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POLICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION characteristic of all organizations arise through the
WITH POLICE PLANNING social interactions of individuals or through family
The course deals with the study of principles
underlying police organization and management What is Organization?
with particular focus on the Constitutional mandate, It is a form of human association for the attainment
Republic Acts 6975 and 8551, and previous laws and of goal or objective.
issuances relating thereto.
It is the process of identifying and grouping the work
It includes the organizational structure and to be performed, defining and delegating
organization of the Philippine National Police, on the responsibility and authority establishing
national and local levels. relationships for the propose of enabling people
Emphasis is given on direction, supervision, work effectively.
coordination and control of all local police forces as a What is Police Organization?
homogeneous body under a single command.
Police organization is a group of trained personnel in
It also includes the basic management functions in the field of public safety administration engaged in
so far as these are applied to the police organization. the achievement of goals and objectives that
Police planning is integrated into this course, and it is promotes the maintenance of crimes.
designed to equip the students with knowledge on
the development of effective plans, particularly on Administration of Police Organization - It is the
strategies and tactics for effective operations. systematic structure of management of a police
The emphasis is on the special techniques and
procedure applicable to unusual needs like unusual What is Police?
criminal activities, civil disturbances, special
community events, disaster plans, and civil defense. Police is a branch of the criminal justice system that
has the specific responsibility of maintaining law and
Introduction: The organization with management order and combating crime within the society.
and administration is directed towards the
achievement of goals and objectives. The term police are derived from the word POLITIA,
meaning condition of a state, government and
Goals are broad statements of general and long term administration, POLITIA organization is from the
organizational purposes often used to define the role Greek word POLITEIA which means government,
of the police, for instance, to prevent crime, maintain citizenship, or the entire activity of a POLIS, a city.
order or help solve community problems. Objectives
are specific short term statements consistent with an POLICE (broadest sense) means the internal
organizations goal. organization or regulation of a state, the control and
regulation of a community or state through the
The organization guides members in its operation of exercise of the constitutions power of the
the assigned duties. It enhances better government.
administration of the department. Good organization
and administration would eventually mean effective POLICE (less broadest sense)it denotes the power of
and efficient police work. Organization can also the government which concerns the tranquility,
distinguished by their degree of formality and public order, peace, security of persons and property
structure: and the protection of the public health and moral.

1. Formal Organization-is defined as those In the very restricted sense, the word police refer
organizations that are formally established for exclusively to that body of armed men which as an
explicit purpose of achieving certain goals. (Stable institution is capable of exercising its duties by
social institutions.) armed physical forces in the preservation and
detection of crime and the execution of laws.
2. Informal Organization- are those sharing the basic


responsibilities, either temporarily or permanently,

Police Activities: over officers of lower rank.
1. The prevention of Criminality.
2. Repression of Crime. 3. Commanding Officer- an officer who is in
3. Apprehending of offenders. command of the department, a bureau, a division,
4. Recovery of Property. an area, or a district.
5. Regulation of Non-Criminal Conduct.
6. Performance of Related Miscellaneous Service. 4. Ranking Officer- the officer who has the senior
rank in a team or group.
The organization of the police force commonly
requires the following organizational units: 5. Length of Service- the period of time that has
Functional Units: elapsed since the oath of office was administered.
1. Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within Previous active services may be included or added.
a large department. It comprises of numbers of
divisions: 6. On Duty - the period when an officer is actively
engaged in the performance of his duty.
2. Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.
7. Off Duty - the nature of which the police officer is
3. Section -functional unit within a division that is free from specific routine duty.
necessary for specialization.
8. Special Duty -the police service, its nature, which
4. Unit -functional group within a section; or the requires that the officer be excused from the
smallest functional group within an organization. performance of his active regular duty.

Territorial Units: 9. Leave of Absence- period, which an officer is

excused from active duty by any valid\acceptable
1. Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer reason, approved by higher authority.
is assigned for duty, such as a designated desk or
office or an intersection or cross walk from traffic 10. Sick leave -period which an officer is excused
duty.It is a spot location for general guard duty. from active duty by reason of illness or injury.

2. Route -a length of streets designated for patrol 11. Suspension - a consequence of an act which
purposes. It is also called LINE BEAT. temporarily deprives an officer from the privilege of
performing his duties as result of violating directives
3. Beat - an area assigned for patrol purposes, or other department regulations.
whether foot or motorized.
12. Department Rules- rules established by
4. Sector - an area containing two or more beats, department directors\superiors to control the
routes, or post. conduct of the members of the police force.

5. District-a geographical subdivision of a city for

patrol purposes, usually with its own station. 13. Duty Manual -describes the procedures and
defines the duties of officers assigned to specified
6. Area- a section or territorial division of a large city post or position.
each comprised of designated districts.
14. Order – an instruction given by a ranking officer
Other Items and Terminologies to a subordinate, either:
a. General Order,
1. Sworn Officers-all personnel of the police b. Special, or
department who have oath and who posses the c. Personal
power to arrest.
15. Report - usually a written communication unless
2. Superior Officer- one having supervisory otherwise specifies to be verbal reports; verbal


reports should be confirmed by written which, for many organizations, make its use
communication. impractical.

Nature of Police Organization Perhaps its greatest advantages it that, it is utterly

simple. It involves a division of the work into units of
The police department is truly a complex eight people with person in charge who has
bureaucracy. It is mostly a multi-level organization, complete control and who can be hold directly
organized in the form of a pyramid with the top-level responsible or accountable for result, or lack of
administrator being the chief of police. them.

At the bottom level of the organization, one finds the Quick decisions can be made in the line organization
patrolman or line officer. because of the direct lines authority.

The patrol officer is the backbone of the police Because of these direct lines, each member in the
department. chain of command knows to whom he is clearly
The lowest level worker found in many, if not most,
complex organizations who usually performs the Discipline is administered in this type of the
routine, repetitive kind of work necessary to keep organization.
the organization functioning.
Responsibility for making decisions is well
The police department by its very nature places the identified. Singleness of purpose is fostered.
line officer in a position where he is a decision maker
and manager of his area o responsibility from the Coordination of effort is relatively easy to achieve
first time he is given a beat to patrol. because functional overlapping in between units, a
prime cause of friction in any organization can be
There are indeed few agencies in which the minimized.
efficiency and parameter of the law enforcement
functions are vested in those individuals quite likely Functional Organization
have the least amount of experience and expertise in
the organization. The functional organization in its pure form is rarely
found in present day organizations,except at or near
Types of Police Organizational Structures the top of the very large organizations.

An organizational structure is a mechanical means of Unlike the type of structure, those establishment
depicting, by an arrangement of symbols,the organized on a functional basis violate the prime rule
relationships that exist between individuals, groups, that men perform best when they have but one
and functional relationships between groups and superior.
individuals clearly defined to ensure accountability
and compliance. The functional responsibility of each functional
manager is limited to the particular activity over
Line Organization which he has control, regardless of who performs the
The straight line organization, often called the function.
individual, military or departmental types of
organization, is the simplest and perhaps the oldest Coordination of effort in this type of organization
types; but it is seldom encountered in its channels of becomes difficult since the employees responsible
authority and responsibility extends in a direct line for results may be subject to functional direction of
from top to bottom within the structures, authority several persons.
is definite and absolute.
Discipline is difficult to administer because of this
While the line type of organization has many multi-headed leadership.
advantages, it also has some inherent weaknesses
There may be considerable conflict among the


functional administrators, resulting in much service of knowledge can be provided line personnel
conclusion among line personnel. by specialist.

Line of authority and responsibility are fragmented POLICE SERVICE

into many functional channels, making each superior
responsible to several superiors depending upon the Fundamental Theories of Police Service
function he happens to be performing.
1. The Continental Theory - police are servant of
The functional organization in its purest form is higher authorities and the people have little or no
rarely found in present-day organization except at or share at all in their duties, nor any direct connection
near the top level. with them.

Advantages 2. The Home Rule Theory - policemen are

considered as servants of the community who
1. divides responsibility and authority between defend for the effectiveness of their function upon
several specialists; the express wishes of the people.

2. Functional responsibility is limited to the particular Concepts of Police Service

activity over which he has control regardless of who
performs the functions. 1. Old Concepts -this old philosophy means throwing
more people in jail rather than keeping these out jail.
Disadvantages Punishment is the sole instrument of crime control.
The yardstick of efficiency of the police is more on
1. Coordination of effort becomes difficult; arrests.

2. Discipline is difficult to administer; 2. Modern Concept -police service today has

broadened its activities to include certain aspect of
3. Conflict among the functional administrators. social service for the welfare of the people. Their
yardstick of efficiency is the absence of crime.
Line and Staff Organization
All police function and activities can be categorized
The line and staff organization is a combination of as their line or non-line. Line functions are those
the line and functional types. tasks that directly facilitate the accomplishment of
organizational goals, whereas non-line functions are
It combines staff specialist such as the criminalists, those tasks that supplement the line its task
the training officers, the research and development performance.
specialists, etc. channels of responsibility is to think
and provide expertise for the line units.
Line activities are further broken into the sub-
The line supervisor must remember that he obtains categories: primary line and secondary line
advice from the staff specialist. functions, both of which are field service.

In normal operations, the staff supervisor has line 1. Line Function

commands but with recognized limitations such as
coordination between line and staff personnel can be 1.1. Primary Line Function
achieved without undue friction.
The primary line function is police patrol; that is the
Failure to recognize these line and staff relationship patrol activities of a police organization are
is the greatest and most frequent source of friction considered basic and the first priority.
and a barrier to effective coordination.
The patrol division has the initial responsibility for
The advantage of this kind would be- it combines crime prevention and dictation of the apprehension
staff specialistor units with line organization so that of offenders.


It also assists in the preparation in the facts for 2.2. Auxiliary Services
presentation in a court of law.
All non-line not regarded as staff service are
Theoretically, if the patrol force were 100 percent classified as auxiliary services.
effective in the execution of its assigned tasks, the
need for specialized units (traffic and detective) Typically, they provide support service of both a
would be eliminated. technical and non-technical nature to both line and
non-line activities.
The patrol function is accurately called the backbone
of the police service. Polygraph examiner, photographer, fingerprint and
crime scene technicians, and the police laboratory
1.2. Secondary Function are technical auxiliary services that support the line
Historically, police department were established only
as police patrols, however as municipalities The jail and the communication system and non-line
increased in population, area, and technology (for (staff) activities.
example, the invention of the automobile), the
burden of this patrols was greatly increased. Some activities are extremely difficult to classify as
either the staff or auxiliary.
The department, were unable to provide additional
personnel because of budgetary limitations, were In many instances they perform a dual service. Police
unable to increase the number of the officers on the community relation units, although performing
patrol beat in proportion to the rising population and secondary line service, may be designated as an
rate of crime and was force to enlarge each officers auxiliary or even a staff function.
2. Non-Line Function
Primary Secondary Staff Auxiliary
Simply put, non-line functions are those services that -Patrol
support the line. -Criminal Investigation
Whereas the line provides services directly to the -Vice Investigation
citizens, non-line activities help the line to -Planning and Research
accomplish its primary task. -Inspection
-Police record System
Traditionally non-line or support activities consist of -Identification service
two major categories: staff and auxiliary services. -Traffic Regulation and control
-Crime Prevention
2.1. Staff Services -Personnel Administration
These activities that have the responsibility and -Budgeting Control
personal development and department management -Purchasing
are staff services. -Public Relation
-Property control
Personal development includes recruitment, -Communication
selection, training, and supervision. -Crime Laboratory
Budget, planning and research, inspection, and -Transportation
similar activities fall under the heading of managerial -Maintenance


PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION Because both levels are held responsible for various
aspects of patrol supervision, both must be aware of
To understand the organization and operation of such directives.
public departments certain general basic principles
of organization must be understood. If either supervisor is by-passed, that one cannot be
held accountable for the lack of knowledge.
These principles of organization were generated by
the experience of industry, business, and the military Further, performance of supervisory duties is greatly
services. hindered, and potentially serious problem is created.

They have no absolute values, but they do provide a Delegation of Responsibility and Authority
check list against which an organization can be
structurally and functionally evaluated. There must be a clear line of normal authority
running from the top to bottom of every
This notion will become more defined as each organization.
principle is considered.
Ultimate authority and responsibility for a police
Division of Labor organization lies at the top of the chain of command-
with the chief.
For a police organization to be effective, work
assignments must be designed so that similar tasks, However, if a subordinate is to be held responsible
functions, and activities are given to an individual or for the accomplishment of a given task, he or she
group for accomplishment. must be given the authority to carryout those
Police functions are sub-divided into units that are
described as follows: It is important, also the responsibility and the
authority be clearly defined.
1. Branch -usually the largest unit within station
If the patrol officers are given the responsibility for
2. Division - partof the branch having a department- evaluating police response time on a given day or in
wide function a specific situation, the officer must be given the
authority to procure the communication logs from
3. Section -basically one of the several functional the communication center.
elements of a division Without this authority, the entire task cannot be
Unity of Command
Delineation of Responsibility and Authority
Unity of command requires that an individual be
directly accountable to only one superior. No person A clear-out delineation of responsibility and
can effectively serve twosuperiors at a given time. authority is essential to prevent confusion of lines of
Chain of Command
Primarily this principle provides for the vertical If responsibility and authority are not clearly defined,
movement of authority up and down established conflicts, duplication and overlaps of function lead to
channels in the organizational hierarchy. confusion and inefficiency.

To illustrate this concept, consider a directives Each officer and each organization segment of
originating in the office of the patrol chief intended authority delegated to accomplish the job.
for the patrol force (downward movement).

Two levels of authority fall between the patrol chief

and the patrol officer inspector. Span of Control


The number of officers or units reporting directly to

the supervisor should not exceed the number that A time division of the day to ensure proper allocation
can be feasibly and effectively coordinate and of personnel.
directed. Shifts are normally eight consecutive hours, five
days, giving an officer a forty-hour a week.
There are an innumerable factor that limits the span
control including distance, time, knowledge, However, longer working hours and work weeks are
personality, and the complexity of the work to be common.
performed. Further, shifts frequently overlaps to provide
additional personnel during peak period.
It is not unusual to fine fifty or sixty workers to
perform identification function reporting to one Territory
supervisor. Territorial distribution is necessary to ensure the
availability and general suitability of the patrol
On the other hand,as we ascend the chain of service throughout a jurisdiction. Geographical or
command and the diversity of functions increases, territorial divisions of the department can be
the number of individuals that a police executive described as follows:
supervises decreases rapidly.
1. Post - a fixed or stationary point location (e.g., a
Objective specified street intersection, surveillance site, or an
assigned desk or office).
All organizational elements must contribute, directly
or indirectly, to the accomplishment of the 2. Route or Lined Beat- a length of street normally
objectives of the enterprise. assigned to the traffic and patrol officers whether
foot or mobile. The rout has the characteristics of
Each organizational element should be formed for a being continuous, in a straight line, or the line sight.
definite purpose, and this purposes must be
accomplish the major objective. 3. Beat – a geographical area, once again assigned to
either foot or mobile patrol and traffic officer.
Any police function and organizational elements
that is not required in the accomplishment of the 4. Section – two or more beats, routes, posts, or any
overall objectives should be eliminated. combination thereof.

Coordination Clientele

The organizational structure must facilitate the The distribution of patrol services with respect to the
development of close, friendly, and co-operative characteristics of the population served must be
relations, especially between line and staff activities. recognized and dealt with in contemporary law
enforcement. The development of specialized
Effective coordination is dependent almost entirely functional units expresses the principle of the
upon adequate communication among all element of organization by clientele.
a police organization.
Nature of the Office of a Policeman
A police man must have a mind of a lawyer the soul
The police service is among the few public services of a clergyman, the heart of the social worker,
that maintain a twenty-four hour schedule. discipline of an army sergeant, the integrity of a
It is necessary to the department to assigned officers saint. He must believe in a community of law, while
in sufficient number to meet the demands at any seeing little but lawlessness; believe in the goodness
given time. of man, while seeing the man most often at his
worst, depend on his faithfulness, know his
Watch or Shif jurisdictions like a sociologist, and he must
understand people like a psychologist. He must take


long view of life like a philosopher and yet never concerned with children and youth, the correction
losing his common touch. and rehabilitation of youth offenders.

POLICE OPERATIONS 5. Intelligence Division\Section - shall work for the

Police Operation detection of syndicated crimes andsubtle criminal
Another word in the large collection of police service activities, including subversion and threats to the
terminology is operations. For the most part, security ofthe state.
operation is synonymous with line function. In
accordance with previous definitions, operations are 6. Traffic Division\section - shall be responsible from
inclusive of both primary and secondary line the enforcement of traffic laws and regulation of
functions. traffic. This section is primarily concerned with the
motorist and pedestrians.
Subdivision of the Operation
7. Homicide Division\Section - shall be charged with
Area. the duty to investigate homicide and murder cases.

1. District - is a subdivision of a province and shall 8. Municipal Police Sub-station - shall be concerned
consist of a metropolitan city or a metropolitan city with the general maintenance of peace, order and
and adjacent municipalities\ small cities, or several public safety within their respective jurisdictions. The
adjacent municipalities and small cities. Municipal Police Sub-station shall consist of two
principal sections with corresponding functions as
2. Station -is a subdivision of a district and shall indicated below:
consist of a large municipality or a small city or
municipalities\small city and some adjacent smaller a. Patrol Section
municipalities or several adjacent municipalities.
1. Preservation of peace and order
3. Sub-station -is a subdivision of a station and shall
consist of a large municipality or small city or a 2. Suppression of criminal activities
municipality itself.
3. Crime prevention
Operating Unit of aPolice Station
4. Inspection activities
1. Patrol Division\Section - shall be responsible for
crime prevention; general preservation of peace and 5. Enforcement of traffic laws and regulations
order; crime suppression, and other public safety
services. 6. Fire prevention and control

2. Investigation Division\section - shall be charged b. Investigation section

with the duty of carrying on theobjectives of criminal
investigation, that is, to identify and locate theguilty 1. Crime investigation
party and provide evidence of his guilt through
criminal proceedings. 2. vice control

3. Vice Control Division\Section - shall be 3. Control of juvenile delinquency

responsible for the neutralization or suppression of
vices such as gambling, prostitution and drug abuse. 4. Custody of prisoners

4. Juvenile Division\Section - shall be primarily Peace Officer of Small Police Station


Peace officers of small Police stations are considered The early Egyptians established laws and court and a
as generalist. Most small police station within the rudimentary rule of law. The first account of a
limits of their capabilities, are responsible for all developing court system originated in Egypt in
activities in the fields of law enforcement and public approximately 1500 B.C. the court system was
safety. They provide routine patrol, conduct premise presided by judges who were appointed by the
inspection, make criminal and traffic investigations, pharaoh. They later organized marine patrols and
make arrest, and in other ways, provide for the customhouses to protect commerce.
community security. In such stations, its members
and officers are by and large generalist. Ancient Greece

Historical Background on Policing The Greeks had an impressive of law enforcement

called the Ephori. Each year at Sparta, a body of
Primitive Policing Law enforcement can be traced Ephors was elected and given almost unlimited
back to the cave dwellers, who were expected to powers as investigator, judge, jury and executioner.
follow certain rules or face banishment ordeath. The These five men also presided over the senate and
customs depicted in early cave dwelling may assembly, assuring that their rules and decrees were
represent the beginning of law and law enforcement. followed. From the Greek philosopher PLATO, who
The prehistoric social order consisted of small family lived from 427 to347 B.C., was the idea that
groups living together as tribes or clans. Group living punishment should serve the purpose rather
gave rise to customs everyone was expected to thansimple retaliation.
observe. The tribe’s chief had executive, legislative
and judicial powers and often appointed tribe Ancient Rome
members to perform special task to include guarding
the community against depredation of lawless The Romans had a high development system of
elements. administering justice. The 12Tabulae (12 tables) were
the first written laws of the Roman Empire. It deals
Ancient Law Enforcement with legal procedures, property ownership, building
codes, marriage customs and punishment for crimes.
The Sumerians At the reign of Emperor Augustus, he created
the Praetorian Guard, which consisted of about 7000
The earliest record of ancient peoples need to men\soldiers to protect the palace and the City of
standardize rules and methods of enforcement to Rome, together with the Urban Cohorts to patrol the
control human behavior dates to approximately 2300 city. He created the so called Vigiles who were
B.C., when the Sumerian rulers Lipithstar and assigned as firefighters and eventually given law
Eshumma set standards on what constituted an enforcement responsibilities. As the first civilian
offense against society. police force the Vigiles sometimes kept the peace
very ruthlessly, hence the word vigilantes. Another
important event was the time of JustinianI, ruler of
The Babylonians the Eastern Roman Empire (527 to 265 A.D.) who
collected all Roman laws and put it into his Justinian
The Code of King Hammurabi (2100 B.C.) –during the Code-they became known the Corpus Juris
time of Babylonian King Hammurabi, he established Civilis which means Body of Law.
rules for his kingdom that designated not only
offenses but punishment as well. The principle of the
code was that the strong shall not injure the week.
Hammurabi originated the legal principle of LEX
Talionis- the eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth

Ancient Egypt The Early Policing System


a. offenses were classified as against the king and

The policing system is divided into different systems individual
namely: b. police men were considered public officials
c. police and the citizens have the broad power to
The Anglo-Saxon Period arrest
d. a grand jury was created to inquire on the facts of
The Anglo-Saxons were influential in developing the the law.
early police forces. The following are the features of
this period: 4. The Magna-Carta- laws were enacted upon the
demand of the Knights of the Round Table and
1. Tun Policing System- Tun is the forerunner of the forced the king to sign the same. Examples of the
word town. Under this system all male residents are principles of law include the following:
required to guard the town and to preserve the a. no free men shall be taken or imprisoned,
peace and control,to protect life and property from disposed or outlawed except by legal judgment of his
harm or disturbance. peers
b. no person should be tried from murder unless
2. Hue and Cry - asystem of apprehending a criminal there is proof the body of the victim
whereby a complaint goes to the middle of the street c. Beginning of the national and local government as
and shouts to call all males to assemble. The victim well as legislation.
reports his complaint to the assembly and gives the
whereabouts of the perpetrator. All male residents The Westminster Period of Policing (1285-1500)
would then proceed to locate and apprehend the
culprit. When apprehended, trialis conducted giving 1. The Statute of 1295- this law prescribed the
the culprit a chance to depend himself. closing of the gates of London at sundown. Start
ofcurfew systems.
3. The Royal Jude -a person who conducts criminal
investigation and gives punishment. Punishment 2. Justice of the Peace - this was position which gives
usually fits the crime committed. a person the power to arrest, pursue and impose
4. Trial by Ordeal- a system of determining guilt and
innocence in the ancient times which was based on 3. The Star Chambercourt - a special court which try
painful test of skills. It is usually accompanied by offenses against the state.
harsh punishment. For instance, suspects were
required to place their hands in boiling oil orwater. Modern policing System
When not hurt, it indicated guilt and the suspect
placed under punishment. This period came to the limelight when a bill creating
the Scotland Yard was passed by the parliament of
The Normal Period of Policing (1066-1285) England. It was sponsored and expanded by Sir
Robert Pell who was made to be the first head of the
1. Shire-Rieve System- England at the time police organization. He was referred as the Father of
of William Norman ,divided England into 55military Modern Policing system due to his contributions in
districts known as the Shire-Rieve. Shire was the the modernization of the police force. The following
district, Rieve was the ruler who makes laws, pass are the principles were considered in organizing and
judgment and impose punishment. He was assisted administering the Scotland Yard known as the Peels
by a constable (forerunner of the word Principles:
1. Stable and effective police force should be under
2. The Traveling Judge- one responsible in passing government control.
judgment which was taken from the Shire-Rieve in
view of some abuses by the Rieves. 2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency.

3. Leges Henri -the law of King Henrie I. Duringthis 3. Fast distribution of new to the people is essential.


In 1852, the notoriously dreaded Guardia Civil took

4. Proper distribution of personnel according to shift over peacekeeping duties in the islands under a
and by hour. Royal Decree. Guardia Civil in the provinces was
composed mainly of Filipinos who worked under the
5. The best qualification of peace officers is control jurisdiction of the alcaldes or mayors. They followed
of temper. a military structure and received semi-military
training yet lacked other dimensions of today’s police
6. Proper selection and training is the basis of service.
The capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo, president
7. Police cannot function properly without of theFirst Philippine Republic, signaled the start of
wholehearted support of the people. the American occupation of the Philippines.
Maintaining peace and order, particularly in the
8. Every police must sell himself to the people. countryside, remained the biggest problem of the
9. Police officers must go out to their way to help or The Americans failed to subdue the followers of
assistthe people. Aguinaldo like Gen. Macario Sakay. Hostilities
continued in Batangas, Mindoro, Cebu, Bohol and
Philippine National Police Samar. A military solution to the peace and order
problem was ruled, hence, the birth of the Philippine
The Philippine National Police or PNP is the national Constabulary.
police force of the Republic of the Philippines with a
manpower strength of 113,928 as of end-July 2007. Pacification Campaigns
It provides law enforcement services through its
regional, provincial, municipal, district and local To fight rampant lawlessness, the Philippine
police units all over the islands. Created by virtue of Constabulary divided the entire country into
Republic Act 6975, otherwise known as the constabulary districts. Banditry was rampant in
“Department of the Interior and Local Government Southern Luzon. Records referred to the bandits as
Act of 1990", the PNP came into being on January tulisanes. The style of fighting of the early American
29, 1991, at Camp Crame, Quezon City, when the Constables and the bandits was “man-to-man,
Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National onfoot, and generally by arms and bolos.”
Police were retired as mandated by law. The American foot soldiers had a hard time repelling
the tulisanes in their fight in the mountains as their
History Early Policing enemies were familiar with the terrain. Malaria and
cholera were the diseases that the afflicted the
Organized policing started in 1500s when night men American troops whenever they conducted foot
or bantayans patrolled the streets of Manila. The patrol in the hinterlands.
night men were under the direction of
the alguacilmayor who provided them with muskets The Insular Force
as weapons and alarm bells as their means of
communication. In 1836, the Spanish colonial The Americans are credited for creating
authorities formed the Cuadrillo, a rural police force, the Philippine Constabulary, the principal
toenforce peace in the countryside. Six years later, its instrument of the civil authorities for the
general function was assumed by the Cuerpo de maintenance of peace and order. The PC began as a
Carabineros deSeguridad Publica. small unit—the Insular Force in 1901.

The Carabineros deSeguridad Publica was organized It was set up by virtue of Organic Act No. 175,
in 1712 for the purpose of carrying outlaws of the enacted by the Second Philippine Commission on
Spanish government. Native Filipinos served up to July 18, 1901.The Constabulary then was composed
the rank of sergeant under the command of Spanish of six thousand men led by American officers and
officers. It was the earlier version of mounted former members of the Spanish Guardia Civil. Under
riflemen in the history of the Philippine police close American direction and control, it functioned
system. as a military organization.


Since its formation, the Constabulary had been tank support to crush the American and Filipino
primarily discharging police law enforcement and soldiers.
public safety functions. Its officers and men had
served with distinction both in the field of law The Japanese then prepared to transfer the prisoners
enforcement and in combating violence and and surrendered troops to Camp o’ Donnel inCapas,
lawlessness, and in various aspects of public service. Tarlac in what has been known as the “Death
March.” Because of torture and starvation, 4,326
There was even a time in history when they prisoners of war died in the infamous march.
performed the duties of teachers, sanitary
inspectors, midwives, doctors and foresters. The Postwar Constabulary

The Philippine Constabulary was mandated as a The county was left in shambles after the Second
civilian organization on March 15, 1945 when it was World War .Manila was in ruins. Loose firearms and
placed under the general supervision of the Interior dead bodies littered the streets. This was also the
then later transferred to the Secretary of National period when communist ideology had been
Defense on March 30, 1950. propagated in the countryside and hard-line
supporters had been won.
The Secretary of Interior had supervision over the
Constabulary as early as January 13, 1939 until the The Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan or Hukbalahap
outbreak of World War II.As an insular police force, became a force to reckon with in Central Luzon.
the officers of the Constabulary carried the civilian
title of “inspector.” Its peacekeeping duty was limited The Hukbalahap was born in Pampanga and was
to areas where military rule had been lifted. spawned by a feudal land system in the province
dominated by landlords. Pampanga was an “ideal
The Constabulary At War ground” for the agrarian unrest. It achieved legal
status during the Japanese occupation when it
The participation of the Constabulary in the dark merged with the guerilla forces in fighting the
years of the Second World War began upon Japanese.
President Roosevelt’s declaration of a state of
emergency in the United States. Manila prepared for The communist movement, meanwhile, capitalized
war. on the agrarian problems of the country to cement
its presence. Agrarian unrest was prevalent in
The word had been sent: Japan, the Axis power’s ally agricultural lands in Luzon as well as the sprawling
in Asia, would soon attack the Far East. Filipinos haciendas in the south.
woke up on the morning of December 8, 1941 to the
news that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor. Luis Taruc became a leader of the HMBs and
founded his own government in Central Luzon. It was
The first war casualties of the Constabulary came during this turbulent period that the Philippine
from the bombing of Pan-American Airways Constabulary was reactivated into the Military Police
installation at San Pedro, Makati in the afternoon of Command.
December 8. Six Constables from the Headquarters
Company were wounded. Faced with peace and order problems, the Military
Police Command was suffering from its own internal
The next days and months saw relentless Japanese crises.
bombings on the country’s landmarks, airfields and
naval bases. The last war had killed many Constables. There was a
dearth for trained personnel who would be utilized
The Death March to address the problems.

The Japanese had taken Manila but were surprised Constabulary records showed that there were about
that no defense forces were waiting to be captured. 20,000Hukbalahaps in Luzon in 1946. The Military
The Japanese forces then began the siege of Bataan, Police Command, on the other hand,had 23,000
ordering four infantry regiments with artillery and informal enlistees.


during the latter part of the 60s and the expansion

Reorganization efforts of the communist movement triggered the
creation of the PC Metropolitan Command.
On January 1, 1944, the Military Police Command
was dissolved by virtue of Executive Order No. To quell the unrest, President Ferdinand Marcos
94 issued by President Manuel A. Roxas. The issued Executive Order Number 76 on July 14,
Command’s 12,000 officers and men were absorbed 1967establishing the PC Metrocom which became
by the newly reorganized Philippine Constabulary. the PC’s striking force as it was authorized to conduct
The revitalized PC was in charge of the country’s 24/7 patrol in the entire Metro Manila and was
peace and order “except those which were purely tasked to “supplement or complement local police
military in nature.” action in the repression and prevention of crimes…”

Brig. Gen. Mariano Castañeda became chief of the Martial Law and the PC
PC and instituted reforms. On June 21, 1948,
President Elpidio Quirino offered general amnesty The Philippine Constabulary took on a pivotal role
to the Huks. Taruc, who had been elected a member when President Marcos declared Martial Law
of Congress representing Pampanga, returned to on September21, 1972.
Manila. ButTaruc had no plans to surrender. He only
went to Manila to collect his back salaries and used Marcos mobilized the Constabulary and other major
the money for his comrades’ operations in Central services of the military to dismantle the
Luzon. “unconstitutional opposition” and to prevent
widespread hooliganism and gangsterism. Convinced
President Ramon Magsaysay was credited for that there was a need to restructure the social base
crippling the Huk movement by mobilizing the that bred lawlessness, Marcos reorganized the
Philippine Constabulary. Magsaysay used the government machinery to effect his desired changes
“friendly touch” for winning over the Huks, building in the social, economic and political structures.
roads for them and giving them lands.
On March 21, 1974, President Ferdinand E. Marcos
The Rise of theCommunist Party of the Philippines signed Presidential Decree 421 unifying all the
police, fire and jail services in Metro Manila. The
The Philippine Constabulary’s attempt to maintain move was significant as it created an elite force,
peace andorder did not end with the decimation of the Metropolitan Police Force that was placed under
the Huks. the aegis of the PCMetrocom. The decree was also
the first step in fulfilling the constitutional mandate
On December 26, 1968, Jose Maria Sison, a Political for an integrated national police force.
Science student at the University of the Philippines,
founded the Communist Party of the Philippines. The Metropolitan Police Force was tasked to carry
out theintegration of all police units
The communist ideology spread through a small nationwide. Brigadier General Prospero A. Olivas,
discussion group called Kabataan Makabayan commanding general of the Metrocom, was assigned
organized by Sison and his colleagues in the middle the task of launching the pilot project under the
sixties. Sison then rose to become the leader of the supervision of Fidel V. Ramos and Brigadier General
CPP and organized the military wing of the CPP, the Cicero C. Campos, deputy Chief for police matters.
New People’s Army.
General Olivas would have the power and direction
But the communists suffered a crushing blow on over the Metrocom, including tactical, strategic
January 9,1969 in the hands of the Constabulary who movements, deployments, placements and
killed the most number of communist leaders in one utilization of the entire force and the training
encounter in Orani, Bataan. thereof.

The PC Metropolitan Command On August 8, 1975, Marcos issued

Presidential Decree No.765 establishing the
The upsurge of mass demonstrations and violence Integrated National Police with the Philippine


Constabulary as the nucleus and all police officers as the PNP.

components. Recruitment and Training
The PNP conducts regular recruitment programs,
They were all placed under the supervision of the depending on annual budget allocations.
Ministry of National Defense. The entry level for non-commissioned officers is the
rank of Police Officer 1 or PO1, with a starting salary
The Creation of the Philippine National Police of P14, 265.00 inclusive of allowances.
The new recruits undergo Police Basic Recruit Course
The People’s Revolution of 1986 saw the birth of the for six months and a Field Training Program for
1987 Constitution that included a provision on the another six months prior to deployment to various
PNP which was to be “national in scope and civilian units.
in character.” Republic Act No. 6975 Approved: December 13,
In 1991, the Philippine National Police was created 1990
with the passage of Republic Act No. 6975,
otherwise known as the “Department of the Interior -An Act Establishing the Philippine National Police
and Local Government Act of 1990.” under a Reorganized Department of the Interior and
The principal authors of the Republic Act 6975 Local Government, and for other purposes.
were Senators Ernesto N. Maceda and Aquilino PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE (PNP) The Philippine
Pimentel, Congressmen Jose S. Cojuangco Jr. and National Police (PNP) has been established initially
Rodrigo Gutang. consisting of the following:
Upon its signing into law on December 13, 1990, the a. Members of the police force who were integrated
PNP underwent a transitory period;and on 31 March into the Integrated National Police (INP)pursuant
1991, President Corazon Aquino named General to PD 765;
Cesar Nazareno as the first Director General of the b. Officers and enlisted personnel of the Philippine
Philippine National Police. Constabulary (PC) which include:
•Those assigned with the Narcotics Command
On January 29, 1991,at Camp Crame, Quezon City, (NARCOM);
the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated •Those assigned with the Criminal Investigation
National Police were retired officially and Service (CIS);
the Philippine NationalPolice was born. •Those of the technical services of the AFP assigned
Like any new evolving organization, the PNP suffered with the PC.
from birth pains. To address these •Civilian operatives of the CIS.
concerns, Republic Act 8551 or the PNP Reform and
Reorganization Act of 1998 was enacted on February c. Regular operatives of the abolished NAPOLCOM
17, 1998 to amend certain provisions of Republic Act Inspection, Investigation and Intelligence Branch may
No. 6975. also be absorbed by the PNP. In addition, the PNP
This move was in response to the growing clamor to shall absorb the Office of the National Action
transform the PNP “into a more responsive, effective Committee on Anti-Hijacking (NACAH) of the DND, all
and relevant police organization.” the functions of the Philippine Air Force Security
Under this Act, the PNP shall be strengthened and Command (PAFSECOM), as well as the police
evolved into a highly efficient police force that is functions of the Coast Guard.
community and service-oriented and fully
accountable in the performance of its action.
Training Officers for the Philippine National Police are “THE LORD IS WITH YOU”
sourced from the Philippine National Academy as THESSALONIANS 3:16
well as through lateral entry, for specialized
disciplines and requirements such as doctors,
engineers and other technical positions.

The Philippine National Police Academy is located in

Silang, Cavite and is the primary training school for