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# TENSES

## 1. Simple Present Tense

Formula:
(+) S + Verb 1 + O
(-) S + do/does not + Verb 1 + O
(?) Do/does + S + Verb 1 + O?
Note:
 Untuk Subject She, He, It verb 1 nya ada penambahan s/es pada pola (+) tetapi jika di
pola (-) dan (?) s/es nya dihilangkan.
 Do  I, You, They, We
 Does  She, He, It

Time Signal:
Always =selalu Normally = biasanya
Seldom = jarang Regularly = secara tetap
Rarely = jarang sekali Steadly = terus-menerus
Never = tidak pernah Everyday = setiap hari
As a rule = biasanya Every….. = setiap…..
Generally = umumnya Frequently = seringkali

Example:
Dia (pr) pergi ke sekolah jam 7 pagi
(+) She goes to school at 7 a.m.
(-) She does not go to school at 7 a.m.
(?) Does She go to school at 7 a.m? Yes, She does/ No, She does not

## 2. Simple Past Tense

Formula:
(+) S + Verb 2 + O
(-) S + did not + Verb 1 + O
(?) Did + S + Verb 1 + O?

Time Signal:
Yesterday = kemarin Two hours ago = 2 jam yang lalu
Yesterday morning = kemarin pagi ……………..ago = …………..lalu
Last night = semalam, tadi malam In 1978 = pada th 1978
Last week = pekan lalu The day before yesterday= kemarin
Last Sunday = minggu lalu dulu/ lusa
Last….. =………lalu On Sunday morning = pada hari Minggu
An hour ago = sejam yang lalu
Example:
Dia (pr) pergi ke sekolah kemarin.
(+) She went to school yesterday.
(-) She did not go to school yesterday.
(?) Did She go to school yesterday? Yes, She did/ No, She did not

## 3. Present Continuous Tense

Digunakan untuk membicarakan aksi yang sedang berlangsung saat pembicaraan sedang
berlangsung.
Formula:
(+) S + to be + Verb1 ing + O
(-) S + to be + not + Verb1 ing + O
(?) To be + S + Verb1 ing + O?
Note:
 Untuk to be
Is  She, He, It
Am  I
Are  You, They, We

Time Signal:
Now = sekarang
Right now = sekarang ini, sekarang juga
At present = pada waktu ini, sekarang ini
At this moment = pada saat ini
Today = hari ini

Example:
Dia (pr) sedang pergi ke sekolah sekarang.
(+) She is going to school now.
(-) She is not going to school now.
(?) Is She going to school now? Yes, She is/No, She is not

4. Future Tense
Digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa suatu aksi terjadi dimasa depan, secara spontan atau
terencana.
Formula:
(+) S + will + Verb1 + O
(-) S + will + not + Verb1 + O
(?) Will + S + Verb 1 + O?

Time Signal:
Tomorrow = besok This evening = malam ini
Next week = minggu depan Tonight = malam ini, nanti malam
Next month = bulan depan Soon = segera
Next year = tahun depan In a few weeks = dalam beberapa
This morning = pagi ini minggu

Example:
Dia (pr) akan pergi ke sekolah pukul 8 pagi.
(+) She will go to school at 8 a.m.
(-) She will not go to school at 8 a.m.
(?) Will She go to school at 8 a.m? Yes, she will/No, She will not.

## 5. Present Perfect Tense

Bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu aksi atau situasi yang telah dimulai di
masa lalu dan masih berlanjut sampai sekarang atau telah selesai pada suatu titik waktu tertentu di
masa lalu namun efeknya masih berlanjut.
Formula:
(+) S + has/have + Verb3 + O
(-) S + has/have + not + Verb3 + O
(?) Has/have + S + Verb3 + O?
Note:
 Have  I, You, They, We
 Has  She, He, It

Time Signal:
Already = sudah Twice = dua kali
Just = baru saja Three times = tiga kali
Ever …,? = pernahkah…? Many times = berkali-kali
Never = tidak pernah For two hours = selama dua jam
Lately = akhir-akhir ini Since yesterday = sejak kemarin
Recently = baru-baru ini Since 1978 = sejak 1978
As yet = sampai sekarang This week = minggu ini
So far = hingga skrg, selama ini This month = bulan ini
Finally = akhirnya Several times = beberapa kali
At last = akhirnya
Once = sekali

Example:
Dia (pr) telah pergi ke sekolah baru saja.
(+) She has gone to school already.
(-) She has not gone to school already
(?) Has She gone to school already? Yes, she has/No, She has not.