Slides on Sequences

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Slides on Sequences

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Perez, H. III

July 2, 2019

Definition

A sequence is a function whose domain is the finite set

{1, 2, 3, ..., n} or the infinite set {1, 2, 3, ...}.

Definition

A sequence is a function whose domain is the finite set

{1, 2, 3, ..., n} or the infinite set {1, 2, 3, ...}.

Definition

A sequence is an ordered set of numbers. The numbers in the

sequence are called terms.

Example

2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,...

2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22,...

2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,...

2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 7,...

Example

2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,...

2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22,...

2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,...

2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 7,...

The last sequence is different from the first sequence though the

same numbers appear in the sequences.

Definition

The nth term of a sequence is denoted by an .

Definition

The nth term of a sequence is denoted by an .

Example

Given the sequence 3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 9, 5, we have a1 = 3,

a2 = 1, a3 = 4, etc.

Definition

The nth term of a sequence is denoted by an .

Example

Given the sequence 3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 9, 5, we have a1 = 3,

a2 = 1, a3 = 4, etc.

The terms in the sequence with an = 2n + 3 for n ≥ 1 are

5, 7, 9, 11, 13, ...

Questions:

Find the first 5 terms of the sequence given the nth term.

an = n + 4

an = 2n − 1

an = 3n

an = (−2)n

Questions:

Find the first 5 terms of the sequence given the nth term.

an = n + 4

an = 2n − 1

an = 3n

an = (−2)n

Questions:

What is the nth term for each sequence below?

3, 5, 7, 9, 11,...

2, 4, 8, 16, 32,...

-1, 1, -1, 1, -1,...

1, 21 , 13 , 14 , 15 ,...

Definition

An arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression is a sequence

such that there exists d ∈ R such that an+1 − an = d for all n ≥ 1.

The constant d is called the common difference of the sequence.

Definition

An arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression is a sequence

such that there exists d ∈ R such that an+1 − an = d for all n ≥ 1.

The constant d is called the common difference of the sequence.

Example

10, 12, 14, 16, 18, ...,, where d = 2

10, 6, 2, −2, −6, ...,, where d = −4

Questions

Which of the following is/are arithmetic sequences?

5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, ...

4, 9, 12, 17, 20, 25, ...

10, 3, −4, −11, −18, −25, ...

2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22, ...

The nth Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

difference d,

The nth Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

difference d,

a2 = a1 + d

a3 = a2 + d = (a1 + d) + d = a1 + 2d

a4 = a3 + d = (a1 + 2d) + d = a1 + 3d

a5 = a4 + d = (a1 + 3d) + d = a1 + 4d

..

.

The nth Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

difference d,

a2 = a1 + d

a3 = a2 + d = (a1 + d) + d = a1 + 2d

a4 = a3 + d = (a1 + 2d) + d = a1 + 3d

a5 = a4 + d = (a1 + 3d) + d = a1 + 4d

..

.

Definition

The nth term of an arithmetic sequence is given by

an = a1 + (n − 1)d

Example

What is the 101st term in the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, ...?

Example

What is the 101st term in the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, ...?

Solution

Since a1 = 2 and d = 3,

Example

An arithmetic sequence has a common difference equal to 10 and

its sixth term is equal to 52. Find its fifteenth term.

Example

An arithmetic sequence has a common difference equal to 10 and

its sixth term is equal to 52. Find its fifteenth term.

Solution

We use the nth term formula for the sixth term given by

a6 = 52 = a1 + (6 − 1)10

52 = a1 + (5)(10)

52 = a1 + 50

52 − 50 = a1

a1 = 2

Example

An arithmetic sequence has a common difference equal to 10 and

its sixth term is equal to 52. Find its fifteenth term.

Solution

Now that we know the first term and the common difference, we

use the nth term formula to find the fifteenh term as follows.

Example

How many numbers between 100 and 500 are divisible by 6?

Example

How many numbers between 100 and 500 are divisible by 6?

Solution

Smallest multiple of 6 greater than 100: 102.

Largest multiple of 6 less than 500: 498.

We form a sequence given by 102, 108, ..., 498. We need to find

the number of terms in this sequence. Given a1 = 102, d = 6, and

an = 498, we have

Example

How many numbers between 100 and 500 are divisible by 6?

Solution

Solving for n, we have

498 = 102 + 6n − 6

498 + 102 − 6 = 6n

6n = 402

n = 67

Questions

Find the 30th term of the arithmetic sequence

3, 7, 11, 15, 19, ... Then find the general term for the sequence.

How many numbers between 100 and 500 are divisible by 11?

Find the fifteenth term of a sequence where the first term is 3

and the common difference is 6.

Find the twelfth term of a sequence where the seventh term is

10 and the common difference is −2.

How many terms are there in an arithmetic sequence with a

common difference of 4 and with first and last terms 3 and

59, respectively?

Find the first term and the common difference of the

arithmetic sequence with a4 = 10 and a11 = 45.

Definition

The terms between any two nonconsecutive terms of an arithmetic

sequence are known as arithmetic means.

Example

Insert 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25.

Example

Insert 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25.

Solution

Since we are required to insert 4 terms, then there will be 6 terms

in all.

Let a1 = 5 and a6 = 25. We will insert a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 as shown

below:

5, a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , 25

We need to find the common difference.

Example

Insert 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25.

Solution

Note that a6 = a1 + 5d. Solving for d, we have

25 = 5 + 5d

5d = 20

d =4

a5 .

Example

Insert 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25.

Solution

Thus, we have the following:

a2 = 5 + 4(1) = 9

a3 = 5 + 4(2) = 13

a4 = 5 + 4(3) = 17

a4 = 5 + 4(4) = 21

and 21.

Example

Find the value of a when the arithmetic mean of a + 7 and a + 3 is

3a + 9.

Example

Find the value of a when the arithmetic mean of a + 7 and a + 3 is

3a + 9.

Solution

Using the fact that an+1 − an = d, we have

a2 − a1 = a3 − a2

3a + 9 − (a + 3) = a + 7 − (3a + 9)

2a + 6 = −2a − 2

4a = −8

a = −2

Questions

Insert two arithmetic means between 2 and 32.

Insert five arithmetic means between 10 and 40.

The arithmetic mean between two terms in an arithmetic

sequence is 39. If one of these terms is 32, find the other

term.

Find the values of k so that the sequence k, 2k − 2, k + 8

form an arithmetic progression.

Find the value of x if the arithmetic mean of 3 and 3x + 5 is 8.

Sum of First n terms of an Arithmetic Sequence

A clever way to solve this:

Sum of First n terms of an Arithmetic Sequence

A clever way to solve this:

S100 = 1 + 2 + · · · + 99 + 100

S100 = 100 + 99 + · · · + 2 + 1

Sum of First n terms of an Arithmetic Sequence

A clever way to solve this:

S100 = 1 + 2 + · · · + 99 + 100

S100 = 100 + 99 + · · · + 2 + 1

2S100 = |101 + 101 + {z

... + 101 + 101}

100 addends

Sum of First n terms of an Arithmetic Sequence

A clever way to solve this:

S100 = 1 + 2 + · · · + 99 + 100

S100 = 100 + 99 + · · · + 2 + 1

2S100 = |101 + 101 + {z

... + 101 + 101}

100 addends

Thus,

(100)(101)

S100 = = 5050

2

Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

arithmetic sequence.

Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

arithmetic sequence.

Sn = [a1 + (n − 1)d] + [a1 + (n − 2)d] + · · · + a1

Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

arithmetic sequence.

Sn = [a1 + (n − 1)d] + [a1 + (n − 2)d] + · · · + a1

| {z }

n addends

Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

Therefore,

= n[a1 + a1 + (n − 1)d]

= n(a1 + an )

Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

Therefore,

= n[a1 + a1 + (n − 1)d]

= n(a1 + an )

Definition

The sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence is

n n

Sn = [2a1 + (n − 1)d] = (a1 + an )

2 2

Example

Find the sum of the first 1000 numbers.

Example

Find the sum of the first 1000 numbers.

Solution

Given a1 = 1,a1000 = 1000 and n = 1000, we have

1000(1 + 1000) (1000)(1001)

S1000 = = = 500500

2 2

Example

Find the sum of the first 30 terms of the arithmetic sequence:

8, 13, 18, 23, 28, ...

Example

Find the sum of the first 30 terms of the arithmetic sequence:

8, 13, 18, 23, 28, ...

Solution#1

To find the sum, we will use the formula Sn = n2 (a1 + an ). We

know that a1 = 8,d = 5 and n = 30, but we need to find an in

order to use the sum formula.

We have

an = a1 + (n − 1)d

a30 = 8 + (30 − 1)5

a30 = 8 + (29)

a30 = 153

Example

Find the sum of the first 30 terms of the arithmetic sequence:

8, 13, 18, 23, 28, ...

Solution#1

Now, we can use the sum formula.

n

Sn = (a1 + an )

2

30

S30 = (8 + 153)

2

S30 = 15(161)

S30 = 2415

Example

Find the sum of the first 30 terms of the arithmetic sequence:

8, 13, 18, 23, 28, ...

Solution#2

Another solution is using the alternate sum formula. Given a1 = 8,

d = 5 and n = 30, we have

n

Sn = (2a1 + (n − 1)d)

2

30

S30 = (2(8) + (30 − 1)5)

2

S30 = 15(16 + (29)5)

S30 = 15(16 + 145)

S30 = 15(161)

S30 = 2415

Questions

Find the sum of numbers between 5 and 85 which are divisible

by 4.

Find 1 + 5 + 9 + · · ·49 + 53.

Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the arithmetic sequence

whose general term is an = 3n + 5.

Find the sum of the even integers between 1 and 101.

The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 1 and the last term

is 25. If the common difference is 4, find the sum of the series.

The fifteenth term of an arithmetic sequence is 129 and the

sum of the first 15 terms is 1095. Find the sum of the first

ten terms.

Definition

A geometric sequence or geometric progression is a sequence

an+1

such that there exists r ∈ R such that = r for all n ≥ 1. The

an

constant r is called the common ratio of the sequence.

Definition

A geometric sequence or geometric progression is a sequence

an+1

such that there exists r ∈ R such that = r for all n ≥ 1. The

an

constant r is called the common ratio of the sequence.

Example

1, 3, 9, 27, 81, where r = 3.

1 1 2 4 2

, − , , − , where r = −

2 3 9 27 3

Questions

Which of the following is/are geometric sequences?

4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, ...

−2, 6, −12, 36, −72, 216, ...

243, 81, 27, 9, 3, 1, ...

5, 10, 30, 120, 600, 3600, ...

The nth Term of an Geometric Sequence

The nth Term of an Geometric Sequence

a2 = a1 r

a3 = a2 r = (a1 r )r = a1 r 2

a4 = a3 r = (a1 r 2 )r = a1 r 3

a5 = a4 r = (a1 r 3 )r = a1 r 4

..

.

The nth Term of an Geometric Sequence

a2 = a1 r

a3 = a2 r = (a1 r )r = a1 r 2

a4 = a3 r = (a1 r 2 )r = a1 r 3

a5 = a4 r = (a1 r 3 )r = a1 r 4

..

.

Definition

The nth term of a geometric sequence is given by

an = a1 r n−1

Example

Find the twelfth term of the sequence 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, ...

Example

Find the twelfth term of the sequence 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, ...

Solution

We have a1 = 3, r = 2, and n = 12. Using the formula for the

geometric sequence,

an = a1 r n−1

a12 = 3 · 212−1

a12 = 3 · 211

a12 = 6144

Questions

Find the fourteenth term of a sequence where the first term is

1

64 and the common ratio is r = .

2

Find the ninth term of the sequence 9, 18, 36, 72, ...

Write the first four terms of each geometric sequence given 4

as the common ratio and 3 as the first term.

Which term of the geometric sequence 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, ... is 1024?

The nth term of a geometric progression is given by

an = 2 · 3n for all n.

Find the first term of the series.

Find the common ratio.

List down the first five terms.

Definition

The terms between any two given terms of the geometric sequence

are called the geometric means.

Example

Insert 3 geometric means between 5 and 3125

Example

Insert 3 geometric means between 5 and 3125

Solution

Suppose a1 = 5 and a5 = 3125. We will insert a2 , a3 , and a4 .

Using the formula for the nth term of a geometric sequence, we

have

an = a1 r n−1

Given a1 ,a5 , we have

a5 = a1 r 4

3125 = 5r 4

Example

Insert 3 geometric mean between 5 and 3125

Solution

Solving for the value of r , we get

5r 4 = 3125

r 4 = 625

r = ±5

Example

Insert 3 geometric mean between 5 and 3125

Solution

If r = 5, the geometric means are

a2 = 5(5) = 25

a3 = 5(52 ) = 125

a4 = 5(53 ) = 625

Example

Insert 3 geometric mean between 5 and 3125

Solution

If r = −5, the geometric means are

a2 = 5(−5) = −25

a3 = 5((−5)2 ) = 125

a4 = 5((−5)3 ) = −625

Example

Find the value of k so that k + 1, −k, k − 2 form a geometric

progression.

Example

Find the value of k so that k + 1, −k, k − 2 form a geometric

progression.

Solution

an+1

Using the fact that = r , then we have

an

a2 a3

=

a1 a2

−k k −2

=

k +1 −k

2

k = (k + 1)(k − 2)

k2 = k2 − k − 2

k = −2

Questions

1

Insert geometric mean between 4 and .

2

The sequence 2, a, b, c, d, 486 forms a geometric sequence.

Find c.

1

What three terms are between and 27 of a geometric

3

sequence?

If 2x − 2, 3x − 2, 3x + 2 are consecutive terms of geometric

sequence, find x and the three terms.

The geometric mean between the first two terms in a

geometric sequence is 32. If the third term is 4, find the first

term.

Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

geometric sequence.

Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

geometric sequence.

Sn = a1 + a1 r + · · · + a1 r n−1

rSn = a1 r + a1 r 2 + · · · + a1 r n−1 + a1 r n

Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

geometric sequence.

Sn = a1 + a1 r + · · · + a1 r n−1

rSn = a1 r + a1 r 2 + · · · + a1 r n−1 + a1 r n

Sn − rSn = a1 − a1 r n

(1 − r )Sn = a1 (1 − r n )

a1 (1 − r n )

Sn = , r 6= 1

1−r

Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

If r = 1, then Sn = a1 + a1 + · · · + a1 = na1 .

| {z }

n addends

Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

If r = 1, then Sn = a1 + a1 + · · · + a1 = na1 .

| {z }

n addends

Definition

The sum of the first n terms of a geometric sequence is

n

a1 (1 − r ) if r 6= 1

Sn = 1−r (1)

na if r = 1.

1

Example

What is the sum of the first five terms of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, ...

Example

What is the sum of the first five terms of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, ...

Solution

Given a1 = 3 and r = 2, we have

3(1 − 25 )

S5 =

1−2

S5 = 3(31)

S5 = 93

Questions

Find the sum of the first 5 terms of the sequence

4, 12, 36, 108, ...

Find the sum of the first 6 terms of the sequence 8, −4, 2, ...

In the sequence 5, 15, 45, ..., how many terms are added if the

sum is 1820?

Find the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence where the

first term is 4, the last term is 324 and the common ratio is 3.

Substance X has a half-life of 5 years. How much of a 100-mg

Substance X has decayed after 30 years?

Infinite Geometric Series

geometric sequence,

Infinite Geometric Series

geometric sequence,

a1 (1 − r n )

Sn =

1−r

a1 a1 r n

= −

1−r 1−r

Infinite Geometric Series

geometric sequence,

a1 (1 − r n )

Sn =

1−r

a1 a1 r n

= −

1−r 1−r

a1 r n

that is, as n approache infinity, then r n approaches 0, and

1−r

approaches 0.

Infinite Geometric Series

Definition

The sum of the terms of an infinite geometric sequence, where

−1 < r < 1, is given by

a1

S=

1−r

Infinite Geometric Series

Definition

The sum of the terms of an infinite geometric sequence, where

−1 < r < 1, is given by

a1

S=

1−r

Example

1 1 1

What is the sum to infinity of , , , ...?

2 4 8

Infinite Geometric Series

Definition

The sum of the terms of an infinite geometric sequence, where

−1 < r < 1, is given by

a1

S=

1−r

Example

1 1 1

What is the sum to infinity of , , , ...?

2 4 8

Solution

1

Since a1 = 2 and r = 12 , then using the formula, we have

1

2

S= 1

=1

1− 2

Questions

Find the sum to infinity of each geometric sequence, if it

exists.

64, 16, 4, 1, ...

7 14 28 56

, , , , ...

3 9 27 81

1 1

−2, −1, − , − , ...

2 4

1 1

Find the sum of the series 7 + 1 + + +···

7 49

Definition

A harmonic sequence is a sequence such that the reciprocals of

the terms form an arithmetic sequence.

Definition

A harmonic sequence is a sequence such that the reciprocals of

the terms form an arithmetic sequence.

Example

1 1 1

1, , , , ... since 1,2,3,4,... form an arithmetic sequence

2 3 4

2 1 2 1 3 5

, , , , ... since , 1, , 3, ... form an arithmetic sequence

3 2 5 3 2 2

Definition

A Fibonacci sequence is a sequence where its first two terms are

either both 1, or 0 and 1; and each term, thereafer, is obtained by

adding the two preceding terms.

Definition

A Fibonacci sequence is a sequence where its first two terms are

either both 1, or 0 and 1; and each term, thereafer, is obtained by

adding the two preceding terms.

Example

Given the Fibonacci sequence 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ..., find the next 6

terms.

Questions

1 1 1

Find the twelfth term of the harmonic sequence , , , ..?

9 12 15

1 1 1 1

In the harmonic sequence , , , ..., which term is ?

2 9 16 345

Find the eighth term of the Fibonacci sequence if the first two

terms are 1 and 3.

What is the tenth term of the Fibonacci sequence

2, 5, 7, 12, ...?

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