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Academic Text Structures

Thesis Structure Structure

Introduction: Presents the
Presents the main overview of the
argument problem or the
overall solution

Body: Presents
details that support Body: Explains the
or defend the problem and/or the
argument solution

Conclusion: Conclusion:
Presents the Presents the
summary of the summary of the
main points main points

Factual Report
Structure Note: It is important to distinguish between a
thesis argument and a factual
report. Sometimes thesis arguments are
disguised as factual reports, especially on
Introduction: the Web. In addition, just like newspapers,
Presents the main factual reports are supposed to offer only
subject/topic facts but may--by leaving out some facts and
giving others a narrow interpretation--offer a
biased version of factual reality. You need
Body: Presents to pay attention to the value of the
details that explain information and its sources.
the topic/subject
Conclusion: riting/WRITEREAD/HowToRead.htm#Struct
Presents the
summary of the ures
main points

Below are outlines of academic texts. Study what are presented in the introduction, body and
Thesis Structure
I. People always associate credit cards to overspending and impulsive buying but they
fail to realize that credit cards are, in fact, helpful.
II. Credit cards are help helpful because:
a. They are convenient to use.
b. They are extremely helpful tools in emergency situations.
c. They ensure security.
d. They enable hassle-free traveling.
III. When used responsibly, credit cards can help improve our daily lives.

I. Some students say that Mathematics is a boring subject but this perception is actually
a big mistake.
II. Math is, in fact, fun and important.
a. It is used in daily activities.
b. It enhances critical thinking.
c. It is useful in research.
III. Students should no longer hate Mathematics.
Problem Solution Structure
I. Sound is essential to our daily lives but noise is not because it can affect you physically
and mentally.
II. There are many ways to get rid of noise.
a. Construct soundproof rooms.
b. Use earplugs.
c. Turn off electronics when not in use.
III. It is important to take strict steps to get rid of noise pollution so you can sleep soundly
at night.

I. The Philippine economy’s chronic problems of high unemployment is a reflection of

the sluggish industrialization.
II. There are many ways to help solve this problem.
a. Government should give more support to the industrial sector through education,
skills training, and infrastructure.
b. Government should invest on agricultural sector.
i. Improve irrigation and fertilization.
ii. Help increase farmers’ productivity.
III. We need political will on the part of the government and for the private sector to do
their part by investing in job creating activities
Factual Report
I. Alcohol is a potent drug that can damage the central and the peripheral nervous
II. There are lots of negative effects of alcohol.
a. It can damage the motor and sensory nerves.
b. It may also produce abnormal sensations like burning, tingling and other pains.
c. It kills brain cells.
III. Alcohol is dangerous if taken in large amounts over a long time.

I. Megaworld emerged the biggest winner at the 2016 Outstanding Filipino Retailers and
Shopping Centers Awards of the Philippine Retailers Association (PRA).
II. Megaworld received many awards.
a. Lucky Chinatown won Shopping Center of the Year
b. Newport City won Mixed-Use Development of the Year
c. Eastwood City emerged second in the Mixed-Use Development of the Year
d. Megaworld also received special citation from PRA.
III. The Outstanding Filipino Retailers and Shopping Centers of the Year Awards
recognize successful retailers in terms of growth and good ethical practices.
A. Fill out the table below.

Thesis Factual-Report Problem-Solution

Introduction 1. 4. 8.

Body 2. 5. 9.


Conclusion 3. 7. 10.

B. Read the texts given. Then answer the following questions.

1. Does the introduction present: a) the main argument; b) the overview of the problem
or the overall solution; or c) the main topic/subject?
2. What is the main point of the introduction?
3. Does the body present: a) explanation of the problem or solution: b) elaboration of the
main topic/subject; or c) details that defend the argument?
4-5. Cite two (2) details found the body that support the introduction. (You may just
copy sentences from the body.)
6-10. What text structure was used? Explain briefly but substantially.


The internet is used in several ways. It is used for research, entertainment,

communication, and so much more. With the rise of the internet, there is also a rise in
online problems. A common problem online is cyber bullying. Cyber bullying is the act of
insulting, harassing, threatening or bad mouthing a person or a group of people online. It
can lower a person’s self-esteem or worse, it can cause that person to commit suicide.
Cyber bullying usually happens in chat rooms and social networking sites. Some cyber
bullies go to the extent of making hate sites for the person or group of people that are
being targeted (“What is Cyber Bullying,” n.d.). Cyber bullying, a prevalent problem in the
internet, can be avoided in several ways.

One way of avoiding cyber bullying is by keeping your personal information private. A
person is more likely to be a victim of cyber bullying if his or her information is available to the
public. It is important to only share personal information to those people whom you really know.

Another way of avoiding cyber bullying is by the “Stop, block and tell” method. Once you
realize that you are becoming a victim of cyber bullying, stop it before it worsens. Block the cyber
bully and tell an adult about it or, if it a threat to your life, inform the authorities (“Take a Stand
Against Cyber Bullying,” n.d.).

Cyber bullying can be harmless fun but it can turn into a serious problem if not controlled.
As users of the internet, you should be sensitive to the feelings of others and not do anything
foolish in the internet that can ruin a person’s reputation. It is also not enough to just avoid cyber
bulling. You must prevent it too by not patronizing hate sites and stopping it at once.