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According to their functions, words are divided into eight categories which are called parts of

THE NOUN: A word used as the name of a person, a place, a thing or an idea
is called noun.
Examples: Boy, City, School, love.
THE PRONOUN: A word that is used in place of a noun is called pronoun.
Examples: He, She, They, You, It

THE VERB: A word that is used to describe an action, state or feeling is called
Examples: You go. We eat food.
THE ADJECTIVE: A word that is used with a noun to add something to its
meaning is called adjective.
Examples: Small, Great, Honest , Beautiful

THE ADVERB: It is a word that adds something to the meaning of any part of
speech except noun or pronoun.
Examples: quickly, fast, always, slowly.

THE PREPOSITION: It is a word that shows the connection of a noun or

pronoun with other words in a sentence.
Examples: On, In, Above, Under, at, of

THE CONJUNCTION: It is a word that joins words or sentences.

Examples: and, but, as well as, because

THE INTERJECTION: It is a word that shows sudden feeling or emotion.

Examples: Ah, Alas, Hurrah, Oh, Ouch

Def: A word used as the name of a person, an animal, a place, a thing or an idea is called
A noun can be a subject or an object of a verb.

boy, city, school, love, pencil, happiness, table
(i) Proper Noun
Def: The name of a particular or proper thing, place, person, is called proper noun.
Lahore, Ali, London, Atlantic Ocean, Spain, the moon

(ii) Common Noun

Def: A common noun is used for the name of a common thing, place, person and idea.
 People: man, girl, baby, son, policeman, teacher
 Animals: Cat, dog, fish, ant, snake
 Things: bear, book, boat, table, chair, phone
 Places: bank, school, city, building, shop
 Ideas: love, hate, idea, pride
(iii) Abstract Noun
Def: The name of an idea, quality or such an object that does not have physical existence is
called abstract noun.
friendship, peace, sorrow, love, happiness.

(iv) Collective Noun

Def: A collective noun is the name given to a collection of things or a group of people or
animals regarded as one whole.
team, class, committee, jury, army

(v) Concrete Noun

Def: A concrete noun refers to objects and substances, including people and animals,
physical items that we can perceive through our senses.
Concrete nouns can be countable nouns or uncountable nouns, and singular nouns or plural nouns.
Concrete nouns can also be a common noun, proper nouns and collective nouns.

 Common concrete Noun:
boy, bat, , girl, water.

 Countable Concrete Nouns (Singular):

chair, computer, boy, book.

 Countable Concrete Nouns (Plural):

chairs, computers, boys , books.

 Uncountable Concrete Nouns: