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1 Aufrufe10 SeitenThis work is on the performance of a dc motor with emphasis on a shunt wound DC motor. Shunt DC Motors operates on direct current. As such, the field windings and armature are connected in a parallel combination, and in electrical terminology a parallel combination is known as a shunt. This type of motor is a "shunt-wound" DC Motor and the type of winding is called a shunt winding. This paper work also describes how the equation of the system dynamic performance is developed, and effect of the s

Sep 10, 2019

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This work is on the performance of a dc motor with emphasis on a shunt wound DC motor. Shunt DC Motors operates on direct current. As such, the field windings and armature are connected in a parallel combination, and in electrical terminology a parallel combination is known as a shunt. This type of motor is a "shunt-wound" DC Motor and the type of winding is called a shunt winding. This paper work also describes how the equation of the system dynamic performance is developed, and effect of the s

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

1 Aufrufe

This work is on the performance of a dc motor with emphasis on a shunt wound DC motor. Shunt DC Motors operates on direct current. As such, the field windings and armature are connected in a parallel combination, and in electrical terminology a parallel combination is known as a shunt. This type of motor is a "shunt-wound" DC Motor and the type of winding is called a shunt winding. This paper work also describes how the equation of the system dynamic performance is developed, and effect of the s

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

WOUND DC MOTOR IN PROCESS

CONTROL

Akpama, Eko James1,Bendor, Sampson A.2, Ogar, Nsed Vincent3, Ogar, Charles Ogar4

Cross River University of Technology Calabar

ABSTRACT

This work is on the performance of a dc motor with emphasis on a shunt wound DC motor. Shunt DC Motors

operates on direct current. As such, the field windings and armature are connected in a parallel combination, and

in electrical terminology a parallel combination is known as a shunt. This type of motor is a "shunt-wound" DC

Motor and the type of winding is called a shunt winding. This paper work also describes how the equation of the

system dynamic performance is developed, and effect of the system parameters on the dynamic responses is

investigated. A software application package called MATLAB/SIMULINK is used for simulation. The simulated

results, plots and output is used to predict the dynamic responses of the dc motor. Also, certain parameters and

armature voltages were varied to observe the dynamic performance of the DC motor.

Keywords: Shunt DC Motors, MATLAB/SIMULINK, Armature Voltage

1. INTRODUCTION

Direct current(DC) motors have been popular in the industry for process control, because they have many good

characteristics, which include, high starting torque characteristic, high response performance, and linearly controlled

strategy. The process of constructing of a DC Shunt Motor is the same as any other DC motor. It contains all the

necessary parts, which include a stator accommodating the field windings, a rotor accommodating the armature

winding, and a commutator, [1]. This work focuses on the analysis of a Shunt wound DC Motor.It is an accepted

practice in industry to employ AC motors wherever they are inherently suitable or can be given appropriate

characteristics by means of power-electronics devices. Yet there remain important fields of application in which the

direct current machines offer economic and technical advantages, for the outstanding property of dc motor is its

versatility. State-variable approach to the study of electrical machine enhances the derivation of the general dc machine

theory. However, it is not recommended for variable-speed application. Speed control techniques for a DC motor are

available in two types. The two techniques are: first, the armature control technique and the second one being the field

control.

[2].The aim of this research work is to review the performance analysis of a dc shunt motor. While the objectives are;

To investigate the variation of armature current with variation of applied voltage, to investigate the variation of

armature current with variation of torque, to investigate the variation of the speed and the armature current of the DC

motor, to investigate the variation of the speed and the torque characteristic of the dc motor, and to also obtain shunt

DC motor parameters that will be used to run a Matlab program.

REVIEWED PAPERS

[3] carried out a research titled Digital Speed Control of DC Motor for Industrial Automation using Pulse Width

Modulation Technique achieved a design and implementation of a DC motor speed control for operating voltages of

6V, 12V, and 24V with a maximum current capacity of 5A. They used a control mechanism which enables efficient

speed regulation with more reliable functionalities even at large currents. During the process of their research, they

replaced an analogue circuit with an Atmel AT89S52 microcontroller circuit. Similar to the traditional approach, they

IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org

Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

kept the field voltage constant while the armature voltage was varied. The switching action was done by four-quadrant

choppers which utilized Metal–Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). They equally altered the

operating characteristics of the motor using the keypad. They operated the DC motor in four operation modes: forward

generating, forward motoring; reverse generating; and reversed motoring. The control information was displayed via

the LCD unit. Although, the challenges they had was that four-quadrant chopper control is limited to DC motors

whereas AC motors have extensive applications in industrial automation [3].

[4] Carried out his research titled Speed Control of a DC Motor Using Controllers. He carried out a comparative

studiesof performanceof different conventional controllers. These controllers include; FuzzyLogicController, internal

model controller, and PID controller. The PID controller gave him 2.1% peak overshoot withsettlingtimeof 7.2sec.

Tocompensatethehighpeak overshoot, he designed internal model controller. Theinternal model controller (IMC)

reducesthe peakovershootto0%and reducesthesettlingtimeto6.9sec. To furtherimprove the response, they designed a

Fuzzylogic controller that have asevenmembershipfunctions.The designedfuzzylogiccontrollergave

himapeakovershootof0% (noovershoot)and reducesthesettlingtimeto2.3sec.when he compared the resultsof

thesimulations, h e foundthattheFuzzyLogicControllerwas betterthanconventional controllers namelyPIDand IMC.

Henceit is concluded that theproposedFuzzyLogic Controller providesbetter performancecharacteristics

andimprovethecontrolofDCmotor. [4]

[5] Carried out a research on the topic An Adaptive Speed Control Approach For DC Shunt Motors. In this research

work, he designed some experiments to recognizethe performance of the propose dadaptive Control scheme of a DC

motor.TheDC shunt motor was driven by a programmable DC powersupply with TOSHIBAMOSFET modules of a

switching frequency of 3MHz including adead time of 200ns, formed by rise, turn-on, fall, and turn-off times. They

used a machine that was mechanically couple do an electro dynamo meter(squirrel-cagemotor)load edbya DC excited

stator(0 - 100Ω). They measured the Field and armature currents with twoHall Effectsensors, bits A/D converter. They

equally measured the rotor speed with a permanent magnettaco-generator. [5]

[6] Carried out a research work on Speed and Torque Control of a DC Shunt Motor. In this work, they used two-

quadrant chopper to control the speed of a DC shunt motor. Given the rated speed of the machine, they designed a DC

chopper is in such a way that the output voltage of the chopper would be sufficient enough to deliver the required speed

and torque rating. Mathematical modelling of the DC chopper and the shunt motor were done in Matlab-

Simulinkenvironment. Matlab’s SISO Tool under the Control Toolbox was used to design the speed and current

controllers. They took their expected output performance of the motor speed fromthe simulation results. Although, they

were some level of transients and errors. [6].

Shunt wound dc motor has the following advantages and disadvantages;

Advantages of DC Shunt Motors

i. Direct current machines can be used for heavy industrial purposes where torque and speed wider range.

ii. Shunt wound motors are able to run at a predetermined speed.

iii. The power supply of DC motor is cheap compare with other types of machines. [7]

ii. At variable speed operation Shunt wound motors would be a disadvantage since they are constant speed motor.

iv. DC motors are large compared with Alternating Current Motors. [7]

IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org

Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

i. This motors are used in rolling mills because of its great speed controlling characteristics.

ii. They are used as lathe machines where constant speed is highly required.

iii. These motors are widely used for blowers, fans, reciprocating and centrifugal pumps. [7]

In shunt wound motor the field winding and the armature are connected in parallel. The current throughthe armature

and the shunt field winding are not the same. Shunt field windings are designed to producem.m.f. by means of making

a large number of turns of wire having high resistance. Therefore, shunt field current is relatively small compared with

the armature current [8].

V = applied voltage

Eb= back e.m.f.

Ra = armature resistance

Ia= armature current

Since back e.m.f. Ebacts in opposition to the applied voltage V, the net voltage across the armature circuit is V-Eb. The

armature current Iais given by

Ia =

V = Eb + IaRa

The following are the materials used during the cause of this project work.

HpElitebook 8560p laptop

Mathematical Laboratory (MATLAB) software 2007 version.

1.5hp shunt DC motor, 120VDC, speed is 1800rpm.

5. MODELLING OF A DC MOTOR

DC motor have speed-control capability, which means that torque, speed and even direction of rotation can be changed

to meet new conditions. The figure below shows the electric circuit of the armature and the free body diagram of a DC

motor.

IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm

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Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

R L I

E Ɵ

V T J

[10]

Where;

Ra = armature resistance (Ὠ)

La = armature inductance (H)

Ia = armature current (A)

Eb = back emf (V)

Va = armature voltage (V)

Tm = motor torque (Nm)

J = rotor inertia (kgm2)

B = friction constant (Nms/rad)

Kb = back emf constant (Vs/rad)

Kt= torque constant (Nm/A)

The DC motors are used in the linear range of the magnetization curve. Therefore, air gap flux Φ is proportional of the

field current If.

Φ If

Φ = KfIf ---------------------------------- 3.1

Similarly, the torque developed by the motor is proportional to the armature current and the air gap flux.

Tm ΦIa

Tm = KaΦIa

Tm = KaKfΦIa

Tm = KtIa------------------------------------- 3.2

The back emf of the motor at proportional speed is given by;

Eb Φω

Eb = Kbω(t) --------------------------------- 3.3

Applying KVL in the armature voltage equation,

Va(t) = RaIa(t) + La. + Eb(t) -------------- 3.4

Va(t) = RaIa(t) + La. + Kbω(t) --------------- 3.5

Also,

Tm(t) = J + Bω(t) = KtIa(t) ----------------- 3.6

Taking the Laplace transform of equation 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, & 3.6

T(s) = KIa(s)

Eb(s) = Kbω(s)

Va(s) = RaIa(s) + sLaIa(s) +Kbω(s)

Va(s) = Ia(s) (Ra + sLa) + Kbω(s) ------------------------- 3.7

Kt.Ia(s) = sJω(s) + Bω(s) = Tm(s) -------------------------------- 3.8

The DC motor armature control system functional block diagram from the equation above is shown below as:

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If current is obtained from equation (3.8) and substituted into equation (3.7), we have;

Va(s) = ω(s) [ LaJs2 +( RaJ + LaB )s + KbKt ] ---------------- 3.10

Then the relation between applied armature voltage and rotor shaft speed can be shown by the transfer function;

= --------------------------- (3.11)

This is the transfer function of the shunt DC motor. [11]

LaplacedomainrepresentationofidealPIDcontrolleris

PID

DC motor

controller

ω(s)

G(s

R(s)

)

Fig. 3.3: PID shunt DC motor speed control system block diagram

The closed loop transfer function of the shunt DC motor speed control system can be obtained from figure 3.10

as follows:

U(s) = E (s)

E(s) = Va(s) – ω(s)

= × U(s)

ω(s) = ×( ω(s) )

IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm

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Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

Parameter Value and Unit

Va 24 volts

Vf 12 volts

0.013Ω

1.43Ω

Lf 0.167H

J 0.21 kg.m2

B 1.074e-6 kg.m2/s

TL 2.493Nm

0.004V/rad/s

La 0.01H

6. RESULTSAND DISCUSSION

The resultant Simulink model of a DC Motor is shown in figure below.

IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

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Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

DYNAMICS OF THE DC MOTOR.

effect of change in voltage on armature current for shunt dc motor

600

Va=10V

Va=8V

Va=6V

500

400

Armature Current[A]

300

200

100

0

0 5 10 15

Time[Sec]

9

Va=10V

Va=8V

8

Va=6V

6

FieldCurrent[A]

0

0 5 10 15

Time[Sec]

effect of change in voltage on torque for a shunt dc motor

300

Va=10V

Va=8V

250 Va=6V

200

Mech. Rotor Speed[rad/s]

150

100

50

-50

0 5 10 15

Time[Sec]

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Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

simulated output of torque-armature current characteristics for a shunt dc motor

20

Va=10V

18 Va=8V

Va=6V

16

Armature current 14

12

10

0

0 5 10 15

Torque[Nm]

simulated output of torque-armature resistance characteristics for a shunt dc motor

6

Ra=0.050ohms

Ra=0.060ohms

Ra=0.070ohms

5

4

Armature current [A]

0

0 5 10 15

Torque[Nm]

500

Vf=18V

Vf=24V

400 Vf=36V

300

Field Current[A]

200

100

-100

0 5 10 15

Time[Sec]

IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm

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Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

8. DISCUSSION

Figure 4 is a graph of armature current against time. Here, the armature voltage was varied in the range of 10V, 8V

and 4V respectively against time. At Va=10V, the armature current rose up to 580A before dropping to 80A and

thereafter remains steady. When the armature voltage (Va) was varied to 8V, the armature current rises up to 470V

before dropping to 80A and thereafter remains steady. At Va=6V, the armature current rises up to 350A before

dropping to 80A and remain steady. Hence, it is observed that at Va=10V, Va=8V and Va=6V, the armature current

rose up to 580A, 470A and 350A respectively before decaying exponentially to 80A at time 9sec.

The graph of field current against time is seen in figure in figure 5. here, at Va= 10V, the field current rises to 8.4V

settling. Similarly, at Va=8V, the field current rises to 8.4V settling. Also at Va=6V, the field current rises to 8.4V

settling at time 0.9sec. Therefore, it can be concluded that change in voltage on angular speed has no effect on the field

current. This can be seen in the graph as when the armature voltage is varied from 10V to 8V and from 8V to 6V the

field current rose to 8.4A and settled equally at time 0.9sec.

Figure 6 shows a graph of Mech. Rotor speed Vs Time. It demonstrates the effect of change in Voltage on the torque

for a shunt DC motor. At Va=10V, the speed of the motor rises from 0rad/sec at time 0sec to 270rad/sec at time 8sec

and settled there. At Va=8V, the speed of the motor rises from 0rad/sec at time 0sec to 210rad/sec at time 8sec and

settled there. Similarly, at Va=6V, 0rad/sec at time 0sec to 150rad/sec at time 8sec and settled there.

Figure 7, shows the graph of armature current against Torque. Here, when the armature voltage was varied to 10V, the

armature current rises to 18.6A then decayed exponentially to 2.3A and thereby remains steady. At Va=8V, the

armature current rises to 15.3A and then dropped to 2.3A and then remain steady. At Va=6V, the armature current

rises to 11.9A and dropped to 2.3A and remain steady thereafter.

Figure 8 shows the simulated output of torque-armature resistance characteristics for shunt dc motor. Here, the

armature resistance was varied in the range of 0.050ohms, 0.060ohms and 0.070ohms respectively against time. At

Ra=0.050ohms, the armature current rose up to 5.80A before dropping to 3.30A at time 15sec and thereafter remains

steady. When the armature resistance (Ra) was varied to 0.060ohms, the armature current rose up to 4.98A at time 1sec

and dropped gradually to 3.20A at time 15sec and thereafter remains steady. When the armature resistance (Ra) was

varied to 0.070ohms, the armature current rose up to 4.3A at time 1sec and dropped to 3.10A at time 15sec and

thereafter remains steady.

Figure 9 shows the effect of change in voltage on field current for a shunt DC motor. Here, a graph of field current

against time is plotted. At Vf=18V, the field current (A) rose up to 450A at time t=1sec and then dropped to 10A after

which it then settled at 50A, 10sec. When the field voltage was then varied to 24V, the field current (A) rose up to

380A at time 0.9sec and then dropped to -60A and rose transiently to 35A at time 12sec. and then settled there.

Similarly, when the field voltage was then varied to 36V, the field current (A) rose up to 305A at time 0.7sec and then

dropped to -85A and rose transiently to 25A at time 8.8sec. and then settled there. It is observed that the higher the

field voltage, the lesser the field current consumed.

9. CONCLUSION

The paper presented shows the performance analysis of shunt dc a motor. Accurate performance of a motor is a desired

feature for any industrial application. For efficient operation, it is advisable to evaluate the performance of DC motor

from time to time.It time consuming to carry out the conventional method for calculating output performance indices,

hence, MATLAB based approach gives a satisfactory result for the test system.

The important observations made during the studies are:

The field winding of a Dc shunt motors is placed in shunt with voltage source.

Dc shunt motors has a near constant speed.

MATLAB is a sophisticated and user friendly software. It should be mentioned that the efficiency of its performance

can be improved by using more efficient learning techniques and dynamic weight selection algorithm.

IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm

A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org

Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

REFERENCES

[1] C. Krause, O. Wasynzuck, S. Sudhoff, Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems,Wiley Inter-Science,

New York, 2002.

[2] Brown and Hamilton, MacMillan “Electromechanical Energy conversion”, 2009.

[3] Adoghe A. U., Aliu S. O, Popoola S. I., and Atayero A., “Digital Speed Control of DC Motor for Industrial

Automation using Pulse Width Modulation Technique” vol. 1 July, 2017

[4] Md A. A., Kamal K., Pankaj R., “Speed Control Of a DC motor Using Controllers” vol. 2, No.6-1, 2014.

[5] Ruben T. O., Francisco B. C., Omar A. M., “An Adaptive Speed Control Approach For DC Shunt Motors” 17 Nov,

2016.

[6] Jessica, C. M., Elmer, R. M., “Speed And Torque Control Of A Dc Shunt Motor” conference paper, October,

2009.

[7] Dr.Bimbhra P. S. “Electrical machine”, Khanna publishers New Edition.

[8] Archana, P. Suganthini, Malathi C. “DC motor speed control using MATLAB”, Department of ICE, Sara Nathan

College of Engineering, Trichy, 2014.

[9]AlokRanjanSinghandV.K.Girl "Compareandsimulation

ofspeedcontrolofDCmotorusingPIDandFuzzycontroller''VSRDInternational Journal of Electrical, Electronics&

communication Engineering, Vol. 2No. 10 October 2012.

[10] KiamHeongAng, Gregory Chong and Yun Li, "PID Control System Analysis and Technology,"

IEEE'Trans.,ControlSyst. Technol.,vol. 13,no.4, pp.559-576,Ju12005.

[11] R. Krisnan, Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis, and Control, Prentice Hall, New York, 2001.

[12] Hung Nguyen. “Tutorial 12 about DC motor, instrumentation and process control”. (2006)

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