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Impact Loading

Introduction

Generally when the strength of machine elements are considered it is


assumed that the loading is static or applied gradually. This loading
condition is often not the case, the loading may be cyclic requiring
assessment for fatigue. Fatigue or it may involve impact or suddenly
applied loads. When loads are applied suddenly and when the loads
are applied as impact loads the resulting transient stresses (and
deformations) induced in the machine elements are much higher than if
the loads are applied gradually. This effect is shown in the diagram
below

It is normal practice to design machines such that impact loads are


eliminated or reduced by inclusion of shock absorbers. Inclusion of low
cost, mass produced, shock absorbers can virtually eliminate the
increased stresses and deformations resulting from impact loads.

Most ductile materials have strength properties which are a function of


the loading speed. The more rapid the loading the higher the tensile
and ultimate strengths of the materials. . Two standard tests, the
Charpy and Izod, measure the impact energy (the energy required to
fracture a test piece under an impact load), also called the notch
toughness.

The detailed assessment of the strength of machine elements under


impact loading regimes involves use of advanced techniques including
Finite Element Analysis. Impact loads result in shock waves
propogating through the elements with possible serious
consequences. It is possible to complete relatively simply stress
evaluation for suddenly applied and impact loads by using the principle
of conservation of energy and conditional that the materials considered
are operating within their elastic regions.

The equations are most accurate for relatively heavy impacting masses
moving at low velocities on impact.

Notation

 V = Velocity (m/s)

 w = Specific Weight (kg/m3)


 A = Area (m2)
 E = Modulus of Elasticity  σ = stress (N/m2)
(N/m2)
 h = Drop distance (m)  σ stat = stress resulting from
 k =Stiffness (N/m)
 M = Mass-moving body static load(N/m2)
(kg)
 M1 = Mass of static bar or  δ = deflection (m)
beam (kg)
 K = Factor to allow for
energy loss at impact  δ stat = deflection resulting
 l = length of bar (l) from static load(m)
 tp = time period (s)
 v = velocity (m/s)
 W = Weight - moving
 μ = Ratio Moving
body(N) Mass/Stationary bar

 β = Constant = A
Sqrt(wEg/W) - see text

Linear Impact deflections and stresses (gravity loads)

Important note: The notes below represent a very simple view of the
loading condition and do not consider more real case involving shock
waves being propagated through the loaded member or the moving
mass

Consider a loading regime as shown below with a ring of Mass M(kg)


with weight W= Mg(N) being dropped through a distance h onto a collar
supported by a vertical bar which behaves as a spring with a stiffness of
k (N/m).

The support bar has a length l (m), an Area A (m2 ) With a modulus of
elasticity E (N/m2 )

In practice the weight would impact onto the support which would
elastically deform until all of the potential energy has been
absorbed. The support would then contract initiating damped
oscillations until the system assumes a stable static position. The
equations below determine the initial maximum deformation which
provides the most highly stressed condition.

In accordance with conservation of energy the potential energy of the


weight is converted to elastic strain energy.

This may be expressed as a quadratic equation

This is solved for the maximum deflection δmax as follows

The weight applied gradually would result in a deflection δst thus


Note:
The stiffness k = Force /Deflection = F / : δ E = stress /strain = σ /e =
δ
(F /A) /( /l) Therefore k = EA/l

Substituting this into the equation for δmax results in

This can be expressed as

The resultant maximum force is simply

Pmax = k δmax
and the resultant maximum stress =

σmax = Pmax/ A
This may be expressed as

For the calculation of the stress due to a suddenly applied load with h =
0

σmax = 2 σst
Linear impact deflections and stresses (kinetic impacts )

Important note: The notes below represent a very simple view of the
loading condition and do not consider more real case involving shock
waves being propagated through the loaded member or the moving
mass

Impact loads based pimarily on kinetic energy e.g horizontal impacts are
treated slightly differently. For these applications the kinetic energy is
converted into stored energy due to elasticity of the resisting element.

Consider a Mass M(kg) with a velocity of v impacting on a collar which is


supported by a bar with a stiffness of K (N/m) - Ignoring gravitational
forces.

The kinetic energy of the mass Mv2 /2 is transformed into stored energy
in the support.

The resulting equation is

The resultant maximum deflection equals..

Noting that the static deflection = Wl/AE this equation can be written
The equivalent maximum stress =

Noting that the static deflection = Wl/AE this equation can be written

Beams

Using similar principles as expressed above it can be easily proved


using principles of conservation of energy that.

and

If the impact is horizontal instead of vertical . The resulting deformation


and stress resulting from the impact are

Note: The above approximate relationships can been applied generally


to most structural systems subject to distortion with the elastic range
when subject to impact loading

Energy losses on impact

The above equations are very approximate and include many


assumptions. A very important assumption is that all of the energy (
based on h or v2) is used up in producing the same distortion as would
result from static loading. In reality, some kinetic energy is lost in
internal friction. Account can be taken for these losses by multiplying h
or v2 by an appropriate factor K. This factor is derived from the Mass of
the moving body (M) and the mass of the beam or bar (M1). The factor
is different for different loading systems ass follows.

In the equations above h or v2 would be replaced by K.h or K v2


The K factor is nearest unit when M is large compared to M1 . As an
example for the axial impact

if M1/M is say 0,1 then K = 0,95..


if M1/M is say 10 then K = 015..

This is illustrated in the figure below

1) A moving mass M striking axially one end of a bar of mass M1. The
other end of the bar being fixed...

2) A moving mass M striking traversely the end of a beam of mass M1.


The other end of the bar being fixed...
3) A moving mass M striking traversely the center of a beam with simple
supported ends of mass M1. The other end of the bar being fixed...

4) A moving mass M striking traversely the center of a beam with fixed


ends of mass M1. The other end of the bar being fixed...

Impact stresses considering propagation of shock waves- Unsupported bar

When a impact force is suddenly applied to and elastic body , a wave of


stress is propogated traveling through the body with a velocity..

w = weight /unit volume (kg/m2), v = velocity (m/s)


The unsupported bar subject to the longitudonal impact from a rigid
body with velocity v experiences a wave of compressive stress of
intensity σ.

If the mass of the moving body is very large compared to the mass of
the bar the wave of compression bounces back from the far end of the
bar as a wave of tension and returns to the struck end after a time
period .

t p = 2L / V
If the mass of the moving body is very large compared to the bar so that
it can be considered infinite then after breaking contact the moving bar
will move away from the impacting mass with a velocity of vb= 2v. The
moving bar will be stress free.

μ
If the mass of the impinging body is time the mass of the bar then the
bar will move away with an average velocity of

The moving bar is left vibrating with a stress intensity of

Impacts considering propagation of shock waves- bar with one end supported
For the case of a bar with one end fixed , the wave of compressive
stress resulting from the impact on the unsupported end is reflected
back unchanged from the supported (fixed end) and combines with the
advancing waves to produce a maximum stress approximately equal to..

μ = Mass of Moving Body/Mass of Bar