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Sequences

Perez, H. III

July 2, 2019

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
A sequence is a function whose domain is the finite set
{1, 2, 3, ..., n} or the infinite set {1, 2, 3, ...}.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
A sequence is a function whose domain is the finite set
{1, 2, 3, ..., n} or the infinite set {1, 2, 3, ...}.

Definition
A sequence is an ordered set of numbers. The numbers in the
sequence are called terms.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,...
2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22,...
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,...
2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 7,...

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,...
2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22,...
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,...
2, 4, 3, 5, 2, 7,...

The last sequence is different from the first sequence though the
same numbers appear in the sequences.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
The nth term of a sequence is denoted by an .

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
The nth term of a sequence is denoted by an .

Example
Given the sequence 3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 9, 5, we have a1 = 3,
a2 = 1, a3 = 4, etc.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
The nth term of a sequence is denoted by an .

Example
Given the sequence 3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2, 9, 5, we have a1 = 3,
a2 = 1, a3 = 4, etc.
The terms in the sequence with an = 2n + 3 for n ≥ 1 are
5, 7, 9, 11, 13, ...

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions:
Find the first 5 terms of the sequence given the nth term.
an = n + 4
an = 2n − 1
an = 3n
an = (−2)n

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions:
Find the first 5 terms of the sequence given the nth term.
an = n + 4
an = 2n − 1
an = 3n
an = (−2)n

Questions:
What is the nth term for each sequence below?
3, 5, 7, 9, 11,...
2, 4, 8, 16, 32,...
-1, 1, -1, 1, -1,...
1, 21 , 13 , 14 , 15 ,...

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
An arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression is a sequence
such that there exists d ∈ R such that an+1 − an = d for all n ≥ 1.
The constant d is called the common difference of the sequence.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
An arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression is a sequence
such that there exists d ∈ R such that an+1 − an = d for all n ≥ 1.
The constant d is called the common difference of the sequence.

Example
10, 12, 14, 16, 18, ...,, where d = 2
10, 6, 2, −2, −6, ...,, where d = −4

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
Which of the following is/are arithmetic sequences?
5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, ...
4, 9, 12, 17, 20, 25, ...
10, 3, −4, −11, −18, −25, ...
2, 4, 7, 11, 16, 22, ...

Perez, H. III Sequences


The nth Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

Given an arithmetic sequence with first term a1 and common


difference d,

Perez, H. III Sequences


The nth Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

Given an arithmetic sequence with first term a1 and common


difference d,

a2 = a1 + d
a3 = a2 + d = (a1 + d) + d = a1 + 2d
a4 = a3 + d = (a1 + 2d) + d = a1 + 3d
a5 = a4 + d = (a1 + 3d) + d = a1 + 4d
..
.

Perez, H. III Sequences


The nth Term of an Arithmetic Sequence

Given an arithmetic sequence with first term a1 and common


difference d,

a2 = a1 + d
a3 = a2 + d = (a1 + d) + d = a1 + 2d
a4 = a3 + d = (a1 + 2d) + d = a1 + 3d
a5 = a4 + d = (a1 + 3d) + d = a1 + 4d
..
.

Definition
The nth term of an arithmetic sequence is given by

an = a1 + (n − 1)d

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
What is the 101st term in the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, ...?

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
What is the 101st term in the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, ...?

Solution
Since a1 = 2 and d = 3,

a101 = 2 + (101 − 1)(3) = 302

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
An arithmetic sequence has a common difference equal to 10 and
its sixth term is equal to 52. Find its fifteenth term.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
An arithmetic sequence has a common difference equal to 10 and
its sixth term is equal to 52. Find its fifteenth term.

Solution
We use the nth term formula for the sixth term given by

a6 = 52 = a1 + (6 − 1)10

Solving for a1 , we have

52 = a1 + (5)(10)
52 = a1 + 50
52 − 50 = a1
a1 = 2

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
An arithmetic sequence has a common difference equal to 10 and
its sixth term is equal to 52. Find its fifteenth term.

Solution
Now that we know the first term and the common difference, we
use the nth term formula to find the fifteenh term as follows.

a15 = 2 + 10(15 − 1) = 142

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
How many numbers between 100 and 500 are divisible by 6?

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
How many numbers between 100 and 500 are divisible by 6?

Solution
Smallest multiple of 6 greater than 100: 102.
Largest multiple of 6 less than 500: 498.
We form a sequence given by 102, 108, ..., 498. We need to find
the number of terms in this sequence. Given a1 = 102, d = 6, and
an = 498, we have

498 = 102 + (n − 1)6

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
How many numbers between 100 and 500 are divisible by 6?

Solution
Solving for n, we have

498 = 102 + (n − 1)6


498 = 102 + 6n − 6
498 + 102 − 6 = 6n
6n = 402
n = 67

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
Find the 30th term of the arithmetic sequence
3, 7, 11, 15, 19, ... Then find the general term for the sequence.
How many numbers between 100 and 500 are divisible by 11?
Find the fifteenth term of a sequence where the first term is 3
and the common difference is 6.
Find the twelfth term of a sequence where the seventh term is
10 and the common difference is −2.
How many terms are there in an arithmetic sequence with a
common difference of 4 and with first and last terms 3 and
59, respectively?
Find the first term and the common difference of the
arithmetic sequence with a4 = 10 and a11 = 45.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
The terms between any two nonconsecutive terms of an arithmetic
sequence are known as arithmetic means.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25.

Solution
Since we are required to insert 4 terms, then there will be 6 terms
in all.
Let a1 = 5 and a6 = 25. We will insert a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 as shown
below:
5, a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , 25
We need to find the common difference.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25.

Solution
Note that a6 = a1 + 5d. Solving for d, we have

25 = 5 + 5d
5d = 20
d =4

Using the value of d, we can now get the values of a2 , a3 , a4 , and


a5 .

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25.

Solution
Thus, we have the following:

a2 = 5 + 4(1) = 9
a3 = 5 + 4(2) = 13
a4 = 5 + 4(3) = 17
a4 = 5 + 4(4) = 21

Therefore, the 4 arithmetic means between 5 and 25 are 9,13, 17,


and 21.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the value of a when the arithmetic mean of a + 7 and a + 3 is
3a + 9.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the value of a when the arithmetic mean of a + 7 and a + 3 is
3a + 9.

Solution
Using the fact that an+1 − an = d, we have

a2 − a1 = a3 − a2
3a + 9 − (a + 3) = a + 7 − (3a + 9)
2a + 6 = −2a − 2
4a = −8
a = −2

The sequence has terms 1, 3, 5.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
Insert two arithmetic means between 2 and 32.
Insert five arithmetic means between 10 and 40.
The arithmetic mean between two terms in an arithmetic
sequence is 39. If one of these terms is 32, find the other
term.
Find the values of k so that the sequence k, 2k − 2, k + 8
form an arithmetic progression.
Find the value of x if the arithmetic mean of 3 and 3x + 5 is 8.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of an Arithmetic Sequence

Suppose we get the sum of 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 100.


A clever way to solve this:

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of an Arithmetic Sequence

Suppose we get the sum of 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 100.


A clever way to solve this:

S100 = 1 + 2 + · · · + 99 + 100
S100 = 100 + 99 + · · · + 2 + 1

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of an Arithmetic Sequence

Suppose we get the sum of 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 100.


A clever way to solve this:

S100 = 1 + 2 + · · · + 99 + 100
S100 = 100 + 99 + · · · + 2 + 1

Adding the two equations:

2S100 = (1 + 100) + (2 + 99) + ... + (99 + 2) + (100 + 1)


2S100 = |101 + 101 + {z
... + 101 + 101}
100 addends

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of an Arithmetic Sequence

Suppose we get the sum of 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 100.


A clever way to solve this:

S100 = 1 + 2 + · · · + 99 + 100
S100 = 100 + 99 + · · · + 2 + 1

Adding the two equations:

2S100 = (1 + 100) + (2 + 99) + ... + (99 + 2) + (100 + 1)


2S100 = |101 + 101 + {z
... + 101 + 101}
100 addends

Thus,
(100)(101)
S100 = = 5050
2

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

Let Sn = a1 + a2 + · · · + an be the sum of the first n terms of an


arithmetic sequence.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

Let Sn = a1 + a2 + · · · + an be the sum of the first n terms of an


arithmetic sequence.

Sn = a1 + (a1 + d) + · · · + [a1 + (n − 1)d]


Sn = [a1 + (n − 1)d] + [a1 + (n − 2)d] + · · · + a1

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

Let Sn = a1 + a2 + · · · + an be the sum of the first n terms of an


arithmetic sequence.

Sn = a1 + (a1 + d) + · · · + [a1 + (n − 1)d]


Sn = [a1 + (n − 1)d] + [a1 + (n − 2)d] + · · · + a1

Adding these two equations, we have

2Sn = [2a1 + (n − 1)d] + [2a1 + (n − 1)d] + · · · + [2a1 + (n − 1)d]


| {z }
n addends

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

Therefore,

2Sn = n[2a1 + (n − 1)d]


= n[a1 + a1 + (n − 1)d]
= n(a1 + an )

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms in an Arithmetic Sequence

Therefore,

2Sn = n[2a1 + (n − 1)d]


= n[a1 + a1 + (n − 1)d]
= n(a1 + an )

Definition
The sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence is
n n
Sn = [2a1 + (n − 1)d] = (a1 + an )
2 2

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the sum of the first 1000 numbers.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the sum of the first 1000 numbers.

Solution
Given a1 = 1,a1000 = 1000 and n = 1000, we have
1000(1 + 1000) (1000)(1001)
S1000 = = = 500500
2 2

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the sum of the first 30 terms of the arithmetic sequence:
8, 13, 18, 23, 28, ...

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the sum of the first 30 terms of the arithmetic sequence:
8, 13, 18, 23, 28, ...

Solution#1
To find the sum, we will use the formula Sn = n2 (a1 + an ). We
know that a1 = 8,d = 5 and n = 30, but we need to find an in
order to use the sum formula.
We have

an = a1 + (n − 1)d
a30 = 8 + (30 − 1)5
a30 = 8 + (29)
a30 = 153

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the sum of the first 30 terms of the arithmetic sequence:
8, 13, 18, 23, 28, ...

Solution#1
Now, we can use the sum formula.
n
Sn = (a1 + an )
2
30
S30 = (8 + 153)
2
S30 = 15(161)
S30 = 2415

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the sum of the first 30 terms of the arithmetic sequence:
8, 13, 18, 23, 28, ...

Solution#2
Another solution is using the alternate sum formula. Given a1 = 8,
d = 5 and n = 30, we have
n
Sn = (2a1 + (n − 1)d)
2
30
S30 = (2(8) + (30 − 1)5)
2
S30 = 15(16 + (29)5)
S30 = 15(16 + 145)
S30 = 15(161)
S30 = 2415

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
Find the sum of numbers between 5 and 85 which are divisible
by 4.
Find 1 + 5 + 9 + · · ·49 + 53.
Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the arithmetic sequence
whose general term is an = 3n + 5.
Find the sum of the even integers between 1 and 101.
The first term of an arithmetic sequence is 1 and the last term
is 25. If the common difference is 4, find the sum of the series.
The fifteenth term of an arithmetic sequence is 129 and the
sum of the first 15 terms is 1095. Find the sum of the first
ten terms.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
A geometric sequence or geometric progression is a sequence
an+1
such that there exists r ∈ R such that = r for all n ≥ 1. The
an
constant r is called the common ratio of the sequence.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
A geometric sequence or geometric progression is a sequence
an+1
such that there exists r ∈ R such that = r for all n ≥ 1. The
an
constant r is called the common ratio of the sequence.

Example
1, 3, 9, 27, 81, where r = 3.
1 1 2 4 2
, − , , − , where r = −
2 3 9 27 3

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
Which of the following is/are geometric sequences?
4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, ...
−2, 6, −12, 36, −72, 216, ...
243, 81, 27, 9, 3, 1, ...
5, 10, 30, 120, 600, 3600, ...

Perez, H. III Sequences


The nth Term of an Geometric Sequence

Given a geometric sequence with first term a1 and common ratio r ,

Perez, H. III Sequences


The nth Term of an Geometric Sequence

Given a geometric sequence with first term a1 and common ratio r ,

a2 = a1 r
a3 = a2 r = (a1 r )r = a1 r 2
a4 = a3 r = (a1 r 2 )r = a1 r 3
a5 = a4 r = (a1 r 3 )r = a1 r 4
..
.

Perez, H. III Sequences


The nth Term of an Geometric Sequence

Given a geometric sequence with first term a1 and common ratio r ,

a2 = a1 r
a3 = a2 r = (a1 r )r = a1 r 2
a4 = a3 r = (a1 r 2 )r = a1 r 3
a5 = a4 r = (a1 r 3 )r = a1 r 4
..
.

Definition
The nth term of a geometric sequence is given by

an = a1 r n−1

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the twelfth term of the sequence 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, ...

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the twelfth term of the sequence 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, ...

Solution
We have a1 = 3, r = 2, and n = 12. Using the formula for the
geometric sequence,

an = a1 r n−1
a12 = 3 · 212−1
a12 = 3 · 211
a12 = 6144

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
Find the fourteenth term of a sequence where the first term is
1
64 and the common ratio is r = .
2
Find the ninth term of the sequence 9, 18, 36, 72, ...
Write the first four terms of each geometric sequence given 4
as the common ratio and 3 as the first term.
Which term of the geometric sequence 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, ... is 1024?
The nth term of a geometric progression is given by
an = 2 · 3n for all n.
Find the first term of the series.
Find the common ratio.
List down the first five terms.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
The terms between any two given terms of the geometric sequence
are called the geometric means.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 3 geometric means between 5 and 3125

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 3 geometric means between 5 and 3125

Solution
Suppose a1 = 5 and a5 = 3125. We will insert a2 , a3 , and a4 .
Using the formula for the nth term of a geometric sequence, we
have
an = a1 r n−1
Given a1 ,a5 , we have

a5 = a1 r 4
3125 = 5r 4

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 3 geometric mean between 5 and 3125

Solution
Solving for the value of r , we get

5r 4 = 3125
r 4 = 625
r = ±5

We obtained two values of r , so we have two geometric sequences.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 3 geometric mean between 5 and 3125

Solution
If r = 5, the geometric means are

a2 = 5(5) = 25
a3 = 5(52 ) = 125
a4 = 5(53 ) = 625

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Insert 3 geometric mean between 5 and 3125

Solution
If r = −5, the geometric means are

a2 = 5(−5) = −25
a3 = 5((−5)2 ) = 125
a4 = 5((−5)3 ) = −625

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the value of k so that k + 1, −k, k − 2 form a geometric
progression.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
Find the value of k so that k + 1, −k, k − 2 form a geometric
progression.

Solution
an+1
Using the fact that = r , then we have
an
a2 a3
=
a1 a2
−k k −2
=
k +1 −k
2
k = (k + 1)(k − 2)
k2 = k2 − k − 2
k = −2

The sequence has terms −1, 2, −4.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
1
Insert geometric mean between 4 and .
2
The sequence 2, a, b, c, d, 486 forms a geometric sequence.
Find c.
1
What three terms are between and 27 of a geometric
3
sequence?
If 2x − 2, 3x − 2, 3x + 2 are consecutive terms of geometric
sequence, find x and the three terms.
The geometric mean between the first two terms in a
geometric sequence is 32. If the third term is 4, find the first
term.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

Let Sn = a1 + a2 + · · · + an be the sum of the first n terms of an


geometric sequence.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

Let Sn = a1 + a2 + · · · + an be the sum of the first n terms of an


geometric sequence.

Sn = a1 + a1 r + · · · + a1 r n−1
rSn = a1 r + a1 r 2 + · · · + a1 r n−1 + a1 r n

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

Let Sn = a1 + a2 + · · · + an be the sum of the first n terms of an


geometric sequence.

Sn = a1 + a1 r + · · · + a1 r n−1
rSn = a1 r + a1 r 2 + · · · + a1 r n−1 + a1 r n

Subtracting these two equations, we have

Sn − rSn = a1 − a1 r n
(1 − r )Sn = a1 (1 − r n )
a1 (1 − r n )
Sn = , r 6= 1
1−r

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

If r = 1, then Sn = a1 + a1 + · · · + a1 = na1 .
| {z }
n addends

Perez, H. III Sequences


Sum of First n terms of a Geometric Sequence

If r = 1, then Sn = a1 + a1 + · · · + a1 = na1 .
| {z }
n addends

Definition
The sum of the first n terms of a geometric sequence is
n
 a1 (1 − r ) if r 6= 1

Sn = 1−r (1)
na if r = 1.
1

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
What is the sum of the first five terms of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, ...

Perez, H. III Sequences


Example
What is the sum of the first five terms of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, ...

Solution
Given a1 = 3 and r = 2, we have

3(1 − 25 )
S5 =
1−2
S5 = 3(31)
S5 = 93

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
Find the sum of the first 5 terms of the sequence
4, 12, 36, 108, ...
Find the sum of the first 6 terms of the sequence 8, −4, 2, ...
In the sequence 5, 15, 45, ..., how many terms are added if the
sum is 1820?
Find the sum of the terms of a geometric sequence where the
first term is 4, the last term is 324 and the common ratio is 3.
Substance X has a half-life of 5 years. How much of a 100-mg
Substance X has decayed after 30 years?

Perez, H. III Sequences


Infinite Geometric Series

Using the formula for finding the sum of first n terms of a


geometric sequence,

Perez, H. III Sequences


Infinite Geometric Series

Using the formula for finding the sum of first n terms of a


geometric sequence,

a1 (1 − r n )
Sn =
1−r
a1 a1 r n
= −
1−r 1−r

Perez, H. III Sequences


Infinite Geometric Series

Using the formula for finding the sum of first n terms of a


geometric sequence,

a1 (1 − r n )
Sn =
1−r
a1 a1 r n
= −
1−r 1−r

Suppose that −1 < r < 1. As the number of terms become larger,


a1 r n
that is, as n approache infinity, then r n approaches 0, and
1−r
approaches 0.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Infinite Geometric Series
Definition
The sum of the terms of an infinite geometric sequence, where
−1 < r < 1, is given by
a1
S=
1−r

Perez, H. III Sequences


Infinite Geometric Series
Definition
The sum of the terms of an infinite geometric sequence, where
−1 < r < 1, is given by
a1
S=
1−r

Example
1 1 1
What is the sum to infinity of , , , ...?
2 4 8

Perez, H. III Sequences


Infinite Geometric Series
Definition
The sum of the terms of an infinite geometric sequence, where
−1 < r < 1, is given by
a1
S=
1−r

Example
1 1 1
What is the sum to infinity of , , , ...?
2 4 8

Solution
1
Since a1 = 2 and r = 12 , then using the formula, we have
1
2
S= 1
=1
1− 2

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
Find the sum to infinity of each geometric sequence, if it
exists.
64, 16, 4, 1, ...
7 14 28 56
, , , , ...
3 9 27 81
1 1
−2, −1, − , − , ...
2 4
1 1
Find the sum of the series 7 + 1 + + +···
7 49

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
A harmonic sequence is a sequence such that the reciprocals of
the terms form an arithmetic sequence.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
A harmonic sequence is a sequence such that the reciprocals of
the terms form an arithmetic sequence.

Example
1 1 1
1, , , , ... since 1,2,3,4,... form an arithmetic sequence
2 3 4
2 1 2 1 3 5
, , , , ... since , 1, , 3, ... form an arithmetic sequence
3 2 5 3 2 2

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
A Fibonacci sequence is a sequence where its first two terms are
either both 1, or 0 and 1; and each term, thereafer, is obtained by
adding the two preceding terms.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Definition
A Fibonacci sequence is a sequence where its first two terms are
either both 1, or 0 and 1; and each term, thereafer, is obtained by
adding the two preceding terms.

Example
Given the Fibonacci sequence 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ..., find the next 6
terms.

Perez, H. III Sequences


Questions
1 1 1
Find the twelfth term of the harmonic sequence , , , ..?
9 12 15
1 1 1 1
In the harmonic sequence , , , ..., which term is ?
2 9 16 345
Find the eighth term of the Fibonacci sequence if the first two
terms are 1 and 3.
What is the tenth term of the Fibonacci sequence
2, 5, 7, 12, ...?

Perez, H. III Sequences