NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O

● Moles of NaOH =
20.0 ml X 1 L X 1.00M NaOH = 0.0200 mol NaOH
1000ml 1L

● Concentration of HCl =

0.02 mol NaOH X 1mol HCl X 1000ml = 2.00M

10.0 ml HCl 1mol NaOH 1L
1. You have 75.0 cm3 of a 0.150 mol dm-3 solution of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4). What mass of zinc
sulphate crystals will be left behind on evaporation of the water?

2. What volume of water should be added to 3.23g of copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) to form a 0.100 mol
dm-3 solution?

3. A 10.0 cm3 sample is removed from a vessel containing 1.50 dm3 of a reaction mixture. By
titration, the sample is found to contain 0.00530 mol H+. What is the concentration of H+ in the main
reaction vessel?

4. In a titration, 50.0 cm3 of an unknown solution of barium hydroxide was fully neutralised by the
addition of 12.2 cm3 of 0.200 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid solution. What concentration is the barium
hydroxide solution?

Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCl → BaCl2 + 2 H2O

Titration Example 3:

● It is found by titration that 25.0 cm3 of an unknown solution of

sulfuric acid is just neutralized by adding 11.3 cm3 of 1.00 moldm-3
sodium hydroxide. Calculate the concentration of sulfuric acid in
the sample?
H2SO4 + 2 NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2 H2O

n = coefficient in
● You can also use: C1V1/n1 = C2V2/n2 balanced equation
C = concentration
● (C1 x 25.0 ml)/1 = (1.00M x11.3ml)/2 V = volume
‘1’ refers to H2SO4
C1 = ((1.00 M x 11.3ml) / 2)/25.0ml) = 0.226 M
‘2’ refers to NaOH
● In carrying out dilutions, by adding more solvent the
concentration changes but the number of moles stay the same.

● Moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution

● So C 1 V1 = C2V2
● Determine the final concentration of a 75 ml solution of
concentration 0.40M, which is diluted to a volume of

C1 = 0.40M, V1 = 75ml, V2 =

0.40M x 75ml = C2 x

C2 = 0.10M
● Describe how you would prepare 5.00 X 102 ml of 1.75 M H2SO4
solution, starting with an 8.61M stock solution of H2SO4.

● C1 = 8.61M, M2 = 1.75M, V2 = 5.00 X 102 ml, V1 = x

C1V1 = C2V2

8.61 M X V1 =1.75M X 5.00 X 102 ml

V1 = 1.75M X 5.00 X 102 ml


= 102ml

Thus 102ml of the solution must be diluted with water to give a

final volume of 5.00 X 102 ml in a 500 ml volumetric flask.
The percentage by mass of CaCO3 in eggshell was determined
by adding excess HCl to ensure that all the CaCO3 had reacted.
The excess acid left was then titrated with aqueous NaOH.

a)  A student added 27.20 cm3 of 0.200M HCl to 0.188 g of eggshell. Calculate the
amount, in mol, of HCl added. (1)

b) The excess acid requires 23.80 cm3 of 0.100M NaOH for neutralization.
Calculate the amount, in mol, of acid that is in excess. (1)

c) Determine the amount, in mol, of HCl that reacted with the calcium carbonate
in the eggshell. (1)

d) State the equation for the reaction of HCl with the calcium carbonate in the
eggshell. (2)
The percentage by mass of CaCO3 in eggshell was determined by
adding excess HCl to ensure that all the CaCO3 had reacted. The
excess acid left was then titrated with aqueous NaOH.
(e) Determine the amount, in mol, of calcium carbonate in the sample of the eggshell. (2)

(f)  Calculate the mass and the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in the eggshell
sample. (3)

(g) Deduce one assumption made in arriving at the percentage of calcium carbonate in the
eggshell sample. (1)

Complete questions 1-3d, 5 on the Core Worksheet 2

Question 5
Back titration is a technique in which excess of a reagent is added and the amount of
reagent left over determined by titration.

2.20 g of impure calcium carbonate was reacted with 50.0 cm3 of 2.00 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid (excess). The solid impurities were filtered off and the remaining
solution made up to a total volume of 250.0 cm3 using distilled water.

25.00 cm3 of this solution was titrated against 0.240 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide
solution and required 24.10 cm3 for neutralisation.

Determine the percentage purity of the calcium carbonate.

Steps for Question 5
a. Calculate the moles of NaOH that reacted.
b. Determine the moles of HCl in 25.0 cm3 of reacted solution
c. Determine the moles of HCl in 250.0 cm3 of reacted solution.
d. Calculate the moles of HCl in the original solution.
e. Write the equation for HCl and CaCO3.
f. Calculate the moles and mass of CaCO3.
g. Calculate the % purity of the sample used.
—Question 5
Moles of NaOH =0.02410 dm3 × 0.240 = 5.784 × 10–3 mol

—Moles of HCl in 25.00 cm3 = 5.78 × 10–3 mol

—Moles of HCl in 250.0 cm3 = 5.78×10–3 ×10 = 5.78×10–2 mol

—Moles of HCl in original solution = 0.0500 dm3 × 2.00 M = 0.100 mol

—Moles of HCl that reacted with CaCO3 = 0.100 – 5.78 × 10–2 = 0.0422 mol

—CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

—Moles of CaCO3 = 0.0422/ 2 = 0.0211 mol

—mass of CaCO3 = 0.0211mol × 100.09g/mol = 2.11 g

—%purity= 2.11/2.20 ×100=95.9%


M1V1/n1 = M2V2/n2

For dilutions: M1V1 = M2V2

Percentage Composition by
The percentage of the mass contributed by each element.

% H = Ar(H) x 100% = 2(1.01) x 100% = 11.2% H

Mr(H2O) 18.02

% O = Ar(O) x 100% = (16.00) x 100% = 88.8% O

Mr(H2O) 18.02
Empirical Formula
Use the percentage composition to determine the ratio of
Relative amount = % composition
of substance Ar mass
n(C) = 75 = 6.24 n(H) = 25 = 24.75
12.01 1.01

Use the smallest quotient to determine the lowest whole

number ratio
C = 6.24 = 1.00 H = 24.75 = 3.97 ~ 4 CH4
6.24 6.24
Example Determine the empirical formula of a compound
75% C and 25% H by mass
Fractional Ratios
If the ratio does not come out even, multiply by the
denominator of the fraction.

1:1.25 Note that 0.25 = ¼ So multiply each side by 4.

4(1) = 4, 4(1.25) = 5⇒ 4:5

1:1.33 Note that 0.33 = ⅓ So multiply each side by 3.

3(1) = 3, 3(1.33) = 4 ⇒ 3:4

Molecular Formula
Determine the number of empirical formula units equal the
molecular mass.
molar mass
empirical formula mass

A carbohydrate with the empirical formula CH2O has a

molar mass of 180 g mol-1. Determine the molecular
180 = 6 6(CH2O) = C6H12O6