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page:1 27/09/2016

REFINERIES AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES:


PIPING CO DES:
( ASME ) American Society for Mechanical Engineers
( ASTM ) American Society for Testing Materials
( ANSI ) American National Standard Institute
( AISI ) American Iron & Steel Institute
( AWS ) American Welding Society
( API ) American Piping Institute
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PIPING ASME 31 CODE:
ASME B 31.1 Power Piping
ASME B 31.2 Fuel Gas Piping
ASME B 31.3 Process piping
ASME B 31.4 Pipeline Transportation system for liquid
Hydrocarbon & other liquid.
ASME B 31.5 Refrigeration piping
ASME B 31.8 Piping System for Gas transmission &
distribution
ASME B 31.11 Piping System for Slurry transportation
------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ASME SECTION CODE:
ASME Section 1 Construction of Power Boiler and piping.
ASME Section 11 Material Specification
Part C - for electrodes and filler wire
Part D – Properties.
ASME Section 1V Construction of Heating Boiler.
ASME Section V Non destructive Examination
ASME Section V1 Care & operation Heating Boiler.
ASME Section V11 Guidelines and care of power Boiler.
ASME Section V111 Pressure Vessel piping
ASME Section V111
(Division 1 & 11) Construction of Pressure Vessel
ASME Section 1X Welding & Brazing Qualification.
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ASME CODE PIPING:
ASTM Code for Utility Piping A 53
ASME Code for
Radiographic Test. 31.3 Section V-Article 2 & 22 and
B Section V111, Division 1
B 16.5 and 16.34
ASME Code for Magnetic
Particle Test: Section V, article 6,7 and 25
Section V111, Division 1, Appendix
ASME Code for pneumatic Test Section V, Article 10
ASME Code for Dye pen Test. Section V111, Division 1, Appendix
V111
ASME Code for C.S. Piping ASTM A 106 Gr. A/B/C
ASTM Code for High Pressure
And High Temperature piping :- A 106 Gr. B
ASTM Code for Stainless Steel ASTM A 312/304/304L/304H/
308/310/316/316L
ASME Code for Welded and
Seamless Iron Pipe B 36.10
ASME Code for S.S Pipe B 36. 19
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ASME Code for Flange
(C.S. Flange and Fitting) B 16.1
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ASME Code or Butt weld
Fittings. B 16.9
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Mnm . ASME Code for Valves
(Face to Face/End to End
Dimension) B 16.10
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ASME Code for Socket and
Thread Fittings. B 16.11
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ASME Code for Metallic Gasket
(Spiral Wound / Flange etc.) B 16.20
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ASME Code for Non Metallic
Gasket B 16.21
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ASME Code for Valves
(Flanged and Butt Weld) B 16.34
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ASME Code for C.S Plates ASTM 285/515/516
ASME Code for S.S Plates 240/304/309/310/316
ASTM 316L/317/321/347/348
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ASME Code for C.S Tube ASTM A 178/ 179/ 192
ASME Code for S.S. Tube ASTM A 213 /304/304H/
310/316/316L
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● ASTM Code for C.S fitting A 234 Gr. WPB/WPBW
● ASTM Code for C.S. flange A 105
● ASTM Code for C.S. valves A 216 Gr. WCB.
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● ASME Code for S.S Flanges
and fittings B 16.3, B16.5,B16.9 and B16.10
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ASME SECTION II Code for Stainless Steel Electrodes:

Cover Electrode Bare Electrode

ASTM A312 TP 304 E 308


304L E 308L
304 H E 16-6-2
308 E 309
310 E 310
316 E 316
316L E 316L
316H E 16-8-2
321 E 347
321H E 16-6-2
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ASME CODE FOR CARBON STEEL ELECTRODE:
E 6010 (for Root Welding)
E 7018 (for SMAW)
E 7014 (for high deposition of weld metal)
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Electrode shall keep in Oven up to 350 deg. C for 1 hour and
In portable Oven to keep up to 80 to 100 deg. C before use.
● The use of electrode E 7018 is recommended for welding high strength
Carbon Steel and for high thickness carbon steel plates etc.
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WELDING PROCEDURE
Detailed document for methods and practice for production of weld joint
design, filler metal used, specification of metal, thickness and other
parameter as per code requirement.
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WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION:
welder making production joint with required code.
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DIFFERENT TYPES OF WELDING:
SMAW Welding: Shield Metal Arc Welding
TIG Welding : Tungsten Inner Gas Welding
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CONTENTENT OF TIG WELDING ( PARTS ):
Transformer, Argon Cyliner-Gr.2/Gr.1, Regulator, Hose, Nozzle, Colet,
Tungsten Rod, Lead, Filler Wire, etc.
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CURRENT REQUIRED FOR WELDING :
● O.D of Electrode X40 (+or- 20) = Amps.
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COMMON WELDING DEFECTS:
LACK OF PENETRATION :
This is because the weld metal fails to reach till the root face of the joint.
CAUSE: Use of incorrect size of electrode, Low welding current, Faulty fit
Up inaccurate joint preparation.
LACK OF FUSION:
Un fused metal exist between the weld metal and base metal.
CAUSE: Presence of dirt, slag and other nonmetallic substance which pre-
Vents the weld metal to reach melting temperature.
UNDER CUT:
It occurs on the edge of fillet weld deposited in the horizontal position.
CAUSE Excessive welding current, Too high speed of arc travel, Wrong
Electrode angle.
SLAG INCULSION:
Page: 5
Non metallic particles entrapped in the weld metal is slag inclusion.
CAUSE: Improper cleaning of slag, Presence of Rust, dirt and other
Substance present on the surface of base metal.
POROSITY:
The presence of gas pores in a weld caused by entrapment of gas during
Solidification is termed as porosity.
CAUSE: Fault composition of base metal or electrode, Presence of oil,
Grease, moister on the weld surface, Excessive moisture in the
Electrode coating, Inadequate gas shielding, Low welding
Current.
CRACKS:
There are two types of cracks: -
Cold crack: The base metal becomes hard and brittle due to rapid cooling
After weld.
PRECAUTION: High heat input during welding, preheating, Use of low
Hydrogen electrode.
FAULTY WELD SIZE AND PROFILE:
DISTORTION:
The distortion may appear in butt joint as both longitudinal and
Transverse shrinkage or contraction, and as angular change (rotation)
when the face of the weld shrinks more than the root.
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POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT ( PWHT ):
Post Weld Heat Treatment is done to remove residual stress left in the
Joint which may cause brittle fracture etc.
● Post heating is done on some pipe after welding to maintain uniform
homogenous structure.
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● WELDING TEST POSITION FOR FILLET WELD ( PLATE POSITION):
a) Flat position 1F, b) Horizontal position 2F, c) Vertical position 3F,
d) Over head position 4F.
TEST POSITION FOR FILLET WELD : ( PIPE POSITION ):
a) Flat position 1F, b) Horizontal position 2F, c) Horizontal position 2 FR
d) Overhead position 4F e) Multiple position 5R.
TEST POSTION FOR GROVE WELD : (PLATE POSITION):
a) Flat position 1G b) Horizontal position 2G c) Vertical position 3G
Over head position 4G.
TEST POSITION FOR GROVE WELD : ( PIPE POSITION ):
Page: 6
a) Flat position 1G b) Horizontal position 2G c) multiple position 5G
d) Multiple position 6G.
● The minimum distance between two welds is 1 to ½”.
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ASME Section V - Non Destructive Testing
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TEST ( M.P.T )
It is done detect the surface defects such as porosity, slag inclusion and
crack etc. by creating a magnetic field and by spreading the iron powder
on and around the weld. For carbon steel and other magnetic materials,
and dry. The weld and all adjacent area within 25 mm on either side of
weld should be free from any slag, dust, oil grease, spatter etc.
ASME B 31.3 - API 650 and 1104 = for Magnetic Particle Test.
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ASME Section V111, Division 1, Appendix V111
DYE PENETRATE TEST ( D.P.T )
Dye penetration test is done to detect the surface defect such as
porosity, slag inclusion and crack etc. The liquid penetration test also
term as dye penetration test.
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ASME SECTION V
RADIOGRAPHIC TEST. ( R.T )
Is done to detect the crack or any other defect in the weld.
Radiographic Test done using X-rays or Gamma rays only.
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ULTRASONIC TEST ( U.T )
This is sound waves. The electric crystals can convert electrical impulses
To mechanical vibrations, the sound travels in straight line or angular.
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GAS CUTTING PARTS:
Is used for Cutting plates, angles, channels, pipes, profile cutting etc.
We use Oxy-acetylene set for gas welding or gas cutting.
Gas cutting set consist of : ●Oxy cylinder● Acetylene or L.P.G cylinder
●Regulators● Hosepipes● Torch● Spark lighter etc.

Soldering is the process of jointing metal sheet (such as tin, copper sheet
etc.) with an alloy whose melting is less than that of the materials to be
page: 7
solder. The alloy used for joining the metals is called solder. Soldering at
high temperature using brass as solder is called brazing. The most
common solder is composed of 50% lead 50% Tin. Its melting point is
about 10 % that of copper.
FLUX USED FOR SOLDERING BECAUSE:
For proper soldering flux is to be used. In soldering process, the
Application of flux serves to remove oxides from the surface to be
soldered. They deoxidize the materials at the time the Soldering element
is added. For ordinary soldering zinc chloride is a common flux. Tallow or
olive oil may also be used for soldering flux is also sometimes
incorporated in solder wire itself. In such a case no extra flux is necessary.
Then that wire is called resin cored solder.
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Page:1
P I P I N G:
●PETROLEUM is derived from two latin terms, petra meaning rock and
Oleum means oil. The first extensive commercial exploitation of
petroleum started about 1850. Prior to 1920 most of the gasoline
produced was obtained by the fractional distillation of crude oil. Many
product derived from crude oil by slowly heating it and collecting the
product, this also known as fractional.
DISTILLATION: At the lower temperature gasoline and kerosene are
Obtained while at higher temperature fuel oil, lubricating oil, lubricating
grease and other product are obtain, each with in a fixed range of
temperature.
● ¼ of Saudi land covered with sand (world largest sand desert)
● 250,000 sq miles – shipping dooms
● 1938 first oil discovery
● 1968 crud oil discovered
● shybah to Batha – 400 km road.
● ¾ million barrel /day oil produce
● 300 psi – gass plant pressure
● L.E.L- Low Explosive Limit 19.5-23.5 for confined space-oxygen level
● H2S- Hydrogen Sulphite
● CO- carbon monoxide = 0
● P.P.M – Part Per Million= Toxic
● O2 = oxygen
● Excess oxygen = fire hazards
● Aramco onshore potential construction.
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Designation of Pipes:-
● STD(Standard), XS( Extra Strong ), XXS(Double Extra Strong)
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● Steps involves in plant design:
a) conceptual layout design:-
1) Essential process design requirement such as horizontal /vertical
Relationship of equipment.
2) Space allocation for basic plant requirement.
3) planning for control room , motor control center room etc.
b) Equipment layout:-
P.F.D ( Process Flow Diagram) and P.I.D are required. Information
Regarding solid handling, gravity, gravity feed, loop size, venting
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Requirement, special piping materials etc.
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COMMON PIPING DRAWINGS:
Plans, General Arrangement, Sectional drawing, approved drawing,
Process and Instrument drawing, piping Material Specification, piping
Support standards, Line list, Specification for NDT, specification for
welding
& Specification for pressure testing etc.
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Drawing required for piping layout:-
a) P&I.D
b) Equipment layout.
c) Piping specification.
d) Equipment drawing.
e) Vendor requirement for proprietors equipment.
Notes: using graphite pad under the shoe support to reduce friction.
● Soluble dam is a water soluble material used for restricting the purging
Gas within the pipe.
● The soaking temperature for carbon steel is 620deg.c. ( +or- 20 deg c.)
and the soaking period is 1 hour.
● The rate of heating and cooling for carbon steel material during stress
Relief is 150 deg. c.
● The content of chloride in water for hydro test for C.S is 250 PPM and
For S.S is 30 PPM
● Spanner size = 1.5 x diameter of bolt.
● We provide dampner in piping of reciprocating pump to take care of
pulsation
● We provide full bore valve in pipeline for launcher/Receiver for
pigging.
Cold bending of pipe: up to 2 ½” nominal diameter.
Hot bending of pipe: Above 2 ½” nominal diameter, sand can use.
● If drip leg is not provided in steam line, the condensate which form
Inside the pipe will effect and damage the piping system.
e) Vendor requirement for proprietors equipment.
● checking the ISO metric drawing for:- Bill of material, piping routing,
Support arrangement, details of insulation, hydro test pressure,
painting specs and provision for vent and drains.
● Pipe is identify by Nominal Bore (N.B) and thickness by schedule
Page:3
● Seamless Pipes can sustain high temperature and pressure
● Large bore pipe: above 2” pipe diameter.
Small bore pipe: Below 2” pipe diameter
● Galvanized Steel Piping uses for drinking water line, Instrument air
line, or nitrogen line ( L.P )
● What material of shoe used for supporting Alloy Steel (A.S) pipe:-
If C.S shoe support used then pad in contact with the pipe shall be of
Alloy Steel to avoid dissimilar welding of pipe.
● Sway bracing is used to avoid undesirable movement caused by wind
Loading, rapid valve closure, relief valve opening, two phase flow or
Earth quake.
● Basic difference in pipe specification is because of % of carbon
● Normally pipe rack width is limited to 6.00 mt, arrangement shall be
Done in multiple layers:-
a) Single column rack ‘T’ type.
b) Double column rack with a single tier.
c) Double column rack with a double tier.
● Normally 5 to 6 mts spacing is kept in between the column of pipe rack.
● Desired life cycle for piping in operation is 20 years ( 7000 cycles )
● piping spacing formula:- (D o + Dt )/2+ 25 mm+ thickness of insulation.
Where Do = OD of small size pipe (mm)
Dt = O.D of flange of large size pipe (mm)
● Loop is provided in piping system to adjust thermal expansion.
● Weld o let and Sock o let are basically self reinforced fittings.
● Weld o let is used for Butt weld branch connection where standard tee
Is not available due to size restrictions and the piping is of critical/
High pressure service.
● Sock o let is used for socket welding branch connection, which
Required Reinforcing pad.
● Special purpose Valve – Control and Check with Two-way Isolation
● C.S Bolts should not use on flange above 200 deg. Cal. or below 28 eg.C
● Weld o let and Sock let is self reinforce fitting.
● Carbon steel material shall be used for temperature up to 425 deg C.
● Alloy steel material is used for temperature above 425 deg C.
● Concentric reducer used in pump discharge, vertical pipeline etc.
● For Small Pressure drop, Long Radius Elbow is used.
● For High Pressure drop, Short Radius Elbow is used
● From 14” and above NB = OD of pipe
Page: 4
● Eccentric reducer used in pump suction to avoid cavitations.
● Seamless pipes are used, below 18 “
● Minimum thickness required for C.S pipe for stress relieving is
19.05 mm thick, as per ASME B 31.37
● Upstream of straight length of orifice flow meter is 15 D
Downstream of straight length of orifice flow meter is 5 D
● Different type of hardness tests are:- Brinell Hardness Test,
Rockwell Hardness test and Vicker hardness test.
● Destructive Testing:- Bend test, Tensile test, Impact test, and Hardness
Test.
● Non Destructive Test: DPT, Magnetic Particle Test ( MPT), Radiography
( R. T )and ultrasonic test (U.T)
● Low Alloy Steel:- Total alloy content of less than 5%
● Utility service : water, air and nitrogen services.
● PID:- Project Inspection Department.
● QMIS:- Quality Management Inspection System
● PMT :- Project Management Team
● Caustic Soda:- NaoH
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JACKETED PIPING:
Piping which provides the uniform application of heat to the process, as
Well as maintaining uniform processing temperature where steam
tracing is not capable of maintaining the temperature of fluid constant.
This piping used Sulphur, Polymer service etc.
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PIPING CALCULATIONS:
● If you know O.D. of pipe and want to find its circumference then
Multiply O.D of pipe By 3.14. Example: 6” pipe nominal pipe D=168.3 x
3.14 = 528.5 or 530. Circumference = 530 mm.
● If you know Circumference (C.F) of pipe and want to find O.D of pipe
Then divide the C.F/3.14
Example: (for 3” pipe nominal pipe O.D is 88.90x3.12=280=C.F)
O.D= 280 /3.14 fc = 89.2
● If you know the O.D and thickness of the pipe,
and want to know the I.D of pipe then deduct 2 thickness of the pipe.
I.D = O.D - 2T Example: 2” O.D = 60mm = 60 – 10 = 50 mm = I.D
● Note: To know the Nominal Bore of the pipe.
Page:5
For that multiply the O.D of pipe by 25.4 mm
Example: 24” x 25.4 = 610 mm = Nominal Bore.
● Note: From 14” and above NB = OD of pipe)
● To know the circumference of the pipe then multiply the O.D by 25.4
Example: 24” O.D = 610mm (Nominal pipe size) x 3.14
= 610 x 3.14 = 1915 mm = C.F
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Formulas:-
● Area of Circle = 3.14 x r square
● Area of Cylinder = Diameter x 3.14 x length x areas of two
Bases
● Area of Sphere = 3 x d x 3.14
● Volume of Sphere = 3 x d x 0.5236
● Area of Triangle = 1 ½ h x base
● Area of Right angle Triangle = ½ base x height
● Area of Right angle Triangle = a Sq. /2
● Area of equilateral Triangle = ½ base x height
● Trigonometry = a = Sq. Root of c Sq. – b Sq.
= b = Sq. Root of c Sq. – a Sq.
= c = Sq. Root of a Sq. + b Sq.
Sin Tita = AB/AC
Cos Tita = BC/AC
Tan Tita = AB/BC
AC Sq. = AB Sq. + BC Sq.
Cosec. Tita = AC/AB
Sec. Tita = AC/BC
Cot. Tita = BC/AB

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TYPES OF ELBOWS :
● Long Radius ● Short Radius ● Standard Radius
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To find the radius of long radius elbow, 1 ½ the diameter
Page:6
Of the pipe and multiply by 25.4 mm
Example: for 8” elbow = 8” x 1 ½ = 12”
= 12” x 25.4 mm = 304.8 mm Long Radius
To find the radius of short radius elbow, multiply the Diameter of pipe by
25.4 mm
Example: for 8” elbow = 8” x 25.4 = 203.2 mm Short Radius
To find the radius of Standard elbow, multiply the O.D of pipe by 1.5
into 25.4 mm
Example: For 8” elbow x 1.5 times = 12”
2” x 25.4 mm = 304 mm is standard radius
Note: There is different degree of formula for standard radius elbow.
To find the centre of 10” 90 deg. elbow, then multiply the O.D of
elbow By 38.1mm
Example: 10” x 38.1 mm = 381 mm = centre for 10” 90 deg. elbow.
● To find the centre of 10” elbow for 60 deg. elbow, then multiply
The O.D of elbow by 21.5 mm
Example: 10” x 21.5 = 215 mm
● To find the centre for 45 deg. 6” elbow, then multiply
the O.D. of elbow by 16 mm
Example: 6” x 16 mm = 96mm
● To find the centre of 8” 30 deg elbow, then multiply the
O. D of elbow by 10 mm
Example: 8” x 10 mm = 80 mm
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HOW TO DO MARKING OF NOZZEL ON THE TANK:
Given data:- Tank Circumference 360 deg.
Example: Degree = 60
Height = 1000 mm
Nozzle = 8” pipe
Tank O.D = 2500 mm
Tank C.F = 2500 x 3.14 = 7850 mm
For one degree = C.F / 360 = 7850/360 = 21.80
For 60 degree = 21.80 x 60 degree = 1308 mm
Mark 0 degree on the tank circumference, from there mark 1308 mm on
the circumference of the tank, then mark 1000mm from the bottom of
the tank, the co-incidence of the two marking is the centre of nozzle.

O F F S E T S:
Degree Formula Degree Formula
1 57. 30 22 ½ 2. 613
2 28. 65 25 2. 360
5 19. 11 11 ¼ 10. 187
10 5. 764 30 2. 00
15 3. 864 35 1. 743
20 2. 927 40 1. 556
45 1. 414 65 1. 03
50 1. 221 70 1. 125
60 1. 155 75 1. 035
OFFSET CALCULATION:
Note: To find Travel piece from the offset when the degree is given,
Then multiply the given set with given value for 45 degree
Example:- Given: 45 degree, Set is 400 mm
400 x 1.414 = 565.6 mm = Travel piece
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R U N – S E T – T R A V E L ( FORMULA )
To FIND RUN WHEN SET IS GIVEN: TO FIND TRAVEL WHEN RUN IS
GIVEN:
Degree Formula Degree Formula
60 0. 5773 60 2.000
45 1. 000 45 1.414
30 1. 732 30 1.155
22 ½ 2. 414 22 ½ 1.082
11 ¼ 5. 027 11 ¼ 1.019
5 5/8 10. 158 5 5/8 1.00
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To FIND SET WHEN RUN IS GIVEN: TO FIND SET WHEN TRAVEL IS GIVEN:
Degree Formula Degree Formula
Page : 8
60 1.732 60 0.866
45 1.000 45 0.707
30 0.577 30 0.500
22 ½ 0.414 22 ½ 0.383
11 ¼ 0.198 11 ¼ 0.195
5 5/8 0.098 5 5/8 0.098
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TO FIND RUN WHEN TRAVEL IS GIVEN:
Degree Formula
60 0.500
45 0.707
30 0.866
22 ½ 0.924
11 ¼ 0.980
5 5/8 0.995
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RUN = Set x Formula TRAVEL = Travel x Formula
RUN = Travel x Formula TRAVEL = Run x Formula
SET = Run x Formula SET = Travel x Formula
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Example:- B C = AC Sq. – AB Sq.
= 69 Sq. – 60 Sq.
= 69 x 69 – 60 x 60
= Sq. 4761 – Sq. 3600
= Sq. 1,161
= 34 = BC= 34 mm
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Pag:9
FABRICATING PIPE WITH THE PLATE:
Given: Plate Length = 10 mt.
Plate width = 5 mt.
Plate thickness = 10 mm
To make 10” O.D pipe and Length 5 mt.
Nominal pipe size for 10” pipe is 273.1 x 3.14 = 860 = C.F
Pipe nominal O.D = 273 – thickness of pipe = 273-10=263
263 x C.F = 263 x 3.14 = 825.8 mm
Note: Marked plate shall be 10 deg angle on both side of the plate.
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FABRICATING FLANG from the plate, first know the O.D, I.D, P.C.D, hole
Diameter and number of hole.
OD = 200
ID = 100
PCD = 150
No. of Holes = 8 No.
Hole dia. = 16 mm
Note:- First mark the O.D with the divider, mark the I.D,P.C.D ( ref. chart),
Hole dia and then number of holes.
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FOR FABRICATING FLANGE, USE THIS TABLE:
FLANGE SIZE - ANSI B 16.1
Diamete Flange O.D BOLT - P.C.D BOLT HOLE NUMBER BOLT
r DIAMETER OF HOLES DIAMETER

IN M 150 300 150# 300 150 300 150 300 150 300
M # # # # # # # # #

1 30 190 209 152. 168 19.1 22.4 4 8 16 19.1


¼ 4
4 100 229 254 190. 200 19.1 22.4 8 8 16 19.1
5
6 150 279 317 241. 270 22.2 22.4 8 12 20 19.1
3
8 200 343 381 298. 330 22.2 25.4 8 12 20 22.2
5
10 250 405 444 362 387 25.4 28.5 12 16 24 25.4

12 300 483 521 431. 451 25.4 31.8 12 16 24 28.6


8
14 350 533 584 476. 515 28.6 31.8 12 20 27 28.6
3
26 400 597 648 539. 572 28.6 35.1 16 20 27 31.8
9
20 500 699 775 635. 686 31.8 35.1 20 24 29 31.8
2

24 600 813 915 749. 813 35.1 41.2 20 24 32 38.1


5
Example: For 12 “ Flange:- Hole Pitch = P.C.D X 0.2588 = 451 x 0.2588
121.8 mm/2 = 60.9 Hole pitch.
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Formula:- A = Constant from table for the number of holes required
C=AxD
D = Bolt – hole Circle diameter, E = C/2
CONSTANTS FOR FIGURING BOLT HOLE LOCATION

Number of Bolt Holes Constant A Number of Bolt Holes Constant A

4 0.4071 28 0.1120

8 0.3827 32 0.0980

12 0.2588 36 0.0872

16 0.1951 40 0.0785

20 0.1564 44 0.0785
24 0.1305

To mark the number of holes on the flange: P.C.D x formula =


Distance of each hole.
Example:- 152.4 (flange O.D) x formula= 152.4x0.3827=58.5 mm
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CONCENTRIC REDUCER
Note:- A = C.F of Large Pipe Divided by NO: of Arms
B = C.F of Small Pipe Divided by NO: of Arms
C = (Depth of Cut)= O.D – o d x 1.5
Note:- Burn Out Section between Arms (Shaded Portion)
Provide Radial Cut and then Bevel Arms
Heat through Base Line and Bend Arms Uniformly
Give a good round shape at Small End
Standard Table:
Size in Inches Number of Arms Size in Inches Number of Arms

2x1“ 5 6 x 3” 5

21” X 2 x 11/4” 5 6 x 2” 6

3” X 2” 5 6 x 11/2” 6

3” x 11/4” 5 8 x 6” 6

3 1 / 2x 11/4” 5 8 x 5” 6

3 x 1” 5 8 x 4” 6

31 / 2 x11 / 4” 5 8 x 31/2” 6

4 X 3” 5 8 x 3” 7

4 X 2” 5 8 x 21/2” 8

4 x 1” 5 8 x 2” 8

5 X 4” 5 10 x 8” 7
5 X 3” 5 10 x 6” 7

5 X 2” 5 10 x 5” 7

5 X 1” 5 10 x 4” 8

6 X 5” 5 10 x 31/2” 9

6x4“ 5 10 x 3” 10

6 x 31/2” 5 10 x 21/2” 11

12 x 10” 8

12 x 8” 10

12 x 6” 10

12 x 5” 10

12 x 4” 11

12 x 31/2” 12

12 x 3” 12

Example:- Calculate A,B and C for 12 x 8” Concentric Reducer.


A = C.F of Large pipe Divided by Number of Arms
= 1018/10 = 102 mm
B = C.F of Small pipe Divided by Number of Arms
= 688/8 = 69 mm
C = Dia Difference into 1.5
= (324-220 x 1.5 = 104 x 1.5 = 135 mm
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Example:- 8” Pipe CF = 630
6” Pipe C.F = 470
69 0 – 470 = 160
Number of Cut back = 6
160/6 = 27 mm
Depth of Cut = 1.5 x big diameter
= 1.5x 200 (nominal diameter of 8” Pipe) = 300 mm
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LATERAL TEE
There is two (2) Cut Back in Lateral Tee
Degree A Cut ( Long Radius ) B Cut ( Short Radius )

11 ½ Deg. 5.0774 0.0493

15 ½ Deg 3.7985 0.6582

22 ½ Deg 2.5138 0.9785

30 Deg 1.866 0.13397

45 Deg 1.2071 0.2078

60 Deg 0.866 0.28867

“A” Cut = OD x Formula


“B” Cut = OD x Formula
Example:- 6” Pipe OD = 168 (45 Deg)
A Cut = 168 x 1.2071 = 202.7
B Cut = 168 x 0.2078 = 34.9
Method of marking :- Mark 4 center lines on branch pipe, mark 203 mm
From the top centre line to the adjacent centre line and join the marking,
Mark 35 mm from the opposite centre line for “B” cut and joint with the
two centre line, and cut with the grinder
Mark four (4) centre line on header pipe and keep the branch pipe on the
Header and mark then grind the marking to cut 45 deg.
Bracing:- is given for any branch line before welding, because not change
the branch lines position or degree even after welding.
The bracing can be of Pipe, Angle, Channel or beam.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
‘Y’ B R A N C H
Note:- All three pipe diameter is of same O.D for “Y” branch line
Mark both branch line to 45 deg. from the centre line of the bottom pipe
Method of marking:-
Mark four (4) centre lines on the top of the pipe
Example:- 10” pipe O.D = 273
A Cut = 273 x 0.500 = 136.5
B Cut = 273 x 0.2071 = 56.5
Degree A Cut B Cut

7 ½ Deg. 3.7981 0.0328

11 ½ Deg 2.5138 0.04925

15 Deg 1.866 0.06698

22 ½ Deg. 1.2071 0.0

30 Deg 0.866 0.13397

45 Deg 0.500 0.2071

60 Deg 0.28869 0.28867

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BEND
Note:- Find Cut back and Middle piece from the formula given above
Formula: -
1) C. F x Degree = Cut Cut x 6 = Middle piece
360 x Cut x 2
2) Number of Deg of Turn = Factor
Number of Cut x 2

3) OD of Pipe x Factor for angle of Cut = Cut


Radius x 2x Factor = Middle Piece
Example:- C.F x Degree = Cut x 6 = Middle piece
360 x Cut x 2
360 x 90 Deg = 11.25 = Cut
360 x 4 x 2
11.25 x 6 = 68 = middle piece
Side piece = 68/2 = 34 = End piece
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example:- Elbow = 90 Deg. O.D = 47mm, No: of Cut = 3
Formula :- 3.14 x D x Deg.
2x 360x No: of Cut
= 47x3.14x90 Deg. = 6 mm = Cut Back
2x360x3
Middle Cut = Cut Back x6
6x6 = 36 mm
Length of pipe =
Middle Piece/2+Middle Piece +Middle Piece +Middle Piece/2
= 35/2 + 35 + 35+ 35/2 = 105 mm = Length of pipe.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TEE 90 DEGREE
Formula :- d x d
4xD
Example:- 200 x 200 = 33 mm = Depth of branch pipe for 90 Deg.
4 x 300
( 300 = Header, 200 = Branch Pipe )
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page:1

LEAK TEST PREPARATION:


● Installation of blind flanges on all vents and drains,
● Check diameter, length, material of all studs, nuts, gasket and flange
● Drilling of 3/8” weep hole if required.
● Check all utilities hoses station with proper fitting & material
● All valves are easily approach able and operable
● check all stud bolt and nut properly tighten entire flanges
● Compressor suction line is provided with low point drain
● All valve traps are installed correctly and vents are provided with
● All flanges are of proper size, rating, and Properly aligned and gap
between the flanges is uniformed around
● All globes and check valves direction correct as per indicated
● Check all valves provided with proper support.
● Check proper type of spectacle blinds is installed on the proper side of
Valve.
● Check all valves are provided with suitable hand wheel and hand lever
Are operating gears.
● Check all jack bolts are installed
● All valves are installed correctly, globe valve for globe valve and gate
Valve for gate valve.
● All tapping of gas, steam, air and vapor lines are taken on the top of the
Line header
● All high point and low point are provided with suitable vents and drains
respectively.
● Surround areas is clean
● The suction and discharge line provided with suitable drain
● All proper supports are installed at all support location with proper
guides, all temporary support removed by grinding and it is free to slide
● All anchor supports are welded properly
● All spring support are in lock position
● The drain valve is minimum 50 mm above ground level
● Check all valves for free operation
● Shoe support height is sufficient for insulation

Page:2
● The steam line are provided with steam trap at all expansion loop
● All the threaded plug are seal welded in high pressure steam lines.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P I P E F L U S H I N G.
Flushing of all line should be done before pressure testing, it can be done
Fresh potable water or dry compressed air. The required pressure for
50 psi. The pressure shall be release quickly by opening a valve. The
Procedure shall be repeated till the pipe is fully cleaned. There shall be no
Interference of any type of valves like instrument valve, control valve
orifice plates, safety valve and strainers etc.
● Before doing flushing remove these valves:- control valve, orifice
plates, rota meter, safety valves, thermo wells and replace with
temporary spools
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HYDROSTATIC TEST.
Water use for hydro test. The test pressure is 1.5 times the design
pressure.
Keep all vents and drain open while filling water for removal of air.
Pressure shall be applied by test pump. A pressure gauge shall be
provide at the discharge of the pump.
● High point vent provide for removing air for hydro test.
Low point drain provide for removing water for hydro test.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PNEUMATIC TEST.
Gas shall be used which is non toxic and non-flammable. The test
Pressure. For pneumatic leak test is 110% of the design pressure, the
pressure shall gradually increase to 50% of the test pressure. Pressure
shall be applied by means of potable type compressor with receiver, pipe
joint shall be tested by means of soap and water solution. A pressure
relief valve shall Provided for safety
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HOLIDAY TEST
Is used to detect the pin holes in the coating and wrapping of the pipeline
(underground).
===============================================================
CHEMICAL CLEANING.
Cleaning by pickling and passivating, rinsing after pickling with Alkenes
chemical.
Page:1
F L A N G E S:
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLANGES.
Slip On, Weld Neck, Blind, Reducing, Screwed etc.
ORIFICE FLANGE:
An Orifice plate is a flat disc with a precisely made hole at its center, it
obstruct to flow when inserted in a line. By resistance of the flow by
either side, we can measure the difference in flow rate of fluid. The
orifice plate held between special flanges having tap hole made in flange
rims by that tubing and a pressure gauge will be connected, it is called
monometer.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
RATING OF FLANGES.
150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500# and 2500#
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● FLANGES ARE CLASSIFIED BASED ON PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND
RATING.
● FLANGES ARE ALSO CLASSIFIED ON RAISED FACE, TONGUE AND GROVE
MALE OR FEMALE AND RING TYPE JOINT.
● FLANGES ARE ALSO CLASSIFIED BASED ON PIPE ATTACHMENT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● SLIP ON : welding done inside as well as outside.
● SOCKET WELD : welding done on one side only. This used for small
bore only.
● SCREWED : This used where welding cannot be carried out.
● LAP JOINT : welding done on stub ends. The stub end welded with
Pipes and flanges are kept loose over the same.
● WELD NECK: This is butt welding to the pipe. This joint used for
Critical service or Radiographic Test.
● BLIND / This use to close which need to reopen.
REDUCING: This flange used to connect large end and small end
With out using reducer
● INTEGRAL : These flanges are cast with the pipe or equipment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● Special purpose Valve – Control and Check with Two-way Isolation
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Page:2

FLANGES ARE CALSSIFIED BASED ON FACE FINISH


● SMOTH FINISH : Metallic gasket used for this type of Flange
● SERRATED FINISH : This flange for non-metallic gasket.
● Concentric Serrated used where the fluid being carried has low
Density and can find leakage path through cavity.
● Serrated Flange is specified by number, which is the Arithmetic
Average Rough Height (AARH).
● M. O. C : Material Of Construction:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FABRICATION OF FLANGES:
For making flange from the plate first know the O.D, I.D, P.C.D, hole
Diameter and number of hole.
OD = 200
ID = 100
PCD = 150
No. of Holes = 8 No. Hole dia. = 16 mm
FLANGE SIZE - ANSI B 16.1
Diamete Flange O.D BOLT - P.C.D BOLT HOLE NUMBER BOLT
r DIAMETER OF HOLES DIAMETER

IN M 150 300 150# 300 150 300 150 300 150 300
M # # # # # # # # #

3 30 190 209 152. 168 19.1 22.4 4 8 16 19.1


4
4 100 229 254 190. 200 19.1 22.4 8 8 16 19.1
5
6 150 279 317 241. 270 22.2 22.4 8 12 20 19.1
3
8 200 343 381 298. 330 22.2 25.4 8 12 20 22.2
5
10 250 405 444 362 387 25.4 28.5 12 16 24 25.4

12 300 483 521 431. 451 25.4 31.8 12 16 24 28.6


8
14 350 533 584 476. 515 28.6 31.8 12 20 27 28.6
3
26 400 597 648 539. 572 28.6 35.1 16 20 27 31.8
9
20 500 699 775 635. 686 31.8 35.1 20 24 29 31.8
2
24 600 813 915 749. 813 35.1 41.2 20 24 32 38.1
5
Example: For 12 “ Flange, Hole Pitch = P.C.D X 0.2588 = 451 x 0.2588 =
121.8 mm/2 = 60.9 Hole pitch.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page:1

G A S K E T S:
GASKET BASED ON CONSTRUCTION :
● SPIRAL WOUND, FULL FACE, RING TYPE, METAL JAKETED, INSIDE BOLT
CIRCLE Bolt etc.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● COMMONLY USED GASKET IS : COMPRESSED ASBESTOS FIBER GASKET.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE : SPIRAL WOUND METALIC
GASKET USED.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● THE USE OF SPIRAL WOUND GASKET ONLY ON WELD NECK AND LAP
JOINT FLANGES.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MATERIAL USED FOR MAKING SPIRAL WOUND GASKET :
Austenitic Stainless Steel 304, 316 and 321 with Asbestos Filler.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● Spiral wound gasket is provided with carbon steel external ring called
Centering ring
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Butt Weld Joint: End to End welding with V groove.
Socket Weld: Put one part over the other then weld.
Fillet Weld: welding on slip on flange or saddle or shoe.
Threaded Joint: For Pressure Gauge connection, drain, Vent or cap.
Flange Joint: 4 types of flange joints:-
1) Weld Neck Flange:- welding End to End.
2) Slip on Flange:- Double Ended welding
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Page: 1
VALVES:
VALVES ARE CLASSIFIED BASED ON THEIR FUNCTION:
A. ISOLATION VALVES ARE:
Gate valve, Ball valve, Plug valve, Piston valve, Diaphragm valve,
Butterfly valve, Pinch valve.
B. REGULATION VLAVE:
Globe valve, Needle valve, Butterfly valve, Diaphragm valve,
Piston valve.
C. Non Return valve:
Check valve.
D. SPECIAL PURPOSE VALVE:
Multi port valve, Flush Bottom valve, Float valve, Foot valve, Line blind
Valve, Gate valve.
● VALVES ARE CLASSIFIED BASED ON ITS METHOD OF PERATION:
A. SELF OPERATED VALVES: Check valves are self operated
valves
B. OPERATED VALVES: Other than self operated valves are
Operated valves.
● There are Two Types of Check Valves:
A. Lift check valve.
B. Swing check valve.
● Glandless piston valves are regulating valves used in steam Service.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SOLONIDE VALVE :
Is an electromagnet shut off valve and closed it when the supply off.
It serves a plurality applications, where it is desired to open and close
A pipe line electrically by an impulse from a thermostat, a pressure
Control or similar device
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Page: 1
ROTATING EQUIPMENT:
Rotating Equipment is the general classification of Mechanical
Components that add Kinetic Energy to Process in order to move
Material, this can include Turbine, Gearboxes, Engines, Compressor etc.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● In compressor Bush Bearing are provided,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
●Rotating Equipment is Distinguish by Circular movement.
●Rotating Equipment Driven by Motors
1) Driver 2) Connector 3) Equipment (Driven)
Driver provides Rotation Energy to Driven Equipment, example-
Electric Motor.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Types of Bearing:-
Ball, Bush, Tapper, Roller, Needle and Trust Bearing etc.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TURBINE IS ELECTRIC PRODUCT SYSTEM.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DIFFERENT TYPES OF TURBINES: WATER, GAS AND STEAM.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In Turbine there are 7 Bearings, 3 Coupling and one Impeller.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Component of Centrifugal Pump:-
Rotating component: Impeller and Shaft.
Stationary component: Casing, Casing cover and bearing.
Flange, coupling, oil guard etc.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
There are Two Types of Casing:-
1) Volute and Circular,
2) The Impellers are Fitted inside the Casing.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BASICALLY THERE ARE TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF PUMP:
a) Centrifugal Pump.
b) Positive Displacement Pump.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2) Different types of Centrifugal Pumps are:
a) Single Stage or
b) Multi Stage
page:2
3) Difference between Single Stage and Multi Stage Centrifugal Pump:-
The Single Stage Pump has One Impeller and the discharge of one
Impeller is the Suction of the Next One and the head developed in all

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS BASED ON SUCTION AND DISCHARGE:
a) End Suction Top Discharge
b) Top Suction Top Discharge
c) Side Suction Side Discharge
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
WORKIG OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP:
Its purpose is to Convert Energy to Velocity or Kinetic Energy and then
In to Pressure Energy, the Energy changes by virtue of Two Parts of
Pump, the Impeller and the Diffuser, the impeller is the rotating part
That converts driven energy, the volute is the stationary part that
Converts the Energy into Pressure Energy.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
How Force generated in the centrifugal pump:
When the liquid enters the suction nozzle and then into eye (centre) of
Revolving device known as Impeller. When the impeller rotates, it spines
The liquid sitting in the cavities between the vanes outwards and provide
Centrifugal acceleration. As the liquid leaves the eye of the impeller a
Low Pressure area is created causing more liquid to flow towards the
inlet. Because the impeller blades are curved, the fluid is pushed in a
tangential and radial direction by centrifugal force.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
How kinetic energy converted to pressure energy:-
The energy created by centrifugal force is kinetic energy. The amount of
Energy given to the liquid is proportional to the velocity at the edge or
Vane tip of the impeller. The fast the impeller rotates or the bigger the
Impeller is then higher will be the velocity of liquid at the vane tip and
the greater the energy imparted to the liquid. This kinetic energy of the
liquid coming out of an impeller is harness by creating a resistance to
flow. The first resistance is created by the pump volute (casing) that catch
the liquid and slow it down. In the discharge nozzle, the liquid further
decelerates and its velocity is converted to pressure according to
Bernoullis principle.Therefore the head (pressure in terms of the height
of liquid) developed is approximately equal to the velocity energy at the
page: 3
periphery of the impeller expressed by the following formula as:-
H=Vsq./2 g. where, H = total head developed in feet
V = velocity at the periphery of impeller in ft/sec.
G = Acceleration due to gravity-32.2 ft/sec.sq.
Formula for calculating pheripheral velocity:
V = NXD/229 where, V = peripheral velocity in impeller in ft/sec.
N =The impeller RPM
D = Impellar diameter in inches.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cavitations in pump:-
The impeller rapidly build up the pressure, which collapses vapors
Bubbles causing cavitations and damage the pump internals. Cavitations
Implies cavitations or holes in the fluid we are pumping. These holes can
also be describe as bubbles. So cavitations is really about the formation
of bubbles and their collapse. Bubbles from therever liquid boils.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NPSHa: - Net Positive Suction Head Available is a function of the system
In which the pump operates.
NPSHr: - Net Positive Suction Head Required.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Care shall be taken while doing layout for pump piping:
1) Normally reducer in pump discharge shall be Concentric type.
Eccentric reducer may be used in both suction and discharge piping or
top suction/top discharge pump in order to obtain clearance between
suction and discharge piping.
2) There shall be 1 meter spacing between pump and any potential
Obstructions.
3) The pump shall be kept in such a manner that the suction elevation
Is always below the tank nozzle and suction piping shall be routed
To prevent any pockets in the line,
4) pump location effects the piping rout and the support.
5) pump shall be located close to suction to minimize pressure drop.
ALIGNMENT OF ROTATING EQUIPMENT.
1) Geometric Misalignment
2) Reverse Peripheral Alignment
3) Laser Alignment
4) Preconditions for Alignment.

Page:4
Different types of misalignment are: -
a) Parallel or Radial misalignment:
The centerline of two shafts is parallel but do not lie on the
Same line. It is called offset misalignment.
b) Angular or Axial misalignment:
condition which describe the angularity between the centerline
of the two shafts. It can be corrected by rotating a shaft about
the centre of thee coupling face.
c) Combined angular and parallel misalignment:
It occurs when the centerline of the two shafts is not laying
Along the common centerline and the one coupling face is not
Parallel to other coupling face in any of the plane, horizontal
or vertical. It is combination of above two.
Note: soft foot tolerance = 0.05 mm
Shaft tolerance = 0.02 mm
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Alignment Techniques: -
a) Straight edge and feeler gauge method
b) straight alignment using dial indicator:
1) face – rim method.
2) two indicator method.
3) three indicator method.
4) Reverse indicator method.
nb 5) Face to face distance method.
c) Lazar alignment method.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
REVERSE PERIPHER ALIGNMENT.
1) Set the Alignment clamps such that the dial gauge read the Rims of
The Coupling.
2) Always keep the pump dial gauge at the top and the motor dial gauge
at The bottom position.
3) Adjust both dial gauge to zero.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP:-
1) Impeller
2) All pumps are shock tested
3) Bearing should be fully lubricated
4) Shaft should be rotated 10 to 15 times.
Page:5
5) Pump should be located as close as possible to the liquid supply,
The Suction line shall be short and direct.
==============================================================
Page: 1
STATIC EQUIPMENT:
Are Stationary Equipment which are Non-Moving, example, Heat -
Exchangers, Steam Vessels, Furnace, Distilling Coolum’s and pipe
systems, Cooling Towers, Boilers, Fin Fan (for Oil Cooling) etc.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATIC EQUIPMENT TOOLS:
a) Measuring Tape b) Dial gauge c) Filler gauge d) Steel Rule e) Inside
caliper f) shims (0.3-3.0)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TUBES ARE USED FOR:
Heat Exchangers, Instrument Lines, Boilers and Refrigerators.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Shell and tube exchanger manufactures according to the design of TEMA
( tubular exchanger manufacturers association)
Anchor support for heat exchanger is provided on the side from which
Tube bundle will be pulled out for the purpose of maintenance.
Generally corrosive fluid is used from tube side and clean fluid is used
From shell side.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DESIGNE PRESSURE FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS : 100 TO 300 P.S.I
1 P.S.I = 0.068 Bar, 1 Bar = 14.50 P.S.I
TOLLS FOR VESSEL ALIGNMENT:- Plumb, Water level and Theodolit etc.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HEAT EXCHANGERS:
A heat Exchanger is Device used to Transfer Heat between One or more
Fluid may be Separated by a Solid Wall to Prevent Mixing or they my be
Direct Contact.
● Tube identify by O.D and thickness by B.W.G (Birmingham Wire Gauge
Or 1/100
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HEAT EXCHANGERS ARE CLASSIFIED:
a) Shell and Tube b) Plate c) Spiral d) Air Cooled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Heat Exchangers Finned Tubes Material:
Seamless and Welded Tubes:-
a) Carbon Steel b) Stainless Steel c) Alloy Steel d) Nickel Alloy
e) Ferrous Alloy f) Non- Ferrous Alloys g) Titanium
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page:2
TUBING SIZE:
Straight or ‘U’ Bend are from 3/8” To 1”
_______________________________________________________________
PARTS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS.
a) Shell b) Tube c) Tube Sheet d) Baffle e) Tie – Rods f) Spacers
g) Pass-Partitions and h) Channels.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PARTS OF REMOVABLE U TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS.
a) Shell b) Shell Cover c) Shell Flange d) Shell Nozzle or
Branch
e) Channel f) Channel Cover g) Tie Rod and Spacer h) Pass Partition
i) Drain Connection j) Instrument Connection k) Expansion Bellows
l) Support Saddles m) Lifting Lugs n) Liquid Level Connection
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TUBE LENGTHS ARE: 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 feet.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
● Long Tube reduces Shell Diameter.
● Finned Tubes are also used when Fluid with Low Heat Transfer Co-
Efficient Flow in the Shell Side.
● Shall and Tube heat exchanger use for high pressure application with
Pressure greater than 30 bar and temperature greater than 26 deg.C.
● Tube pitch shall not be less than 1.25 times the outside diameter of
tube.
● There are four types of tube layout 1) triangular (30 dreg) 2) rotated
Triangular (60 dreg) 3) square (90deg) 4) rotated square (45 deg)
● Baffle run perpendicularly to the shell and hold the bundle, it can
prevent the tube from vibrating.
● The baffle be spaced no closer than 20% of the shells inner diameter.
● Plate heat exchangers used in HVAC (heat ventilation and air condition)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PARTS OF PRESSURE VESSEL:
1) Dish End: a) Blank Diameter b) Petal Size c) Nominal Thickness
2) Types: a) Spherical b) Conical c) Elliptical d) Tore Spherical.
3) Shell: a) TL to TL b) WL to WL c) Straight Face
4) Nozzle: a) Forged b) Fabricated
5) Tray Support Rings, Bolting Bars, Down-Comer
6) Nozzle Reinforcement pads
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Page:3
7) External Attachments : -
a) Ladder, Pipe Cleats
8) Lugs:- a) Earthing b) Lifting c) Tailing
9) Saddle Support / Skirt Support
10) Pipe or Man way Davit
11) Ladder Rungs
12) Internals:-
a) Demister b) Vortex Breaker c) Deflector etc.
13) Name Plate and ASME Stamps
==============================================================
● Internal Design Pressure: is used when the internal pressure is
greater than the external pressure.(Pi >Pe)
● The term external design pressure: is used when the internal pressure
Is less than external pressure.
● The service of a vessel: Hydrocarbon, hydrogen, caustic, amine,
wet sour, steam or utility and whether the service is cyclic and or
lethal shall be as specified on the data sheet.
● ASME dished flat head and ASME tori spherical head shall not be used
For other than air and water services with a design pressure of 690 kpa
(100 psi)
● Wall thickness of pressure vessel ( shell, head, nozzle etc) grater than
50 mm.
● Dimester pad:- Screen.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Page:1

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM:-


N F P A : - ( National Fire Protection Agency)
Such as Sprinkler, Standpipe, Foam water, water spray and water mist. A
Fire Pump installation provides for the required water flow and pressure
for the Fire protection system. Without a properly designed and installed
fire pump. The fire protection system cannot be expected to meet its
objectives. Fire pumps, whether centrifugal or positive displacement,
only fire pump can be used for fire protection. Pumps to be installed by a
testing laboratory over all installation of pump like pump make, model
and size, water supply, suction piping, pump driver, controller and
pressure maintenance pump
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FIRE PUMP ROOM.
Pump room and separate pump house containing fire pump equipment.
Pump house need to be located at least 50 ft from the building.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SUCTION PUMP.
Nominal size of the suction pipe based on the capacity of the fire pump.
Prescribed pipe size are based on a maximum flow velocity of 25 ft/sec.
Of the pumps rated capacity. (OS&Y) outside stem and yoke valve can be
Installed in the suction piping and OS&Y gate valves, check valves,
Backflow. In suction piping. Where a check valve or backflow prevention
device is required upstream of fire pump suction.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FIRE PIPING CONSIST OF:
1) Distribution piping to the outlets on a sprinkler or spray system
2) hose standpipes 3) piping to elevated tank, 4)special extinguishing
System such as foam or carbon dioxide.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FIRE PUMP.
For fire service a centrifugal pump should have total suction lift not
Exceeding 15 ft when operating at 15% of rated capacity.
===============================================================

Page: 1
HVAC piping encompasses many different fluids, pressures, and
Temperatures. This piping can be located above or below ground and
Routed through the interior or exterior of a building. The term “hydronic”
refers to the use of water as a heat transfer medium for cooling and
heating. Hydronic chilled and heating water are the dominant system
used to condition large commercial facilities. Hydronic systems (both
chilled and heating water) are close loop system. A 150 psig (pounds per
square inch gauge) working pressure rating for chillers, boilers, pumps,
piping, and accessories common for equipment and component
manufacturers.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FREON 12 ( DICHLORO-DIFFURO-METHEME ) :
It is most common refrigerant in use at present. It is used mostly in
Domestic and commercial refrigeration and air conditioning units for
Refrigerators, frozen food cabinets, ice cream cabinet.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Condenser is a part of mechanical refrigeration system in which
Refrigerant vapor is changed to a liquid by removal of the heat.
===============================================================
Page: 1

BOILER is steam generator. It is close pressure vessel in to which water


can be fed and evaporated into steam continuously. The heat can be
given to the water through flue tubes which are surrounded by water
within shell.
In boiler there are two lines:- a) fire lines and b) water line.
●Tube is smaller and up to 150 mm, above 150mm is called flue.
Boilers are classified with respect to service:-
a) Stationary boiler,
b) locomotive boiler,
c) marine boiler.
Boiler are classified with construction:-
Fire tube boiler: in which the flue passes through the tube which is
Surrounded by water.
Water tube boiler: Heat flows on the outside of the tubes.
Compare fire tube boiler and water tube boiler:-
a) In water tube boiler the water circulates through the tube where as
In fire tube boiler the flue travels through the tubes.
b) The water tube boiler holds a smaller quantity of water, so steam can
be raised rapidly.
c) The water tube boiler occupies a smaller floor area than a fire tube
boiler.
d) the water tube boiler can be transported easily than a fire tube boiler.
e) water tube boilers are safe because the bulk of water is in small units.
In case a tube ruptures it does not damage the fire pit.
f) all parts of the water tube boilers are easily accessible for cleaning,
inspection and repairs.
g) water tube boilers can carry much greater over loads in comparison
to the fire tube boilers, due to large heating surface and rapid water
circulation.
h) water tube boilers can be made in large capacities and pressures where
it is very difficult with fire tube boilers.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Marine water tube boilers:
These are used on war ships, ocean going liners and tugs.
Portable boilers:
In these boilers all the parts are light weight and none of the part is more
Than 128 kg. it can be transported easily.
Page: 2
Power station boilers: -
These are manufactured to give an evaporation of over 1,000,000 lbs
Of water per hour and working pressure 1500 lbs per sq. inch. In these
Boilers riveted drum are not used, seamless forged steel drum are used.
The diameter of water tube is comparatively reduced.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SULPHER is harmful because it has corrosive action on iron and steel.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NATURAL GAS:
It found near oil wells, it rises from a dept of 152 to 614, it is used more
Widely than other gas. It is transported from the oil field through pipe
line. It is odorless and colorless. It consist of mainly methane CH1.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LIQUIFIED PETROLIUM GAS :
During processing of petroleum lot of quantities of propane and butane
gas are produced. These gases can be liquefied at normal temperature at
a moderate pressure, these are bottled in liquid state. It can use of
domestic purpose also for bus, truck and tractors etc.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
●Stress: External force on the metal or body.
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Page: 1
SHUT DOWN
The success of shutdown is directly proportional to the amount of
attention Paid to detail, assume nothing, double check everything,
communicate.
ENGINEERING PLANNING:
● Flag tie in number on P&IDs, isometric, single lines and other design
Documents. (This is only exercise)
● Maintain a tracking system to monitor engineering progress for tie in
activities
● Identify areas where hot taps are required, acceptable to client.
● Identify installations that may have to be temporarily removed for
Access reason.
● Classification of tie ins based on ability to perform work , those
required complete plant shut down or partial shutdowns , system
shutdown etc.
● Identify take off and procure all material required for shutdown
Separately.
● The exact location of all piping tie ins, electrical tie ins, exiting junction
Boxes, TBs, TBXs, PLCs etc.
● Prior to shut down, audit existing JBs, ITBs, TBXs, PLCs, etc to ensure
that termination points reserved for the project are still available.
● Ensure that the plant can provide uninterrupted utility supplies for
eight packs, plasma arcs, internal lights, test pumps, air tools, PWHT
machine etc.
● Bring operations, maintenance, plant services, and any other client
group involved in plant operation as well as construction personnel
into the design effort early in the planning and execution of
engineering work
● Identify blind size, thickness, location, line number and expected
Deposition.
● Determine shutdown and startup sequence from client to aid in
planning and Scheduling.
● work with client operations department to identify lines, blinding
points and tie in point, valve orientations, and areas in which hot work
will or will not be permitted.
● work with client engineering and maintenance departments to
Identify cut points, valve service and staging areas as well as
instrument staging and storage areas.
Page:2
MATERIAL PLANNING:
● Make a dimensional check of all fabricated pipe to be installed.
● Make field dimensional check where all pipe is to be installed.
● Do a complete 100% verification of the isometric bills of material,
Identify and order any shortage.
● check quality of fabrication of all spools to be installed (i.e., correct
flanges, flange finish, Vent and drain connections, instrument
connections, line size, metallurgy, wall thickness etc.)
● Bag and tag or palletize all materials required. identify material bags by
Isometric, tie in number or line number.
● store material bags in a secure location with restricted access.
● Keep a supply of spare gaskets and bolts on hand.
● Identify all the instrument installation details.
● for modification of electric equipment, have vendors assist.
● make an early identification of materials required by insulation and
Other subcontractors.
● Determine if any pipe is to be hydro tested during shutdown. Review
the rework and test boundaries with the client. Determine where it
makes sense to perform NDE ( PT or RT of welds) in lie of hydro testing.
Order required blinds, gaskets, hydro vents and drain material. Bag and
tag all testing materials Ensure material requirement for test blind
gasket. Bull or pipe plugs will be required after vents, drains, and
gauges have been removed
● perform any material certification that require by the specification
● keep a logbook by work order ( or tie in) number with reference to
spool,
ISO, or equipment ID number for all items use the logbook to issue
materials and to record the name of the individual withdrawing the
bag.
● make sure that instruments and pressure safety valves (PSVs) required
have been pre-calibrated and tested, smart transmitters have been
initialized and test gauge calibrated and labeled.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PLANNING AND SCHEDULLING :
● A well planned and scheduled job will put men, tools, and material
Together at a jobsite to begin on time and continue work until it is
Successfully completed on schedule and budget.

Page:3
● Clearly define the scope of work to be executed prior to, during and
shutdown. Use P&IDs, isometrics, and single lines to define (color code)
the work. Set up a database to track stage work packages.
● In cooperation with field engineering, prepare work package folders for
every tie in or work operation. These folders should contain all the
information required to plan, execute, track progress, and document
completion of the work. The following information should be the part
of the folder.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DESIGNE INFORMATION:
Copies of applicable isometric, P&IDs, pipe support details, instrument
Installation details, instrument data sheets, loop elementary and wiring
Diagrams, loop sell off form, spring hanger data sheet, vendor prints, etc.
TEST DATA:
Copies of weld travelers, hydro test sheets, and instrument calibration
Forms. Man hour estimates, duration, sequence, crew sizes and
composition, tool requirements, construction equipment requirement,
welding machines, scaffolding and safety precautions ( respirators, suits,
venting, sniffing, fire watch ). For complex operations, prepare a detailed
written plan outlining step by step sequence of work execution (include
safety aspects)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DOCUMENTATION:
Each folder should have a standard checklist form to define the scope of
The package and to track by means of signoffs that all the work has been
performed. The following work items need to be tracked: insulation, x
raying, Painting, tracing, instrument calibration, cleanliness, bolt torque,
loop checking, piping testing etc.
Minimize the amount of work to be executed during the shutdown by
Maximizing pre shutdown work including:
● hydro test spools ahead of shutdown, combine piping system to reduce
the total number of hydro test packages.
● pre hang or position installations in the immediate area.
● Assign men material, rolling stock, and large tools to each job. This will
Prevent men from having to wait on machines and materials.
● Install control system (stands, valves conduit, wires, transmitters) as
much as allowed. Perform continuity checks and function checks if
possible
page:4
● pre insulation of pipe (may have leave flanges un insulated until startup
In case of leaks) perform continuity checks and function for startup.
● Do as much welding as possible ahead of the shutdown.
● Walk down each tie in package or work operation. Walk down may
Required to achieve the following:-
● Prepare estimates of required resources.
● Familiarization with scope of work.
● Define sequence of work operations.
● Obtain approval from operation for pre shutdown activities (setup
Scaffolding before start of shutdown, remove insulation before shut-
Down, temporary installations or marshaling of materials near or close
to permanent location, and safety requirements)
● Obtain the anticipated sequence of plant shutdown and startup from
operations. Determine when each section of the plant will be ready for
Work and window of availability.
● Plan to do all hydro test ahead of shutdown (prior to installation). X ray
In lieu of hydro testing during shutdown .
● Develop a complete scope of NDE required during the shutdown, and
schedule a sufficient number of windows for x raying, coordinate x ray
well as for safety.
● Identify utility pipe outage windows. Most plants maintain steam
service for clean up and firefighting utilities are needed for testing.
● Planners should ensure materials, tool, and permits are prepared for
The next shift.
● Hold detailed reviews of the scope of shutdown work with all parties
Involved (engineering, construction, procurement, client, operations,
maintenance, safety, and subcontractors) these reviews should include
going over P&IDs, Isometrics, control loops, execution plans, and
Schedules in detail, item by item, blow by blow. there will be no time
to clear up misunderstandings during the shutdown.
● In conjunction with supervision and field engineering, prepare detailed
Manpower requirement curves by craft and specially ( i.e., fitters,
welders, millwrights, riggers, instrument fitter, terminators, wiremen,
Etc) compare these to available manpower. Make these needs known
all groups.
● The planning cycle should start at least six months ahead of a major
Shutdown. The planning cycle should start when scope is fully defined,
But no later than four months ahead of a major shutdown. This is to
Page:5
Allow enough time to purchase and deliver materials etc.
● Attempt to make all planning decisions on day shifts. Have a detailed
Turnover, and allow nights to post good numbers. The night shift can
critique and explain plan variations and the day shift can take
corrective action.
● Starting times for each shift should be timed to eliminate delay in
obtaining hot work permits. If all group (i.e., contractor and clients
other contractors) start at the same time, the issuance of permits could
be delayed.
● Attach copies of weld travelers to pipe, inside plastic bag, taped to pipe
● Get input from client as to when they can release areas of work or
Individual lines or equipment. Ensure that the release includes flushing,
gas freeing, etc. These releases should be dates when construction can
actually start work.
● Prepare a responsibility matrix clearly assigning responsibilities for
major tasks (inspection, loop checking, purging, breaking flanges etc.)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
QUALITY CONTROL scheduling include the following:
● During pre shutdown or as early as possible read wall thickness for hot
Taps also read wall thickness for tie in points to ensure minimum wall
readings
● Determine and / or verify hydro test pressures for pipe and valves.
Full API standards or operating factors.
New pipe test pressures may vary from existing to new pipe tie ins.
● Follow chart sign off procedures. Determine whether client or third
Party inspector signs closure forms.
● Find out who contact x ray, stress and NDT people and who determine
Their availability.
● Go over numbers of welds, x ray percentage and grading standards
With client.
● Present welder qualifications paper and weld procedures to client.
● If sheer wave will be used in lieu of x ray, obtain client approval.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SUPPORT ACTIVITIES:
● Develop detailed lists of resources required during pre shut down
period
● Small Tools:-
Summarize the total requirement for port a bands, summarize,
Page:7
beveling machines, come a longs, skill saws, chain falls, safety
equipment, etc.
● Welding Machines:-
Summarize the total requirements for welding machines based on the
Estimates prepared for each task.
● Construction Equipment:-
Summarize needs for all equipment. For major lifts or high reach, make
Sure that equipment is adequate and takes into account interference
(such as scaffolding).
● Consumables:-
Use great care in estimating consumables required during a shutdown
Welding, purging gasses, and chemicals may be required during the
Shutdown period well in excess of normal consumption. Special safety
Supply may be required (rubber boots, raincoats, gloves, white suits,
Respirators)
● Scaffolding:-
Requisition sufficient scaffolding to cover at least all the scaffolding that
Can be positioned ahead of the actual shutdown start.
● Make arrangements for additional sanitary facilities and more frequent
Service.
● Make preparations for the possibility of adverse weather conditions.
● Ensure adequate parking for total staff on all shifts.
● Prepare a list of home phone numbers of all supervisory personnel
(include client and subcontractors)
● Identify and requisition light plants. Determine location where they
will Installed. Areas where major lifts will be made during second shift -
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SHUT DOWN ACTIVITIES :
● Proceed to perform work according to the plan. Deviations from the
Plan are to be authorized by the site manager
● Do not block emergency exits with scaffolding.
● clean up at the end of each shift. Set up collection point to collect
Garbage waste etc.
● Do a complete installation first pass through (i.e. install pipe support
and hangers with pipe, keep pipe clean, remove purge dams, install
vent and drain valves plugs etc.)
● Meet daily milestones. Retain people to complete tasks after end of
Shift.
Page: 8
● Do not lock gang box during shutdown. Personal tools can be locked
Out in special designated tool box.
● Intensify safety during x ray periods, barricade the area and use mega
phones or sirens to evacuate area.
● Site manager to conduct twice daily meetings to review progress,
Problem areas, and happenings that may cause change in the plan.
● These meetings are best held at lunch time or at the end of the day.
each Shift should hold a meeting to review status of critical activities
● provide at least one hour overlap period between shifts.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POST SHUT DOWN ACTIVITIES :
● Keep sufficient number of crews to support during startup i.e., pipe
leaks checks, loop checking, install insulation flange covers etc.
● Complete insulation work, painting and minor punch work.
● Do a final 100% clean up of plant.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Remember:- Successful shutdown don’t just happen-
Plan the work and work the plan.
==============================================================
Page: 1
THEODOLITE SURVEY:
It is the accurate instrument used in the measurement of horizontal and
vertical angles. It is consist of telescope to see distant objects. The
horizontal angle is measured on the graduated horizontal circle by means
of two verniers.
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THEODOLITE PARTS :-
1) Foot screws (leveling screw)
2) plumb bob
3) lower plate
4) upper plate
5) spirit level
6) compass
7) Telescope
8) Vertical circle
9) Vertical circle clamping screw
10) Lower plate clamping screw
11) Lower plate tangent screw
12) Upper plate clamping screw
13) Upper plate tangent screw
14) Tripod
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USE OF THEODOLITE :
1) For demarcation of plot boundaries and any existing structures at any
At any stage of work.
2) For line out of compound wall, garden wall, electric pole etc, to
maintain to maintain straight line.
3) For taking straight line where considerable obstructions of hutments,
soil heap trees are observed.
4) For line out in deep basement where plumb line is not possible by
means of plumb boob etc.
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●Do not over tighten any theodolite screw.
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Page: 2
ADJUSTMENT OF THEODOLITE:
There are two kinds of adjustment in theodolite:-
Temporary adjustment: to be done by an engineer or user.
Permanent adjustment: to be done by technician / mechanic
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SETTING OF THEODOLITE:
Make the station by wire nail, M.S rod, oil paint on pillar etc.
Fix the theodolit over the tripod.
Leveling the instrument by means of tripod leg.
After satisfactory leveling of the instrument see from the bottom eye
Telescope whether the centre of the station is matching exactly to the
Cross hair of bottom telescope
Set the bottom and top vernier plates namely A and B to zero
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING THE HORIZONTAL ANGLE AND
PROJECTING THE LINE :
Direct the telescope towards the object and using the eye piece, bring
The image of the object in line with the vertical hairs of the diaphragm
For minute horizontal movement, use tangent screw and set the line
Accordingly. Look at the movement vertically by using the vertical
clamping screw.
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TO MEASURE THE VERTICLE ANGLE OF AN OBJECT “A” AT A STATION “0”
Set up the instrument over “0” and level it accurately with reference to
the altitude bubble. Set the zero of vertical vernier exactly to the zero the
vertical circle by means of the vertical circle clamp and tangent screw.
Bring the bubble of altitude level to the centre of its run, by means of the
clip screws. the line of collimation is thus made perfectly horizontal while
the vernier read zero read both the verrniers. The mean of the two
readings gives the vernier of the required angle.
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TO MEASURE THE VERTICLE ANGLE BETWEEEN TWO POINTS “A” AND “B”
Bisect “A” as before and note the reading on the vertical circle similarly
bisect “B” and note the reading on the vertical circle. The sum of or
difference of these reading will give the value of the angle between A & B
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Page: 3
FOLLOWIN PROCEDURE SHOULD BE FOLLOWED FOR DEMARKATION
OF ANY PLOT OF ANY SIZE BY USING THEODOLITE.
Let the plot be PQRSTUV to be demarcated and plotted on drawing
Set the theodolite as per given procedure on any point A , marked
With M.S. pegs or marking stone. Select the point A near any corner
Of plot (p) from where maximum boundaries can be measured
With one tape measurement.
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PRECATION MEASURE WHILE DOING THEODOLITE SURVEY:
Never use steel bars for important work while locating the stations
Levelling should be perfect from the beginning of the survey.
The bubble of the sprit level should always remain in the center of all the
Position when rotated in 360 degrees.
Avoid any theodolit work in heavy winds and sunlight, due to the
possibility of variations in the readings
Always use steel tape for the measurements of different distances. Do
ot use a metallic tape. Always cover the theodolite with light cloth when
not in use, during theodolit survey
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Classification of Survey:
Based on method of surveying or instrument use:-
1) Chain survey. 2) plane table surveying 3) compass survey
4) triangular survey 5) Theodolite survey 6) photographic survey
7) Traverse Survey 8) Aerial survey.
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PRINCIPLE OF SURVEY:
1) To determine the position of any point with reference to two
Known points independent methods.
2) To work from whole to part
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Page:4
CONTOUR SURVEY AND LEVELLING :
Temporary Bench Mark:-
Bench mark is a fixed reference point of known elevation. It can be
Taken either as 100.000 or any other convenient number on a fixed
Reference line like top of the culvert, road stone, plinth of any
Structure etc. Intermediate B.M can be fixed on the masonry pillars
At various locations near the buildings located in the working premises
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BACK SIGHT (B.S) also termed as back sight reading is a staff reading
Taken on a point of known elevation as on a B.M or a change point.
It is the first staff reading taken after the level is set up and leveled.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Before removing the instrument from the box mark the position of:
1) object glass 2) Eye piece 3) clamp 4) tangent screws. So that it can be
placed in the box in its proper position without any difficulty.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FOCUSSING THE EYE PIECE:
Remove the lid from the object glass and hold a sheet of white paper
In front of it, move the eye piece in and out until the cross hairs are
distinctly seen.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FOCUSSING THE OBJECT GLASS:
Direct the telescope towards the staff. Looking through the eye piece
Bring the image of the staff between the two vertical hair of the
Diaphragm by sliding tapping the telescope. Adjust the object by turning
the focusing screw until the parallax is completely eliminated, take the
reading. Now your dumpy level is ready for work.
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Page:5
HOLDING OF THE STAFF:
The staff should be held truly vertical. While the reading is being taken.
Guide the person holding the staff for right/left direction movement,
To set the staff perfectly vertical, then take the reading.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Important point to be observed while doing leveling and contour survey:-
Enter all the readings taken as per the standard format and preferably
In the field book. During the contour survey of a plot, take the readings of
Adjacent plot/Area for at least one/two grids.
================================================================
Page:1
ELECTRICALS
If an electrician or any person is still in contact with the live wire or
Equipment , he or she must be quickly released from the electric current
by:
a) Switching off, if it is not possible, b) Pull out plug etc if not possible,
c) Insulate yourself form the ground, by using a rubber mat, dry wood or
clothing and then free the victim. A wood stick can be used to knock
the victim free.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DEFINITION OF FUSE :
Fuse is a device which cuts off the circuit when more than pre-
Determined value current flows in a circuit.
It is the weakest point of the circuit which breaks when more than
Normal current flows in the circuit.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TERMS USED FOR FUSESU:
Fuse as defined earlier, it is a device used for protecting the cable in a
circuit against damage from an excessive current. Fuse is a term used in
general to represent all parts of the device.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STANDARD COLOUR CODE OF CABLES:
In a three phase, four wire system the tree phases 1, 2 and 3 are given
The core colors, red, yellow and blue respectively. For a neutral wire, the
Color of the core insulation is black, while it is Green in the case of an
earth wire
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MESUREMENT OF CABLES ( SIZE ):
● With a standard wire gauge,
● according to the diameter of the conductor, and
● according to the cross sectional area of the conductor.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Page:2
WIRE SIZES:
Copper wires are expressed in numbers/wire gauges system, e.g. 3/22,
3/20, 7/22, 7/20 etc. 3/22 system means a cable has 3 wire of 22 S.W.G.
The system wire gauge (S.W.G) or American Wire Gauge (A.W. G) are
Commonly wire gauges.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STANDARD WIRE GAUGE:
The standard wire gauge (S.W.G.) is an device which is used for
Determining the size of a wire. It consist of a thin circular strip plate of
steel which a number of slot on its circumference. Each slot is marked
with different numbers. Holes are provided at the end of each slot for
removing the wire easily. Very accurate slots are cut into the holes. A
number is marked on each hole. This is the gauge number for the wire
which can just slide through the slot of the gauge. On the back of wire
gauge on each slot dia. In mm is also given which is the correct diameter
of the wire gauge number.
=========================================================
Page: 1
DEFINITION OF MAGNET.
Magnet is the substance having the properties of attracting iron and its
Alloys.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROPERTIES OF MAGNET:
● The magnet always attracts iron and its alloys.
● A magnet loses properties when it is heated, hammered or dropped
from height.
● A magnet can impart its properties to any magnetic material.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GENERAL CLASSES OF MAGNET:
1) Natural Magnet:-
The magnet found in nature is known as Iodestone or leading stone as
it was used by navigators in sea, etc. The natural magnet has chemical
composition of Fe3O4.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2) Artificial Magnet:-
1) Permanent magnet 2) Temporary Magnet or Electromagnet.
================================================================
C O N D E N C E R:
It can be defined as two conductor separated by an insulating by an
insulating dielectric. It is a device to store electrical energy and to
release it when required.
===============================================================

Page:1
C E L L S A N D B A T T E R I E S.
ELECTROLYSIS:
Is the name given to the chemical decomposition which occurs in
electrolytes when current passes through them. Consider a solution of
copper sulphate (CUSo4). When CUSo4 is dissolved in a water, its
molecules split up into Cu++ ions and So4-ions. CUSoR--> Cu++ +So4-
Let copper plates connected to battery by placed into the solution these
plates are called electrodes. The electrode connected to the positive pole
of the battery is known as anode, while the other connected to the
negative pole of the battery is called Cathode. The Cu++ (positive copper
ions) go to the cathode and the negative sulphate ions So4- go towards
he positive electrode i.e, anode. The movement of ions constitutes a flow
of electric current through the electrolyte. In the external circuit the
current is due to the motion of electrons. When So4 ion reaches the
anode, it gives up its charge and ceases to be an ion. The two electrons
given by So4-ion enter the anode and become part of the electron stream
in the external circuit. Similar, Cu++ion reaches the cathode, it give up its
charge and make up its deficiency of two electrons from the cathode
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
It has been seen from Electrolysis experiment that current can pass
through some liquids while it cannot pass through others. For example,
pure distilled water, kerosene oil, alcohol are Insulators of electric
current while dilute acid , alkali, salt solutions are conductors. These
conductors are called electrolytes.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ELECTROPLATING:
This consists is depositing one meal over another with the help of an
Electric current. The deposited metal is generally superior and Possesses,
certain characteristic properties. Electroplating may be done with two
ends in view:
(1) For decoration (2) for protection.
Thus nickel, tin and zinc are coated on Iron to prevent iron from rusting,
whereas silver is used for plating table ware and some fancy articles to
page:2
enhance their beauty. Picture frames and most of the machinery parts
are electroplated with chromium in order to protect them wear are
corrosion, thus the impart a permanent luster to these articles. The
apparatus used is called a TANK and the article to be electroplated is
made the cathode while the anode consists of the metal which is to be
deposited in an electrolyte which may be a simple soluble salt of the
metal to be deposited or as is generally the case, any of its complex
cyanides.
================================================================
D.C GENERATORS:
D.C generator is a machine which converts the mechanical power Into
electrical power. It works on the principle of Faradays Law of
electromagnetic induction. According to this law the conductor
(Armature) are rotated in the magnet field system and e.m.f. is induced
in these conductors which is controlled from the commutator fitted on
the shaft of armature. The D.C. generator can work as D.C motor if the
electrical power is fed to this machine. Then this machine will give
mechanical Power,
===============================================================
TRANSFORMER:
The transformer may be defined as static piece of electrical apparatus
Which converts electrical power from one circuit to the other circuits at
the same frequency. It can increase or decrease the voltage with
corresponding decrease or increase of currents keeping the power same.
This transformation of energy is done due to the Faradays Laws of
electromagnetic induction through two windings primary and secondary.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMER:
The transformer consists of laminated core of special alloy steel of high
resistance and low hysteresis loss to reduce eddy current losses. The
thickness of each lamination varies from 0.35 mm to 0.5 mm Each of
laminations is insulted from each other by varnish or enamel. El Type are
used for shell type transformer and LT Type is used for core type
page:1
transformer. Two coils are wound on the two limbs or on the central
limb. One coil is called Primary winding to which the supply is given.
Second is called Secondary winding from which the supply is taken.
The construction and types. Two types, one is core, other is shell type.
================================================================
DIESEL ENGINE
● Diesel Engine is also known as Compression Ignition or C.I engine, is an
Internal Combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has been
Injected into the combustion chamber.
● Diesel engines are manufactured in two strokes and four strokes.
● In a petrol engine, the fuel / air mixture is ignited by a spark.
● In a diesel engine ignition is achieved by compression of air alone.
A typical compression ratio for a diesel engine is 20:1 compared with
9:1 for a petrol engine.
● Each diesel engine shall be provided with a dedicated fuel tank
● The tank shall be accordance with SAES-D-109
● The standard covers tanks used for above ground or under ground
Storage of flammable and combustible liquid up to 1500 barrels
Capacity
● Only Fiberglass Reinforced plastic (FRP) shall be used for buried tanks
● Tank Data Sheet.
● Codes:- SAES - A - 005 - Safety Instruction Sheet
SAES - A - 112 - Meteorological Data
SAES - B - 005 - Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low
Pressure Tank.
SAES - J - 300 - Level
SAES - P- 111- Grounding
SAES - Q - 005- Concrete Foundation
API STD 650 -Welded Steel Tank for oil storage.
API SPEC 12 P -Specification for Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic
Tanks
● FRP tanks shall comply with the restriction of SAES-B-055, section
8.7 on their use.

Page:2
● Tanks within the scope of SAED-D-100
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S T O R A G E T A N K S (API STD.650)
Storage Tanks are available in many shapes: vertical and horizontal,
Cylindrical, open top and close top, flat bottom, cone bottom, slope
Bottom and dish bottom.
● Tanks of over 50,000 gal capacity shall be located an area bounded by
By dike walls.
● Tank containing hot oil shall be individual dike.
● Minimum height of dike wall shall be 300 mm maximum shall be 2mt
Measured from grade.
● Sloped inside dike is 1:65, a drainage system shall be provided in
Accordance to SAES-S-020.
● Materials of all tanks components shall be selected in accordance with
32-SAMSS-005 OR 32-SAMSS-006 (Material Standard Specification)
● Spacing requirements between tanks in accordance with SAES-B-005
● Foundation at least 600 mm below existing or finished grade surface
● Ground/grid to a minimum 16mm x 2.4m ground rod.
● Bare copper conductors buried a minimum of 460 mm (grounding)
● Any tank with a capacity in excess of 64000 m 3 shall be individual dike.
● Minimum distance between a tank and any associated dike wall - 3m
(10 ft)
● Motors or generator voltage of 480 V shall have one grounding
electrode.
Combustible Liquid:- a liquid that has a flash point greater than 54
deg.C. Example:- diesel.
Hot Oil:- A flammable or combustible liquid stored at a temperature
Equal to or greater than 90 deg. c . example:- hot diesel.