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# EXERCISE 2

## SINGLE CYLINDER INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

Introduction

Combustion, torque, power, emissions and fuel consumption are very important
parameters for the efficiency and performance of the engines, and all of them are directly
influenced by the geometry of the combustion chamber (Rajamani et al., 2012). Heisler says that
an effective combustion chamber has to create conditions for the air-flow mixture that optimizes
the combustion flame, making it fast and uniform, and facilitate the burned gases expulsion
(Jaichandar & Annamalai 2012). Single cylinder engine modelling is a necessary aspect of
combustion research. In particular, simulating heat release connects variable combustion
behaviour to fuel properties through the 1st Law of Thermodynamics (Mattson et al., 2016). The
thermodynamic modelling of single cylinder combustion processes helps to characterize fuel
behaviour. The standard single cylinder model uses the calculation of the engine-out rate of heat
release (RHR). One of the primary properties dining IC engine combustion behaviour is fuel
viscosity (Dec, 1997). The hydrogen addition to gaseous or liquid fuels offers good end energy
performances as it was well proven heavily researched applications for single cylinder pressure
application (Bruneaux, 2001).

Objectives

## At the end of this exercise, the student must be able to:

 Familiarize the different parts and subsystem of 4-stroke single cylinder internal
combustion engine (Kubota RK80-1S diesel engine and Kenbo KB6.5M gasoline
engine)
 compare diesel and gasoline engine

Methodology

In this laboratory exercise, the students prepared the materials to disassemble the two
sample of 4-stroke single cylinder internal combustion engine (Kubota RK80-1S diesel engine
and Kenbo KB6.5M gasoline engine). The steps performed by the students to finish the
laboratory exercise are as follows:

## 1. Listed all the information printed and encrypted at the engine.

2. Measured length, width, and height of the engine.
3. Disassembled the engine.
4. Took pictures in every part of the engine.
5. Observed distinguished characteristic in the engine.
6. Measured the weight of available parts that could measure by the electric weighing scale.
7. Assemble the engine.
8. Lastly, used internet to find the manufacturer’s specification.

## Table1. Engine General Information (Kubota RK80 Diesel Engine)

Table1 presents the general information of 4-stroke single cylinder internal combustion
engine (Kubota RK80-1S diesel engine) and Table2 presents the general information of gasoline
engine from the manufacturer’s specification and the data gathered present in actual engine. the
collected data measurements were not exactly the same as states by the manufacturer, since the
student used different measuring materials. And some verification was met.
Brand: Kubota Model: RK80-1S
Serial No: Classification: 4-stroke, single cylinder
gasoline ICE
ITEMS Manufacturer’s Verification
Specification
a. Dimension and weight of engine
 overall length, mm Not Verified 700
 overall width, mm Not Verified 440
 overall height, mm Not Verified 520
 weight of engine, kg Not Verified Not Verified
 weight per horsepower, kg/hp Not Verified Not Verified
b. Engine specification
 Brand Kubota Kubota
 model RK80-1S RK80-1S
 serial number
 type Horizontal Water Horizontal Water
Cooled, 4-Cycle Cooled, 4-Cycle
Diesel Engine Diesel Engine
 based on number of strokes to 4 stroke 4 stroke
complete one cycle
 based on number of cylinder Single Single
 based on cylinder arrangement
 bore x stroke, mm 82x84 79x84
 displacement volume cm 3 487 443
c. Fuel System
 fuel used Light Diesel Oil Diesel
(SAE No. 2-D)
 type of fuel feed Liquid Liquid
 tank capacity, l 10
d. Cooling System Water cooled
e. Lubrication System
 type of lubrication system
 oil sump capacity, ml
f. Starting System Hand cranked Hand cranked
g. Governor System

## Table2. Engine General Information (Kenbo KB6.5M Gasoline Engine)

Brand: Kenbo Model: KB6.5M
Serial No: KB168FB 111209611 Classification: 4-stroke, single cylinder
gasoline ICE
ITEMS Manufacturer’s Verification
Specification
h. Dimension and weight of engine
 overall length, mm 590 426.8
 overall width, mm 430 365.9
 overall height, mm 435 320
 weight of engine, kg 15.34
 weight per horsepower, kg/hp 2.37
i. Engine specification
 brand Kenbo Kenbo
 model KB6.5m KB6.5m
 serial number KB168FB 111209611 KB168FB 111209611
 type gasoline Gasoline
 based on number of strokes to 4 stroke 4 stroke
complete one cycle
 based on number of cylinder Single Single
 based on cylinder arrangement Inclined Inclined cylinder
 bore x stroke, mm
 displacement volume cm 3 196 Not verified
j. Fuel System
 fuel used Gasoline
 type of fuel feed Liquid
 tank capacity, l 1.22 not verified
k. Cooling System Air cooled Air cooled
l. Lubrication System
 type of lubrication system
 oil sump capacity, ml
m. Starting System Hand operated Hand cranked
n. Governor System Plastic

## Table3. Engine External Parts and Functions

Table3 presents the major components of a engine. Understanding the major parts and
function and how they work together is necessary (DOE-HDBK, n.d.)

Part Function
1. Tank A large receptacle or storage chamber,
especially for liquid or gas
2. Carburettor A device in an internal combustion engine for
mixing air with a fine spray of liquid fuel
3. Sparkplug A device for firing the explode mixture in an
internal combustion engine
4. Hand cranked Operate a device by turning a crank by hand
5. Muffler A wrap or scarf worn around the neck and face
for warmth
6. Air cleaner Another term for air filter
7. Shaft A long, narrow part or section forming the
handle of a tool or club, the body of a spear or
arrow, or a similar implement

## Table4. Comparison of Diesel and Gasoline Engines

Table4 presents the comparison between both diesel and gasoline engine. Diesel engine
has so many advantages and has a highest efficiency but it cost a big amount of money, while
gasoline engine in the other hand is economical.

## Characteristics Diesel Gasoline

Ignition Compression Ignition Spark Ignition
Compression Ratio 14:1 to as high as 25:1 8:1 to 12:1
Thermal Efficiency 30% 25%
Fuel induction Only air sucked during suction Air-fuel mixture suction
stroke stroke
Air-fuel ratio 14.5:1 14.7:1
Fuel consumption 231 & 243 grams/kW hour 250 grams/kW hour
Exhaust gas temperature 1000 to 1200 degrees 700 to 1100 degrees
Fahrenheit Fahrenheit
Starting characteristic No sparkplug needed Sparkplug needed
Engine wt Heavy Light weight
Initial cost Costly Cheap

Conclusion

The student accomplished the objectives, to familiarize the different parts and subsystem
of 4-stroke single cylinder internal combustion engine (Kubota RK80-1S diesel engine and
Kenbo KB6.5M gasoline engine) for the student to have a basic knowledge in naming specific
parts for future work at farm machineries. And know the comparison of the two different engines
to know what is the most efficient. In Table4 sees that Diesel engine are more efficient than
gasoline fuelled engine but gasoline engine is more cheaper and less carbon emission when your
environmental friendly.
References

Bruneaux, G.,(2001) Liquid and vapour spray structure in high-pressure common rail diesel
injection. Atomization S pray.

## Heywood, J.B.,(1988) Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. New York: Mc Graw-Hill.

Jaichandar, S., and Annamalai, K.,(2012) Influences of re-entrant combustion chamber geometry
on the performance of pongamia biodiesel in a DI diesel engine. Elsivier

Rajamani, V.K., Schoenfeld, S., and Dhongde, A.,(2012) Parametric Analysis of Piston Bowl
Geometry and Inject Nozzle Configuration using 3D CFD and Doe. London:SAE.