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Asignatura: Evaluación de Proyectos de Inversión Alumno: Eric Omar Camargo Carrera

Grupo: 3

Resumen: Capitulo 2 Ross

Financial statements and flow of cash

The balance sheet:

The balance sheet is a snapshot (taken by an accountant) of the book value of a company on a
special date, as if the company was momentarily motionless.

The balance sheet has two sides: on the left side are the assets, while the right includes liabilities
and stockholders' equity. The balance sheet shows what that the company has and the way it is
financed. The accounting definition on which the balance sheet and describing its balance is:

Assets= Liabilities+Stockholders' equity

In reality, stockholders' equity is defined as the difference between the assets and liabilities of the
company. In principle, equity is what remains for shareholders after the company meets its

When analyzing a balance sheet, the financial manager must take into account three aspects:
liquidity, debt and capital, and value and costs.


Liquidity refers to the ease and speed with which assets can be converted into cash.

Current assets, which comprise the most liquid assets two,includes cash and assets that will
become cash over the course of a year to from the balance sheet date. Accounts receivable are
amounts not yet collected to customers for the goods or services that were sold to them.

The inventory is made up of the raw materials used in production, work in progress and finished
items. Fixed assets are the type of assets less liquid. Tangible fixed assets include real estate, plant
and team. These assets do not become cash as a result of normal activities. of the company and,
generally, they are not used to pay expenses such as payroll.

Intangible assets have no physical existence, but they can be very valuable.

Debt and capital

Liabilities are obligations of the company that require a cash outlay within a stipulated period
Asignatura: Evaluación de Proyectos de Inversión Alumno: Eric Omar Camargo Carrera
Grupo: 3
Generally speaking, when the company requests loan funds, grants priority rights to the
bondholders. about the cash flow of the company

Value and cost

Frequently, the book value of a company's assets is called the holding value. I lie or book value of

So, for example, when affirms that the goal of the financial administrator is to increase the value
of the shares, it is done reference to its market value and not the book value.

Statement of income

The income statement measures performance during a specific period, for example, a year. The
accounting definition of profits is:

Income- Expenses= Utilities

If the balance sheet is like an instant photo, the income statement is like a video that records what
people did between two instant photos.

Time and costs

It is often very useful to visualize the totality of future time as one who has two different parts: the
short term and the long term. The short term is the period in which certain equipment, company
resources and commitments are fixed; but the time is long enough to that the company vary its
production by employing more labor and raw materials

In the long term all costs are variable. Financial accountants do not distinguish between variable
costs and fixed costs.

Net working capital

Net working capital is equal to current assets less current liabilities. The capital of Network is
positive when current assets are greater than current liabilities. This means that the cash that is
available over the next 12 months will be greater than the cash to be paid.

Cash flow management

One of the reasons why cash flow analysis is popular is the difficulty to manipulate, or present
conveniently, cash flows. The principles of generally accepted accounting allow you to make many
subjective decisions in relation with fundamental areas.