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Diversion of waste-drains and storm water
Functional requirements, hydraulic dimensioning and design of public sewer systems
Publication P110 is divided into two parts. This document covers part 1 "Policy and performance requirements". 29/12/2015
Page 2 of 18

Part 2 contains about 110 pages of hydraulic calculations and scientific annexes . A hard copy of part 2 may be obtained by email name
and postal address to

P110 will be discussed at a seminar tour in the fall at the following locations:
Stockholm september 23, Hässleholm 7 October
Gothenburg October 8, Sundsvall, 4 november
Borlänge november 5, Umeå, 18 november
Lulea 19 november
Notification can be made at

The statutory period ends Monday on 1 dec 2014.

Comments on the P110 is sent to:
Swedish waters, To His B, p.o. Box 14057, 167 14 BROMMA

After the referral time output and comments received have been handled and the final version will be set by the Committee for Mains and
Climate. P110 will then be layoutas.

The print version P110 will then cover both part 1 and part 2 and be available for sale in Swedish Water Water book store on the

A layouted version of part 1kommer then be freely available as pdf in Swedish Water website.

Publication P110 is a radical reworking of the P90 "design of public sewer lines". P110 takes a broader approach to be on par with P105 Sustainable day-and
dränvattenhantering. P110 also takes up the issue of improvements to the existing drainage system.
The now revised the publication has been developed by Gilbert Smith, Urban Water Management
Sweden AB and Olle Ljunggren, Gothenburg Cycle and Water along with His B,
Swedish Waters. A reference group was linked to the project consisting of Anne Adrup, Swedish waters,
Johan Jansson, Finnish Transport Agency (formerly Gothenburg Cycle and water and SMOKE), Kjell Lundqvist,
Water and Environment Agency, Skellefteå (Skellefteå municipality earlier), Stefan M, VA-SOUTH, Maria Rothman, Norrköping Water, Mathias von Scherling,
Stockholm Water and Sathyan S,
In the spring of 2013, conducted seminars on 8 places, Växjö, Lund. Örebro. Gothenburg, Stockholm, Sundsvall, Luleå and Umeå on the functional requirements
for sewage systems. The results of the discussions has been the basis for part 1 "Policy and performance requirements".
A consultation draft P110 were presented at the seminar tour in the fall of 2014 in Luleå, Umeå, Örnsköldsvik, Borlänge, Stockholm, Göteborg and Hässleholm
with a total of about XXX participants.
P110 set by Swedish Water Committee for Mains and climate, smoke XXX 201?
Swedish waters would like to express its warm thanks to all the people who contributed to this important publikationsarbete.

Stockholm in XXX 201?

Swedish Water AB


CONTENT .............................................................................................................................. 4

PART I – POLICY AND FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS............................................................................. 7

1 BASIC CONDITIONS FOR SOCIETIES '..................................

AVVATTNING............................................................................................................. 9

1.1 Sustainable stormwater management – a way to meet the climate challenge............................... 9

1.2. Sewage systems in a historical perspective................................................................ 10

1.3. Reporting relationships for the stormwater issue................................................................... 13

1.4 Sårbarhetsutredningar.................................................................................................... 15

1.5. Stormwater strategies to facilitate collaboration on common goals............................ 16

1.6 Superficial waterways have greater capacity than concerns............................................................. 17

1.7 The notion of return period describes the selected security level............................................... 18

1.8 Stormwater drainage and climate factor........................................................................... 19

1.9 Miljöpåverkan................................................................................................................... 20


2.1. Build new stormwater systems.......................................................................................... 21

2.1.1. Functional requirements for new stormwater systems................................................................... 22

2.1.2. Trapped habitation areas................................................................................... 23 29/12/2015
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2.1.3 Vad kostar extra säkerhet............................................................................................ 24

2.2. Building new dränvattensystem......................................................................................... 25

2.2.1. Functional requirements for new dränvattensystem:................................................................. 25

2.3. Build new waste water system......................................................................................... 25

2.3.1. Functional requirements for the new waste water............................................................... 25

2.3.2. Vad kostar extra säkerhet............................................................................................ 25

2.4. The preferred system solution for new sewer systems........................................... 26

3 UPGRADING EXISTING SEWAGE SYSTEMS............................................... 27

3.1. Analyzing the vulnerability of communities................................................................................. 27

3.1.1. Vulnerability in the superficial diversion without connection with piping.......................... 27

3.2. Combined sewer system......................................................................................... 28

3.3. Separated sewer system............................................................................................ 29

3.3.1. Separatsystem with waste water pipe for waste-and dränvatten as well as stormwater in trenches 30

3.3.2. Duplikatsystem with dränvattenledning connected to the waste water system............... 31

3.3.3 Duplikatsystem with dränvatten connected to the storm water system.............................. 32

4 LITTERATURFÖRTECKNING.......................................................................................... 35

5 CONCEPTUAL EXPLANATIONS............................................................................... 41

PART I – Policy and performance requirements

Issues covered in this publication is in no way new. Alfred Jerdén, head of the Division of Malmö City water supply and kloakverk pointed out
the SKTF's 25th anniversary in 1927 to:

"Since the earliest times, it has been clear about the desirability of, to the place selected for the construction of a residential building should be
dry, and then now also cellar floors more widely conceived, so has lodged a claim, that these shall be dry. The goal is clear, but the roads that
lead there, are not always as clearly set, and followed perhaps non with the required reflection. The result has been that a damp basement is
something exceptional cases and that the flooding of basements occur quite often "

"The areas selected for settlement should first and foremost be so high, that the ground could possibly be non-flooded. Against this obvious
rule ails non so rarely. "
(Jerdén, 1927) 29/12/2015
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1.1 Sustainable stormwater management – a way to meet the climate challenge
Our societies are now faced with major challenges; to manage climate change leading to more extreme rainfall and rising sea levels in oceans, lakes and rivers.
Huge investments will be needed to reduce the negative consequences and to create a better security than the one we have today. Many operators need to
collaborate, identify clear problem images and possible actions. An important part is to simply create a sustainable stormwater management.
We need systems that are based on that mimics nature's way to manage storm water, from the first raindrop hit the ground until the last reaches receiving waters,
Figure 1.1. Urban areas results in faster drainage and bigger day water flows.

Figure 1.1 expansion of new settlement areas provide a changed runoff process.
Experience in sustainable stormwater management is available in several Swedish municipalities since 30 years, although it has not been a widespread technology.
This stormwater management reported in Swedish water-publication
P105 "Sustainable day-and dränvattenhantering-advice on planning and design". The publication provides a platform for the development of creative stormwater
solutions. The creative challenge is to use all local possibilities to slow up the runoff, which both result in lower flows and lower emissions of pollutants, see Figure
1.2 Figure 1.4.

Figure 1.2 diagram of various categories of open stormwater solutions.

Figure 1.3 Roof water can be disposed of locally. Pictures showing examples of bouncer from drainpipe headed out on the grassed area

Figure 1.4 example of robust solutions to manage stormwater. From left: superficial green stormwater magazine on the street, safe height setting Property – Street
and open drainage that previously took place in the culvert.
Sustainable stormwater management is characterized by a "sluggish" runoff, infiltration, as far as possible, large flow capacity for extreme situations via open
stormwater solutions, as well as a height setting that will protect the buildings from flooding. In order to achieve a "robust stormwater system" requires a connected
consensus on skill areas town planning, building permits, park, street, environmental and VA on how stormwater management in the future will be designed.
The most difficult challenge is to secure the existing buildings and infrastructure as the outer limits, such as placement and height setting, is already given.
Communities squeezed from two directions:
• From bottom: "rising sea levels". A fundamental prerequisite for communities is that the water drainage today with gravity flow to drain down to the receiving
waters. Receiving waters may be the sea, a lake or a small stream. When the water level in a recipient is raised too much leads to flooding in the worst case
can affect human settlements.
• From above: "more extreme rain". Communities will increasingly be affected by extreme rainfall. We also expect a change in rainfall patterns with more
precipitation in the winter months when the evaporation is small and plant absorption of water is low. Long rain can cause the ground becomes saturated
with penalty to greater amounts of water than usual flows into the lakes and streams.

1.2 Drainage systems in a historical perspective

It is a challenge to reduce flood risk in existing buildings when sewage systems built out over more than 100 years and with different principles for design. This
section provides an overview of various system solutions. A more detailed description is provided in Chapter 3. 29/12/2015
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In the combined system diverted waste-, day-and dränvatten in a command, see the left image in Figure 1.5 . This was the dominant system in agglomeration until
the 1950s. Today the combined net about 13% of that rörgravslängd. To reduce the risk of flooding was installed overflow in the combined system where peak
flows could be discharged untreated into receiving waters. Bakvattenventiler on real estate serv ice can prevent bakströmmande waste water.

Figure 1.5 Design by combined and separate system

In the suburban areas of cities, such as detached areas, was built at the beginning of the 20th century half of the so-called separatsystem (right image in Figure 1.5),
with a waste water pipe to which dränvattnet was diverted. Surface water drainage was diverted in shallow trenches.

Figure 1.6 Design by duplikatsystem.

The transition to the duplikata system, Figure 1.6, there was progressively from the 1950s. The most common was to connect dränvattnet to the lowest waste pipe.
The realization about the inappropriate in that the pumpkin and clean drainage water was clear in the 1980s. For a short period was connected to the main water
supply with gravity flow drainage today, which means a bakåtströmning today water serv ice when day the water channel is overloaded. The system requires quite
frequent foundation walls in that drainage is dammed.
As of the 1990 's was recommended to design the system so that today the water channel can be dammed up to the soil surface without risk of impoundments on
the basic wall, see Figure 1.7. This means that dränvattnet must be pumped in basement buildings or diverted in the separate dense dränvattenledning.

Figure 1.7 Recommended formulation of duplikatsystem.

Above has five different system solutions described, but in practice, systems not so pure. Combined or separate sewer systems might have been provided with new
day water pipe, without dräneringsfunktionen or ceiling water diversion from the properties have changed.
According to the sketches for the system duplikata system should flow in waste water does not increase associated with precipitation. Unfortunately this does not
correspond with reality, which has its cause in the so called complementary water borne by the lowest waste pipe. This additional water can provide significant
flow injection into a direction that is not rated for this. During heavy flow peaks can result in basement flooding through waste water serv ice.

Figure 1.8 different sources of supplementary water to waste water pipe

In Figure 1.8 is shown on different sources of additional water. It is an extensive detective work to sort out the reasons for the supplementary water because every
area has its own unique problems. Much of the additional water comes from land, why measures need to be put in where the sources can be found, whether on
public or private land. (SVU 2012-13, 2014 SVU SVU-01, 2014-11)
One of the sources of supplementary water is that water penetrates through non-tight joints. Management material was until the 1960s concrete or clay in lengths of
1 m, which meant a fog per metre management. These joints were closed in the construction phase, but today may be regarded as non-tight. This means that waste
water pipes constructed before 1970 added today-and dränvatten in varying degrees depending on the local conditions.
Lines constructed with rubber rings fog has significantly improved fog density, but these systems can be applied to day and dränvatten by wrong connections,
allowed the connection of dränvatten to the waste water system, as well as other deficiencies. On the new effluent systems can be considered and no seams seal the
dränvatten must be connected to the waste water pipe. The proportion of supplementary water must therefore be considerably lower than in the existing system.
The capacity of the sewage systems can be reduced due to various malfunctions. Examples are bakfall, sediment deposits, fats, roots or foreign objects into the
Approach to stormwater management has changed over the years (Figure 1.9). Up until the 1970s was seen today the water as a kvittblivnings problem where
stormwater would be headed to the nearest recipient. In the 1970s it became more aware of the day water pollution content. From the 1990s grew awareness of
stormwater as a resource for maintaining the groundwater levels in the cities and that the benefit of urban greenery. It has now become more common for the
visibility of surface water drainage, and to create a more pleasant urban environment with the help of stormwater. (Building and planning 2010). 29/12/2015
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Figure 1.9 Schematic illustration of the trend towards sustainable stormwater management.
Since Climate and vulnerability study was presented in 2007 has a wider awareness developed about how vulnerable our societies are to extreme weather events,
both in the current climate and, worse in a future climate change.

1.3 responsibilities for storm water issue

No sector has its own resourcefulness over storm water issue without load is affected by all the actors ' interventions within the catchment area. Figure 1.10 shows
the different actors that affect stormwater diversion.
It is necessary to obtain a comprehensive view of storm water run-off within the catchment area. It is, of course, important that all stakeholders are aware of their
responsibilities to take care of their plants. There may be a risk that different actors to take action, without considering the consequences for stormwater
management. This may apply, for example, extension of paved surfaces without delay.

Figure 1.10 actors affecting stormwater runoff in a river basin

In Sweden there are about 30,000 drainage company, which mainly emerged in the early part of the 20th century.
The aim was to expand and improve farmland in lowland areas and thereby secure Sweden's food production. The activities are regulated by the "special law
concerning the activity of others" (1998:812). Information on existing drainage businesses may be obtained from the provincial executive.
On the exploitation in the areas affected by the drainage company, account must be taken of these.
Stormwater from General VA facility can be diverted to the existing drainage company, if appropriate.
Trenches within drainage company, however, is not designed for comprehensive stormwater loads. If drainage company to receive stormwater can plant need to be
modified and extended and ditch the company's conditions may need to be reconsidered. Suggestions on modification of plant as well as cost-sharing for civil
works and future care and maintenance by duty and is determined by the environment Court.
The Agriculture Department has published the brochure "climate change and drainage company" (the Agriculture Department 2009) which highlights the issue.
Our communities can also be loaded with water from natural land is diverted down towards the buildings. Runoff from natural land is at moderate rain volumes
strong smooth, but can in extreme rain creation, with high intensity and large rain volumes become very large. With climate change is to be expected also changed
rainfall patterns. Big rain volumes throughout the winter can result in water-saturated soil and thus greater runoff.
At logging with large clear-cuts, with land damage and prepared trails/transport routes, the flow become large and mud flows can occur. If this natural marks runoff
diverted via stormwater systems in downstream community, it may mean that the wiring is overloaded. Intagsbrunnar with grille is particularly vulnerable to flows
from natural land. High flows involves considerable amounts of branches, leaves, etc. which quickly put back on the grilles. Intagsbrunnar in sensitive areas must
be designed so that igensättningsrisken becomes small.
For pipe systems is responsible for supply lines, main pipelines and drainage of the street by several parties. Inside the so-called connection point, as shown in
Figure 1.11, the property owners are responsible for servisledningarna. Outside connection point charge VA-huvudmannen (municipal, public utility). 29/12/2015
Page 7 of 18

Figure 1.11 Connection point display on the liability limit between VA-Association and building owners.

Responsibility for street drainage and for the maintenance of the dagvattenbrunnarna of gatukontor or equivalent, see Figure 1.12. It is important that
dagvattenbrunnarna has the necessary capacity to swallow the flows that we are diverting in the pipe system. Dagvattenbrunnarna need to be cleaned regularly,
otherwise, there is a great risk that the pipes be loaded with sediments which leads to reduced capacity.
The ambition for how often the street swept affects the amount of pollution that led to day the water channel and thereby emissions to the receiving waters.

Figure 1.12 responsibilities between Street and VA regarding street drainage.

As set out in this chapter are wide collaboration on skill limits on storm water issue a precondition to be able to create sustainable stormwater solutions.

1.4 Vulnerability assessments

An important tool in order to get a good overview of the topographical conditions of the drainage basin is to create three-dimensional images of the area.
This can be carried out with the support of the national elevation database ( or on the basis of own laserscannade elevation data. In its simplest form use
elevation data to determine rinnvägar for surface water and trapped areas. This case is equivalent to a situation in which storm water system and drainage system is
fully exploited and all runoff must take place ytledes, see Figure 1.13.

Figure 1.13 Illustration showing superficial drainage paths and low points within a river basin. (REF. Tyréns/Jönköping municipality).

This three-dimensional analytical technique can be combined with dynamic simulation of pipeline network of extreme rainfall. Results are reported in clear flood
maps, see Figure 1.14.
With the help of these analysis tools, different policy options proposed and evaluated with a view to achieve a more flood-resistant society.

Figure 1.14 flood maps as a result of the dynamic simulations (Ref. Tyréns/Jönköping municipality),

1.5. Stormwater strategies to facilitate collaboration on common objectives

A stormwater strategy is an important platform for daily work on stormwater issues. The aim is to create conditions for sustainable urban drainage management
with respect to water quality and the risk of flooding. The strategy formulated and needs to be anchored in discussions over the boundaries of competence within
the municipality and ultimately fixed by the City Council.
In stormwater strategy is governed how stormwater is to be handled with regard to urban routes, pollution, recipientförhållanden, topography, geo-hydrology,
climate change and extreme weather events. 29/12/2015
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Figure 1.15 example of stormwater strategies which can be downloaded from the local home pages
A stormwater strategy may include the following parts:
• Objectives for stormwater management
• Common position on that day-and dränvatten is important to work with, both planned and existing buildings
• Strategies for the integration of stormwater in urban planning and to take advantage of it as a resource
• Regulation of responsibility for different parts of the stormwater management
• Strategies for managing stormwater in extreme precipitation
• Strategies to minimize the impact of polluted stormwater and wastewater
• Procedures for monitoring and evaluation of the strategy
It is important to supplement with other municipal documents may be important evidence and opinions for VA-planning, such as risk and vulnerability assessments
and climate adaptation plans.

1.6 Superficial waterways have greater capacity than pipe

An important measure is to plan for and organize so-called "waterways" where the water can flow at the surface at very heavy rains without causing damage to the
buildings. These waterways should be seen as a secondary lead the way for the water when all ordinary diversion system for storm water is congested.

Figure 1.16 Shallow water way in Augustenborg, Malmö (Photo VASYD).

Increased dimensions of closed today the pipes provides relatively moderate increases of capacity compared with open string that can dissipate very high flows.
This means that the management of extreme nederbördstillfällen cannot be based solely on the closed pipe systems

In Figure 1.17 shows the capacity differences between piping and shallow waterways. Note that the capacity of svackdiken with weak släntlutning is about 9 times
greater than for a pipeline with the same filling height.

Relative open cross

Capacity at Capacity at section to the end
maximum fill maximum fill
cross section
height of 0.5 m height 1.0 m
l/s l/s H = 0.5 H = 1.0
810 3960 2.6 8.8

580 2490 1.9 5.5 29/12/2015
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290 1620 0.9 3.6

320 720 1.0 1.6

310 450 1 1

Figure 1.17 the relationship between the capacity of a closed cross section and an open cross section.

A prerequisite, however, is that these superficial waterways maintenance in order to maintain its capacity. The open water bow function must be known and well
documented so that its function is maintained. Otherwise, the risks arise from overgrowth or igenfyllning of these waterways.

1.7 the notion of return period describes the selected security level
The notion of return period is a clear measure of the level of security for a specific event such as the filled tube or flooding. In this publication set out proposals for
minimum levels of safety in the form of återkomsttider. The longer return period we choose the more rarely come flooding to occur. It is important that the
municipality of openly discussing reasonable levels at selected return time. Depending on local conditions, for example. the topography, it is a variety of easy-to-
create greater security.
The level of security in the form of return period is not static over time but will be affected by the various actions within the catchment area. An increase of paved
surfaces without delay will lead to less secure, but measures for delay of stormwater runoff will increase the security level.
The planning horizon do you have when planning drainage system? If you only look at the material issues showing "Förnyelseprojektet" (SVU Reports 2011-12,
2011-13 and 2011-14) that the technical life span exceeds 100 years, why the time horizon at the sizing should be at least 100 years. In view of the ongoing climate
change and the relatively uncertain forecasts for rain and water levels in the sea must take this uncertainty height sizing by rain markup a climate factor.

1.8 stormwater drainage and climate factor

The parameters of all control avrinningens size is regnintensiteten, and the rain volume and proportion of paved surfaces in the area. The rational method, which is
the basic formula for sizing of today water flows, calculates the design flow rate by multiplying regnintensiteten by the area of that part of the catchment area,
which contributes to runoff. Rain rate display for urban applications tend to be expressed in l/s · have. A more widely known concept of rain rate display is mm per
unit of time. The shorter the duration, the rain has, the higher the regnintensiteten for the same return period.
It is important to have a sense of the level of regnintensiteten at different återkomsttider. A rough rule of thumb is that a 10-årsregn is twice the size of a 1-årsregn
and a 100-årsregn twice the size of a 10-årsregn. The regnintensiteter described comes from statistical processing of observed rainfall. Of course, extreme rain
infrequent and thus there are no good statistics for these. Regnintensiteter with return period of 100 years is based on extrapolated data with greater uncertainty as a
result. There are several examples of very heavy rainfall which is without 100årsramen. One of the more famous cases in recent years is the so-called
Köpenhamnsregnet with 150 mm in two hours, which is more than twice the size of a 100-årsregn.
In the rational method the area assumed to contribute with stormwater diversion. At the very extreme rain, surrounding land be waterlogging and the area that
contribute to stormwater diversion increase significantly. This phenomenon can result in large catchment volumes at extremely long rainy seasons during the
autumn-winter period.

Table 1.1 shows the rainfall levels for återkomsttider from 1 to 100 years when the duration is 10 minutes and 30 minutes. The table shows that in terms of volume,
provides a 10-minute 1-årsregn about 6 mm, a 10årsregn about 14 mm and a 100-årsregn approx 30 mm.

Table 1.1 Rain volume in mm at various återkomsttider, as per Dahlström (2010). Example for rain by 10 or 30 minutes ' duration. (See also Figure 4 (4) of part 2,
for different regns rain volume.)

Return time [years] 1 2 5 10 20 50 100

Duration [minutes] 6 8 11 14 17 23 29
Duration 30 [minutes] 10 12 17 21 26 35 45

With regard to future climate changes must regnintensiteter designed from historic rainfall series is fixed by a climate factor. Here it is important to follow the
SMHI's current recommendations ( as new knowledge emerges. SMHI's assessment in 2014 for the period 2070-2100 is a climate factor
of 1.25, used for precipitation with a shorter duration than a hour (SMHI 2013).
Because extremregnen is randomly distributed recommended the same factor for the whole of Sweden. This means that the formulas for rain rate display based on
historical data should be increased by 25%. Rain with longer duration, up to 24 hours, increase by 20%. Climate change also gives rise to 50% more
nederbördsvolymer throughout the winter. See also section of part 2.

1.9 Mi ljöpåverkan
Stormwater pollution caused in the contact with the surfaces where it flows out. It's about polluted air which constitute particles on surfaces that are then washed
with rain water, corrosion products from various metallic construction materials, degradation products from other types of building materials, traffic-related
pollutants from vehicles and road surfaces, products used for landscape maintenance, excrement of birds, dogs and cats as well as generic littering for example.
cigarette butts. These sources of pollution result in storm water exhibits a large number of substances which are present in varying degrees. Some of these
substances are on the EU list of priority substances, which are to be phased out or kept under a certain haltnivå (EU 2013). Today the pollution content varies from
place to place and tables are of typical levels from different types of areas (SVU 2004:11).
By sluggish stormwater management with delay, översilningsytor and infiltration may day water pollutant content is reduced, but this assumes that these facilities
are built in such a way as to separate pollutants can disposed of.
In the case of discharge into sensitive waters, surface water drainage have to undergo some sort of purification, e.g. by dams which separates the particle-bound
contaminants by sedimentation.
Rainwater also contributes to pollution levels by overflow from combined sewer systems in connection with rain (SVU 2014:01).
Page 10 of 18

2.1 Build new stormwater system

The security of communities and dewatering is made up of three levels of security:
1. Return period for filled pipeline, also known as hjässdimensionering
2. Pressure level reaches the soil surface with mark flood as a result
3. Pressure level reach the buildings with damage to buildings as a result.
The three critical levels specified in Figure 2.1. The security level of full management and land flooding is controlled by the choice of the pipe size and the extent
to which it managed to slow down stormwater diversion.

New stormwater system should be built so that when the capacity of pipelines, conduits or open ditches is exceeded, should the water be diverted on the surface
without building foundations and buildings flooded. This means that great consideration must be given to the building's height setting so that the necessary margins
are created for superficial storm water avrinnande.

2.1.1 performance requirements for new stormwater system

• dewatering of paved surfaces and other surfaces should be carried out in such a way that the risk of troublesome impoundments are minimized
• stormwater from hard soiled paved surfaces such as roads, busy downtown areas and industrial areas may need to undergo treatment before discharge to
sensitive recipients
• dewatering shall if possible be carried out in the open, slow storm water system.

In table 2.1 set out the minimum level of återkomsttider for the three different security levels.
VA-huvudmannen responsible for the selection of the appropriate dimension on the day the water channel based on the calculated stormwater runoff from upstream
lying surfaces and any natural marks drain etc. On the basis of selected management dimension calculating VA-huvudmannen återkomsttiden for land flooding.
When storm water flows on the surface, it is a common task VA, street, park, urban planning and building permit management to ensure that the buildings are not
Table 2.1 minimum requirements on återkomsttider for sizing and mark flood of new stormwater systems, Climate factor should be included.


New duplikatsystem Return time for Return time for Return period for
rain in full pressure line at land flooding with
management ground level with damage to buildings
mark flood as a
But urban development 2 10 > 100 years
Urban development 5 20 > 100 years
Centre-/industrial/business 10 30 > 100 years
The trapped areas of type submerged roads and railway tunnels should not be flooded more frequently than every 50 years.
Since 1998 there is a European standard with respect to the design of sewage pipes outside the buildings. Applicable European standard is EN 752 from 2008. In
this specified general functional requirements and recommended design criteria. P110 follows the European standard as far as pipe dimensioning and mark flood.
SS-EN 752 does not requirement level for flood of property nor requirements relating to fastighetsdränering.

2.1.2 Trapped buildings areas

The areas that cannot be drained ytledes with gravity flow is called the trapped areas, see Figure 2.2. The basic rule is that these trapped areas should be avoided for
habitation, but if this is not possible the buildings must be kept away from low points.
The recommendations in the right column of table 2.1 is a minimirekommendation. The prospective property owners should be informed of the property exposed
mode so that additional margins can be created through the design of their sites. 29/12/2015
Page 11 of 18

Figure 2.2 examples of a closed area with buildings. The selection should not be built.

2.1.3. how much extra security

The safety against flooding because of the height of the buildings, but also of the choices made when drainage pipes dimensioned. Management dimensions are
chosen in General based on the standard dimensions as suppliers stock, meaning that the design flow can sometimes be significantly lower than management's
ability and sometimes be close to capacity management. Given the technical lifetime of the pipes, which can amount to 100 years or even more, and the uncertainty
about additional load, which may arise during the lifetime of the pipes, it may be reasonable to select a management dimension which is greater than the required.

Design examples:
One day water pipe for an area of reduced area = 0.33 and inclination of 5 ‰ will be dimensioned.
Select specify return time for the design flow for 5 years.
1. Design flow 60 l/s.
2. Select the default dimension that can handle this flow which is diameter 300 mm with capacity = 80 l/s.
3. Återkomsttiden for the design flow has been increased from 5 to 12 years
4. Calculate the capacity for the next larger standard dimension diameter 350 mm which is 121 l/s. If this is chosen has security increased from 5 to 42 years.
5. Return period for land flooding should be checked, but with 42-year return period for the pipeline is likely to återkomsttiden for land flooding be 100-200
years. With a safe height setting, security against damage to buildings further increased sharply.
6. Account the cost increase for the selection of a larger dimension and set it in relation to the increased security.
The calculation example is based on the Equation 4.10 and 4.11 found in in part 2

The cost of pipe materials and construction of rörgrav increases when choosing larger default dimension than necessary, but relates to the share of the total
construction cost is generally not greater than 20%.
The increase in costs for the selection of a larger dimension is for common dimensions, relatively small. For large dimensions are affected, however,
rörgravskostnaden in the higher level of a dimension lookup.
In table 2.2 shows the increase in capacity achieved when selecting the nearest larger standard dimension for dimensions from 200 mm to 1000 mm the starting
point is that a 5 year rain fills or moving the default dimension.
Table 2.2 increase in capacity in the selection of the next higher standard dimension for pipelines. Design for 5-year return period filled the leadership. (The
example is based on a pipe friction k = 1 and a tilt at 5 ‰.)

Capacity filled management

Return time [year] 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
The next higher standard dimension [mm] 250 300 350 400 500 600 800 1000 1200
Capacity filled management [l/s] 49 80 121 172 312 508 1093 1983 3224
Return time [year] 32 24 17 15 30 22 50 31 22

2.2 building new dränvattensystem

New system for the drainage of building foundations should be built so that they do not däms up when such as storm water system capacity is exceeded. This can
be solved by banning the cellar buildings or require pumping of the water main drain water to the day. The security of the system is also based on the height of
buildings in a flood safely, see Chapter 9.2 in Swedish Water P105.

2.2.1 functional requirements for new dränvattensystem:

• drainage shall be so arranged that the soil's natural ground water levels are maintained as far as possible,
• dränvatten shall be diverted from its waste water and diverted either to the stormwater system or to particular dense dränvattenledning
• If husgrundsdräneringar connects to day water pipe that can be dammed over dräneringsnivån the Association shall be designed in such a way as to avoid
serious consequences are avoided when overloaded by the General system, for example by connecting through the pump.

2.3 Build new waste water system

New waste water pipes will be built with dense ducts and no connection of dränvatten may occur. In the waste water system drained, only waste water from
households and businesses. All waste water flows must be diverted without the system däms up. This implies that large flows of additional water may not be
charged to the waste water pipe.
Due to the long life of the management system, 100 years or more, must be taken into account on the one hand, that the density is likely to deteriorate both to
increased load due to additional buildings. A certain amount of supplementary water must therefore be included in the long-term design flows. Therefore, it is
recommended that the pipes shall be designed with a safety factor of 1.5.

2.3.1. functional requirements for new waste water pipes

• design flows can be diverted without impoundment
• husgrundsdränering must not be connected
• the wiring should be designed with a safety factor of at least 1.5. 29/12/2015
Page 12 of 18

2.3.2 what does added security

Also for waste water network, one should consider what a larger dimension costs relative to the benefits.
In the following example are recognised how safety can be increased to a reasonable cost increase.

Design examples:
A waste water pipe for an area of 500 people will be dimensioned.
1. Design flow is 12 l/s exclusive of supplementary water and with estimated additional water a total of 18 l/s.
2. Default dimension that can handle this flow is the diameter 200 mm with capacity = 27 l/s.
3. safety factor gets 18/27 = 1.7
4. calculate the capacity for the next larger standard dimension, diameter 250 mm, which is 49 l/s. If this is selected, the safety factor has increased from 1.7
to 2.8.
5. Account the cost increase for the selection of a larger dimension and place it in relation to the increased security.

2.4 the preferred system solution for new sewer systems

Duplikatsystem Waste water diversion Stormwater diversion Dränvatten diverted Total system contains
in its own direction. in its own direction. either to the day the at least two lines. Three
Should be combined water channel with no lines for the
with a sluggish storm risk of bakströmning or construction of separate
water diversion as far to own dense management for
as possible. dränvattenledning. property drainage

At the cellars under If stormwater management

street level must based purely on open systems
generally be lifted made up the pipe system for
dränvattnet to street sewage waste water pipe and
level with a pump. separate dense

Consequences in case of Overload:

Waste water pipe can be dammed up in connection with the drainage stops, which can lead to
An overloaded day water pipe during extreme rain means that today the water need to be diverted
With a safe height and elaborate superficial waterways can damage to the buildings be avoided.


3.1 analysis of vulnerability of communities
The starting point for an analysis of the technically possible and economically reasonable measures to improve safety in existing areas need to be based on a
vulnerability analysis which includes:
• rising sea, Lake and streams
• existing shallow waterways by communities
• review of sewage systems, structural construction and operation of both public and private land.
Local conditions becomes crucial for the options available to improve safety. It is not possible to set up the General requirements at the level of requirement levels
for new buildings since the outer limits in the form of communities and building height sewer systems are already made.
In order to effectively analyze the situation after the floods occurred must type of flood is clarified. If you take action based on an erroneous analysis at risk that the
effect of the measures will be limited or absent. In this chapter accounted for a number of different types of flood situations.

3.1.1. Vulnerability in the superficial diversion without connection with the pipe system 29/12/2015
Page 13 of 18

Greatly increased levels from rivers, lakes or seas threaten to flood the real estate. Day-and waste water system
is initially not congested but is in danger of being completely filled up when the entire area is under water. The
size of the day the pipes is irrelevant when there is no gradient on the surface of the water, making the water
stands still.

Security can be increased through the embankment, but today the pipes must be secured so that the water cannot
flow into the rivers.

Figure 3.1 Land flooding from rivers.

Real estate can also be flooded by an urban area does not have a safe shallow waterways. This may be due to the
fact that it has not been designed for superficial waterways or to the deficiencies, for example, in the definition of
the perimeter stones.
The situation can also be caused by street gullies set again, preventing gatuvattnet drained to day the water

Figure 3.2 Flood from ytledes avrinnande storm water.

3.2 Combined sewer systems
In areas with older systems is often combined pipes for the diversion of waste-, day-and dränvatten. The combined sewage systems were built out from the late
1800 's until about 1940 1950. The combined sewer systems are about 13% sewage systems counted as rörgravslängd.
Bräddnings facilities have been built in order to reduce the risk of basement flooding and sewage treatment plants should not be overloaded with stormwater these
systems have been designed on the basis of the functional requirements in force at the time the systems built.
Performance requirements for combined sewers
• accepted dämningsnivå concerning minimum basement floor level
• skimmers are organised so that critical basement-floor level are managed without flood more frequently than every 10: th
• CSOs must comply with recipientkrav, typically defined as requirements for significant dilution

Combined with overflow, day and dränvatten in joint management, as shown in Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3 System structure of combined systems and impact at the impoundment in the combined sewer pipe
Consequences in case of overloading or improperly carried out the system:
Overloaded combined sewer leading to a mixture of waste and storm water percolates up through floor drains or toilets in the basement. Waste water will also stand
against House Foundation through drainage. Bräddnings facilities have been built to hold the water level and reduce the risk of basement flooding, which otherwise
will be the natural consequence unless the back flow valves or pumps have been installed.
Safety improving measures against basement floods can be:
Reduce paved surfaces that drained directly to the combined management, such as roof storm water that is discharged on grassy areas. Delay of stormwater runoff
through the construction of superficial delay magazine, underground countervailing magazine or large underground magazine. "The serpent" and "Rainbow" in
Sundsvall are examples of underground magazines.
Unloading by day water flows can be achieved by supplementing with a day water pipe. If not all stormwater is diverted to the new management, such as private
paved surfaces that are not enabled on the system becomes a middle ground and can be regarded as a building on the combined system until all paved surfaces
disconnected from the spill flowing line.
One way to protect the basement against flooding is to install so-called non-return valves on property maintenance service pipe.

3.3 Separated sewer system

Performance requirements for existing wastewater system:
• all flows (waste water, dränvatten, complementary water) to be diverted without impoundment. This assumes that no extreme flows of so-called
complementary water borne spills the water channel
• If the husgrundsdränering is connected to the waste water system management capacity must be appropriate to the situation
Performance requirements for existing storm water system:
• dewatering of paved surfaces and other surfaces should be carried out in such a way that the risk of troublesome impoundments to critical levels statistically
does not occur more frequently than every 10 years
• stormwater from hard soiled paved surfaces such as roads, busy downtown areas and industrial areas may need to undergo treatment before discharge to
sensitive recipients
Performance requirements for existing dränvattensystem:
• drainage shall be so arranged that the soil's natural ground water levels are maintained as far as possible.
• dränvatten should be diverted from waste water.
• If the husgrundsdräneringar is connected to the waste water pipe or day water pipe connection should be designed in such a way that dräneringsledningarna is
not dämda by the overloading of the General system, for example by dränvattnet connected via a pump. 29/12/2015
Page 14 of 18

3.3.1. Separatsystem with waste water pipe for waste-and dränvatten as well as storm water in ditches
These older sewage systems were built around 1910-1940s in communities more sparsely exploited houses areas. These were also common in rural areas. In the
1950s were given some government subsidies to supplement with storm sewers for gatuvattnet. Stormwater from roofs and courtyards within private properties was
applied not on this system. The system has some similarities with the newer open storm water systems, but with the difference that dränvattnet were allowed to be
charged to the waste water pipe, see Figure 3.4. There may be risk of old storm water ditches filled again because of ignorance.

Figure 3.4 System structure of separatsystem

Consequences in case of overloading or improperly carried out the system:
If overload occurs from spills the water channel is due to failings in the private or public lines. There may be a risk that the roof areas are connected to the waste
water pipe via dränvattenledningen.
Inappropriate design of steep slope pipe connection/bouncer to ceiling water diversion along because the wall to waste water pipe possibly through drainage. When
groundwater surface over dräneringsledningarna and in permeable soils, large dränvattenmängder charged to the waste water system.
Measures to raise the security level:
Identify the sources of extreme load of additional water. Safe design of precipice cane bouncer with diversion to grassed area. Ensure that waste water pipe is not
loaded with point sources from nearby bodies of water. Ensure that stormwater trench has sufficient capacity.

3.3.2. Duplikatsystem with dränvattenledning connected to the waste water system

This system was the time period of the combined system. The normal procedure was that the drainage was allowed to be connected to the lowest waste pipe.
Expansion period is starting from the 1920s, gradually increasing and dominated since 1950 until 1980-90s. Roughly, it is estimated that 60-70% of the
dränvattenledningar may be connected to the waste water-carrying pipeline, see Figure 3.5.

Figure 3.5 System building of duplicate sewer systems where the drainage is connected to the waste water pipe as well as consistency in impoundment in the
overflow pipe Consequences in case of overloading or improperly carried out the system:
If overflow pipe is congested, this means that the system cannot be maintained due to failings in private or public lines.
Problem picture is often overloaded waste water pipes to large amounts of additional water is supplied. This may be the result of incorrectly connected paved
surfaces or överläckning from the leaky day water pipe to the leaky waste water pipe. At an inappropriate design of the chute is moved connection/bouncer can cap
water be diverted along because the wall down to the drain line as for roof water on to spill the water channel. When groundwater surface over
dräneringsledningarna and in permeable soils, large dränvattenmängder charged to the waste water system, see also Figure 1.8.
On the day the water channel is overloaded will finally level to reach street level and surface water drainage need thus absorbed ytledes. If the height of buildings
have been adapted and there are instructions for the diversion of rainwater ytledes generated no serious consequences. When this is not the case, there is the risk of
stormwater ytledes headed toward buildings with injuries as a result.
Measures to raise the security level:
Isolation of improperly connected paved surfaces. Safe design of precipice cane bouncer with diversion to grassed area. Modified dräneringsfunktion, pumping to
day water pipe and sealing of pipes in överläckningszoner. Ensure that waste water pipe is not loaded with point sources from nearby bodies of water.
Identify the sources of extreme load of stormwater and try to find ways to slow up stormwater diversion. Make sure there are superficial waterways for
extremnederbördså to gatuvattnet not flowing into real estate.
3.3.3 Duplikatsystem with dränvatten connected to the stormwater system
During the 1970-80s wanted to avoid drainage water was diverted to treatment plants. Therefore joined in some places dränvattnet to day the water channel with
gravity flow. The system assumes that the property's Foundation wall can withstand impoundments when day vattenledningens capacity is exceeded, see Figure
3.6. 29/12/2015
Page 15 of 18

Figure 3.6 System building of duplicate sewer systems where the drainage is connected to the main water supply today with gravity flow and consequences of
impoundment water main and water main spill today
Consequences in case of overloading or improperly carried out the system:
If overflow pipe is congested, this means that the system cannot be maintained due to errors and omissions.
Problem picture is often overloaded waste water pipes to large amounts of additional water is supplied. This may be the result of incorrectly connected paved
surfaces, överläckning from the leaky water supply piped water to overflow today Leaky, see also Figure 1.8.
When day water pipe becomes overloaded dränvattenledningen will be filled up. The water then rises up against because the wall at the risk of intrusion in the
cellar by leaks. Water that seeps into the basement can lead to overloading of the waste water system where water will be diverted from the basement through floor
On the day the water channel is overloaded will finally level to reach street level and surface water drainage need thus absorbed ytledes. If the height of buildings
have been adapted and there are instructions for the diversion of rainwater ytledes generated no serious consequences. When this is not the case, there is the risk of
stormwater ytledes headed toward buildings with injuries as a result. When overloaded, even the private stormwater serv ice to be replenished with rainwater and
via leaks leak over to the lower located waste water serv ice.
Measures to raise the security level:
Isolation of improperly connected paved surfaces. Safe design of precipice cane bouncer with diversion to grassed area. Modified dräneringsfunktion, pumping to
day water pipe and sealing of pipes in överläckningszoner. Ensure that waste water pipe is not loaded with point sources from nearby bodies of water.
Identify the sources of extreme load of stormwater and try to find ways to slow up stormwater diversion. Make sure there are superficial waterways for
extremnederbörd so that gatuvattnet are not flowing into real estate.

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Housing Board, 2010. Multifunctional surfaces – adaptation of the existing built environment in cities and urban green structure.

Dahlström, B, 1979, Regional distribution of nederbördsintensitet – a climatic analysis, Building research, Report R18:1979.

EU, 2013, Directive 2013/39/EU in terms of priority substances in the field of water policy.

Hogland, W, berndtsson, R, L, M, 1986, overflow, Building Research Council, T13:1986.

H, S, 2011, Hydraulics for the built environment, Liber AB in Sweden 2011. (ISBN 978-91-4709344-1)

The Agriculture Department, 2009, climate change and drainage company. Can be downloaded from

Nilsdal, J-A, S, A, 1979, Design rain at high water levels in the river Göta, Department of civil engineering, Chalmers University of technology.

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Communication No. 81.

Lyngfelt, S, 1981, design of urban drainage system – rational method, Hydraulic research group, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden, Communication No.

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Planning 77 (2006) 217-226, Elsevier.

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Chalmers University of technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

R, E, 1963, Engineering part 2, hydrology and water regulation, Stockholm.

S, A, M, N, 1982, Regnenvelopemetoden. Hydraulic research group, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden, Communication No. 64.

SIS, 2008, SS-EN 752, Drain and sewer systems outside buildings. Part 2, Performance requirements.

SMHI, 2013, Extreme korttidsnederbörd in klimatprojektioner for Sweden, Climatology No 6, 2013. 29/12/2015
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State public investigations, 2007, SOU 2007:60. Sweden introduces climate change – threats and opportunities.

Swedish waters, 2004, S, p. sustainable stormwater management. Planning and examples.

Swedish waters, 2007, Climate change impact on public sewage systems. Message M134

Swedish waters, 2011, Publication P104-precipitation data for design and analysis of sewage systems.

Swedish waters, 2011, Publication P105 – Sustainable day-and dränvattenhantering. Advice on planning and design.

Swedish waters in 2014, applied hydraulics for VA-engineers, U11.

Swedish Water Development, 2004, stormwater dammars separating capacity – impact and methodology for assessment, SVU-report 2004-11.

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Swedish Water Development, 2012, methods of investigation to find the sources of complementary water, SVUrapport 2012-13.

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SVU-report 2014-11. (Published General August 2014)

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Waste water
Water, usually polluted, which diverted by pipeline, ditch or the like; can consist of waste water, process water, cooling water, surface water and

River basin
Area from which the sewage can be discharged by gravity flow or by pumping to a single point. In a sewage system, they form natural heights –
vattendelarna – district boundaries for both waste-that today water systems.

Avrinningskoefficienten ( ) is a measure of the maximum percentage of a basin which can help drain. It depends in addition on the degree of
exploitation and hårdgörningsgrad even on the area's slope and regnintensiteten. The larger the slope and the higher the intensity, the greater
the avrinningskoefficient.

Water catchment areas

String in a built up area where water is allowed to flow to the surface in connection with rain or snowmelt.

Brim outlet
Brim outlet is included as a necessary component of the combined drainage system to relieve these and prevent basement flooding. Organised outlet
from delay magazine then more water than the magazine is dimensioned for added.

Brim wastewater (provisional definition)

Untreated or incompletely treated waste water discharged from collecting systems for waste water or sewage works and which are not is led via a
sampling point used for treated effluent.

Superficial avrinnande rainwater and meltwater.

Dewatering of soil by the diversion of water in the unsaturated zone and groundwater by pipeline, ditch or drainage layer.

Water diverted through drainage.

Duplikatsystem 29/12/2015
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Separate drainage system with separate pipes for wastewater and stormwater.

See pressure line as shown below.

Connection point
Point at which real estate service pipe is connected to the public water system.

Delay magazine
Magazine for the temporary delay of avrinnande stormwater.

Hydrologic concepts

Hydrologic concepts (After the State Environment Agency Vegetation in urban water management ", 1980).

Connected people, [p]

Number of persons within a basin whose buildings are connected to sewerage networks.

Sustainable stormwater management

Sustainable daily and dränvattenhantering, a collective term for what used to be known as LOD.

Intrusion of fluid in porous or fractured material, for example. water penetration in the soil or rock.

Closed area
Area from which the stormwater ytledes cannot be diverted by gravity flow.

Combined system
Drainage system with common management for waste water, storm water and dränvatten.

Concentration time See Rinntid.

Local disposal of stormwater (LOD). An acronym, which has historically been used as a generic term for various types of local management
of stormwater. The term has sometimes been misinterpreted. In this paper uses "Sustainable stormwater management", as a synonym for

Light pressure sewers. Pressure sewerage systems with small management dimensions and with a drain pump for each property or group of

String in a built up area where water will seek to drain ytledes.

Leakage and dränvatten

Collective term for ground water, ground water, and more water entering the sewage system through leaks or deliberately drained via the waste
water system.

Max daily factor

Relationship between maximum daily runoff and average daily runoff

Max HR factor
Relationship between maximum hour runoff and runoff average annual average hourly during the day

Relationship between mindygnsavrinning and average daily runoff

Emergency outlet
An emergency outlet is a device in the overflow pipe of the separated system, which allows the waste water is diverted to the recipient, either
directly or through day water pipe, when the inflow exceeds the discharge capacity. Emergency diversion may be due to extreme flow load
or jam for example. pumping stations or lines and are used to reduce the risk of basement flooding or other damage. Emergency diversion can also
occur in the combined system through overflow associated with downtime in pump station or management.

Person equivalent [pe]

Speech to describe the load from general business and industry as well as from households, for example, a treatment plant or a wiring loom. Number
of pe for a given component, for example. waste water flows, is calculated by adding the total flow [l/t] divided by an assumed specific sewage flow
per person, [l/p · d].

Reduced area
The part of a water catchment area contributing to the drain. The product of avrinningskoefficienten and the gross area.

Rinntid, [my] 29/12/2015
Page 18 of 18

The maximum amount of time it takes for rain that falls within the catchment area flowing to the point where all storm water from the diversion.
Rinntidens length is a combination of the distance the avrinnande water to cover and the rate the water is.
Another word for rinntid is the concentration time, from English "time of concentration". Rinntiden can be said to be the time it takes to concentrate all
run off to a point.

Separated systems
Collective term for duplikatsystem and separatsystem.

Separated systems with waste water pipeline and gutter or ditch for stormwater.

Waste water
Polluted water from households, industries, utilities and the like

Domestic waste water

Waste water from homes, offices, restaurants, schools, hospitals and other facilities of non-industrial type.

Industrial waste water

Waste water from industrial activities, consisting of process effluent and sometimes even used water from the changing rooms, toilets, kitchens
and the like in the industrial area.

Level difference between the in-and outgoing management of water supply in manholes or manholes.

A shallow ditch that allow drainage but also can allow infiltration of stormwater.

Complementary water
Generic term for water in addition to effluent diversion of waste water-carrying sewer. Additional water can thus be stormwater, dränvatten, in leaking
seawater accommodation Supplementary water has previously been called extraneous water.

Sluggish diversion
Inertial dissipation means that today the water as far as possible, be dealt with within the areas where rain falls before it dissipated in open systems
or piping. In Swedish waters Publication 105 reported ways to achieve a slow dissipation through infiltration, perkolation or local smoothing/delay of
surface water drainage. The goal is to achieve a long-term sustainable day-and dränvattenhantering.

Urban development
The concept of urban development, which is used in Table 2.1 , is not well defined but is used to describe highly exploited areas where flooding has
major consequences. CF. the term "citycenters/industrial/commercial areas" in the SS-EN 752.

Containment level
Containment level is the highest level at which pressure line can reach at any given rain opportunity, which synonym is also used dämningsnivå.

Press line
Pressure line connecting the levels to which a free water surface can rise. An example is a pipe pressure line above the top of his head on the
line means that the water in a connecting pipeline may rise to the level that corresponds to the pressure line level.

Discharge area
An area where groundwater flows to surface and evaporates or flows as surface water.

Water walking
The lowest level of a management section.

The part of stormwater runoff collected in puddles and other small pits in an area and which never runs away but evaporate after a rain.

Topographical nature border between two river basins.

Return time
Time interval (in average, seen over a longer period of time) between rain or runoff losses of a given intensity and duration. 29/12/2015