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# CHAPTER-2 LITRATURE SURVEY

The idea of 360 degree wheel rotation load carry vehicle is analyzed from:

## Jaishnu Moudgil, et al. [1], presented a 360 degree rotating car to

overcome the problem of parking space. This car has zero degree turning radius of a
vehicle implies the vehicle rotating about an axis passing through the center of
gravity of vehicle i.e. the vehicle turning at the same place, where it is
standing. No extra space is required to turn the vehicle. So vehicle is to be
turned in the space equal to the length of the vehicle itself. In this
presentation, so got idea of 360 degree wheel rotation vehicle and have plane to
make 360 degree wheel rotation load carry vehicle, this vehicle is to be used in
different area like industries, hospital, railway platform, etc.

## Sudip kachhia [2],presented a 360 degree rotating vehicle to overcome

the problem of parking space. This project is about design of 360 degree rotating
car to move in all direction. This design provides better comfort and also saves
the time of customers, that�s why it is also the reliable for the customer. As it
is also battery operated car thus no fuel is required. Hence it is economical to
the environment. This also reduces the cost of the car, and also got idea to use
battery to operate this vehicle.

K. Lohith, et al. [3], presented a four wheel steering system for a car.
In four wheel steering the rear wheels turn with the front wheels thus increasing
the efficiency of the vehicle. The direction of steering the rear wheels relative
to the front wheels depends on the operating conditions. At low speed wheel
movement is pronounced, so that rear wheels are steered in the opposite direction
to that of front wheels with the use of DC motor to turn left and right. In this
presentation, the use of DC motor is to rotate the wheels 90 degree left and 90
degree right from original position.

Er. Amitesh Kumar, et al. [4], presented zero turn four wheel steering
system, the various functions of the steering wheel are, to control the angular
motion the wheels, direction of motion of the vehicle, to provide directional
stability of the vehicle while going straight ahead, to facilitate straight ahead
condition of the vehicle after completing a turn, the road irregularities must be
damped to the maximum possible extent. This project the use of steering is to
rotate front wheels.

Mr. Sharad P. Mali, et al. [5], presented zero turn four wheel mechanism,
in this project people have used DC motor and wheel to vehicle rotate 360 degree at
a same position. So in this project, the idea is to arrange of DC motor and wheel.

## CHEPTER-4 DETAILS & CALCULATION

4.1 Technical Details of Four Wheel Steering Mechanism
In four-wheel steering systems, the rear wheels are steered by a computer and
actuators. The rear wheels generally cannot turn as far as the front wheels. Some
systems allow the rear wheels to be steered in the opposite direction as the front
wheels during low speeds. This allows the vehicle to turn in a significantly
smaller radius�sometimes critical for large trucks or tractors and vehicles with
trailers.

Many modern vehicles offer a form of passive rear steering to counteract normal
vehicle tendencies. On many vehicles, when cornering, the rear wheels tend to steer
slightly to the outside of a turn, which can reduce stability. The passive steering
system uses the lateral forces generated in a turn (through suspension geometry)
and the bushings to correct this tendency and steer the wheels slightly to the
inside of the corner. This improves the stability of the car, through the turn.
This effect is called compliance under steer and it, or its opposite, is present on
all suspensions.

Typical methods of achieving compliance under steer are to use a Watt's Link on a
live rear axle, or the use of toe control bushings on a twist beam suspension. On
an independent rear suspension it is normally achieved by changing the rates of the
rubber bushings in the suspension. Some suspensions will always have compliance
over steer due to geometry.

Four-wheel steering found its most widespread use in monster trucks, where
manoeuvrability in small arenas is critical, and it is also popular in large farm
vehicles and trucks. Some of the modern European Intercity buses also utilize four-
wheel steering to assist manoeuvrability in bus terminals, and also to improve road
stability.

## Previously, Honda had four-wheel steering as an option in their 1987�2000 Prelude

and Honda Ascot Innova models (1992�1996). Mazda also offered fourwheel steering on
the 626 and MX6 in 1988. General Motors offered Delphi's Quadra steer in their
consumer Silverado/Sierra and Suburban/Yukon. However, only 16,500 vehicles have
been sold with this system since its introduction in 2002 through 2004. Due to this
low demand, GM discontinued the technology at the end of the 2005 model year.[2]
Nissan/Infiniti offer several versions of their HICAS system as standard or as an
option in much of their line-up. A new "Active Drive" system is introduced on the
2008 version of the Renault Laguna line. It was designed as one of several measures
to increase security and stability. The Active Drive should lower the effects of
under steer and decrease the chances of
spinning by diverting part of the G-forces generated in a turn from the front to
the rear tires. At low speeds the turning circle can be tightened so parking and
manoeuvring is easier.

2.1 Methodology: