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Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science

Unit 1 Planet Earth


1.1 The Geosphere

Layers of the Earth


Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Layers of the Earth


Crust •Crust: a layer of rock that forms
Earth’s outer skin
–Includes land forms, soil, water, etc..
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Layers of the Earth


Crust •Basalt: Ocean crust made of dark
dense rock and is very thin
•Granite: Continental crust that is less
dense but is thicker (especially where
mountains are)
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Layers of the Earth


Mantle •Mantle: Layer of hot rock under the
crust
•Lithosphere: upper most part of the
mantle and the crust, solid
–About 100 kilometers thick
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Layers of the Earth


Mantle •The temperature and pressure in the
mantle increases with depth
•This pressure and high temperatures
causes the lower part of the mantle to be
soft and can flow easily, known as the
asthenosphere
•The mantle is 3,000 km thick
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Layers of the Earth


Core •Core: inner most part of the earth
consisting of 2 parts
–Outer core: thick liquid of molten
material
–Inner core: dense ball of solid metal
(iron and nickel)
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

• The mantle makes up about 80% of the


Earth’s total volume.
• Pressure at the center of the inner core
may be more than 1 million times greater
than air pressure at sea level.
• Crust material is 2.5-3.0 times denser than
water, mantel material is 3.5-5.5 times
denser than water, core material is 10-13
times denser than water
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

• Suppose you could drive a car at


100km/hr from Earth’s surface to the
center of the core. At that speed the car
would take about half an hour to drive
through most continental crust, about
another 29 hours to drive through the
mantle, and about an additional 35 hours
to drive to the center of the Earth.
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Convection Currents and the


Mantle
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Convection Currents and the


Mantle
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

Convection Currents and the Mantle


1.1 The Geosphere

Heat •Heat can transfer in 3 ways


Transfer

1. Radiation 2. Conduction 3. Convection


Transfer of Transfer of heat Heat transfer
heat energy by By direct By the movement
electromagnetic Contact Of heated liquids
radiation And gasses
Example: touching
Example: waves on a metal spoon Example: Hot
the EMS scale In a pot of Air rises
Boiling water
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Heat Transfer
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

Convection Currents and the Mantle


1.1 The Geosphere

Convection •The difference between temperature


Currents and density of the fluid changes. This
causes:
–Hot liquid to be less dense, moving it to
the top
–Cool liquid to be more dense, moving it
to the bottom
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

Convection Currents and the Mantle


1.1 The Geosphere

Convection •The asthenosphere (middle mantle)


Currents is a soft liquid and experiences
convection currents
–As the fluid close to the core
heats, it rises to the top (near the
lithosphere) and cools, causing it
to cycle back down

Video
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

Convection Currents and the Mantle


1.1 The Geosphere

Convection •Convention currents in the mantle,


Currents cause the lithosphere (bottom of the
crust) to move
•This causes the crust of the earth to
move around
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Draw both pictures below in your


notes Heat
Becomes
cool

Heat Coolness
rising sinking

Heat
source
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Heat
Becomes
cool

Heat Coolness
rising sinking

Heat
source
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
_5q8hzF9VVE
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Alfred •German scientist in early 1900s
Wegener
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Alfred •German scientist in early 1900s
Wegener •His hypothesis stated that all the
continents had once been joined
together in a single land mass and
have sense drifted apart
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Alfred •German scientist in early 1900s
Wegener •His hypothesis stated that all the
continents had once been joined
together in a single land mass and
have sense drifted apart
•He named the
mega continent
Pangea, which
means “all lands”
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Alfred •Pangea existed over 300 million
Wegener years ago
•Pangea took tens of millions of years
to move to where the continents are
today
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Continental •Continental Drift: Wegener’s idea
Drift and its that the continents slowly moved over
evidence Earth’s surfaces
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Continental •Evidence from landforms:
Drift and its –Mountain range in Africa matches up
evidence with a mountain range in South America
– European coal fields match up with
North American coal fields
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Continental •Evidence from Fossils
Drift and its –Fossils of the same animals
evidence (mesosaurus and lytrosaurus) have
been found on different continents
•These reptiles once lived on a single land
mass – Pangea
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Continental •Evidence from Fossils
Drift and its –Glossopteris (fern like plant) fossils
evidence have been found in Africa, South
America, Australia, India, and Antartica
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Continental •Evidence from Climate
Drift and its –Evidence from fossils that the climate in
evidence South Africa was once much colder
because there is evidence of glaciers
Where do you think South Africa was during Pangaea?
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

South Africa at the Pole


Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Continental •Evidence from Climate
Drift and its –Spitsbergen: island up by Norway
evidence which is covered in ice, but where fossils
of tropical plants have been discovered

Where do you think Spitsbergen was during Pangaea?


Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Drifting Continents
Continental Theory was not accepted by
Drift and its scientists…why?
evidence
Because Wegener could not
identify the cause of continental
drift
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

In order to get sea floor


spreading…
• We have to go back and remind ourselves
about what convection currents are…

What are convection currents?


Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Heat
Becomes
cool

Heat Coolness
rising sinking

Heat
source
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

The lithosphere is broken into


different plates
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Mid Ocean •Mid Ocean Ridge: longest chain
Ridge of mountains in the world under
the oceans.
–Mountain range curves around
the world like the seams on a
baseball

Video:
http://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v
=sgDM6m0lUGY
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Mid-Ocean Ridge
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Mid Ocean •Sonar: device that bounces sound
Ridge waves off under water objects to see
their location and depth
•Sonar mapped the mid ocean ridge

Video: Sonar video:


http://news.nationalg
eographic.com/news
/2011/04/110421-us-
ocean-floor-
mapping-vin-video/
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Harry Hess •An American geologist who studied
mid-ocean ridges.
•He suggested that the ocean floors
move like conveyor belts, carrying the
continents along with them.
–He came up with the idea of
sea-floor spreading
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Sea Floor 1. At the mid-ocean ridge, molten
Spreading material rises from the mantle and
erupts.
2. Molten material then spreads out,
pushing older rock away on both
sides of the ridge
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Sea Floor 3. As the molten material cools, it
Spreading forms a strip of solid rock in the
center of the ridge.
4. Eventually, more molten material
will erupt and the cycle will begin
again
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Sea Floor This process continually adds new
Spreading material to the sea floor
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Question???

Video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyMLlLxbfa
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Sea Floor • Deep-Ocean Trench: under water
Spreading canyon where deep oceanic crust bend
downward into the mantle
Video:
http://www.youtube.com/w
• Subduction: Process by which the
atch?v=ryrXAGY1dmE ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean
trench into the mantle
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

Sea Floor Spreading


Sea Floor • Evidence
Spreading 1. molten material
2. magnetic stripes (video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCzCmldiaWQ)

3. drilling samples: drilling sample show


younger rocks on the ridge
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth
1.1 The Geosphere

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate Plate tectonics: Theory that explains


Tectonics the formation, movement, and
subduction of Earth’s plates
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate • The lithosphere is broken into


Tectonics separate sections called plates
• The plates fit closely together
along cracks in the lithosphere
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate How do the plates move?


Tectonics • As the convection currents under the
lithosphere move, they cause the
plates to move
• One plate cannot move without effecting
another plate
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate • Faults: breaks in the earth’s crust


Boundaries • Faults are formed along plate
boundaries
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate There are three types of plate


Boundaries boundaries
• Transform Boundaries
• Divergent Boundaries
• Convergent Boundaries
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Transform
Boundary
Motion Sliding past one
another
Effect Shallow
Earthquakes
Topography Fault

Volcanic Yes, Ring of Fire


Activity
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Divergent Boundary
Motion Move away from
one another
Effect Oceanic
Lithosphere
created
Topo- Ridge or Rift
graphy valley
(Mid ocean ridge
or African Rift
Zone)
Volcanic Yes – formed from
Activity magma in the
mantle, Ring of
Fire
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Convergent Boundary
Motion Move together or
collide
Effect Oceanic
Lithosphere
destroyed, deep
earthquakes
Topograph Trench, mountains,
y Island arcs
Volcanic Yes – as the plate
Activity submerges, it melts
and can rise back
up to the surface as
lava
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate Convergent Boundaries


Boundaries • When plates converge, their
density will depend on what
happens
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate Oceanic – Continental Convergent


Boundaries Boundary
• Oceanic crust is more dense, so it
will go under the continental crust
forming trenches and volcanoes
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate Oceanic – Oceanic Convergent


Boundaries Boundary
• The more dense oceanic crust will
go under the less dense oceanic
crust forming trenches and
volcanoes
Pre AP Biology & Environmental Science
Unit 1 Planet Earth

The Theory of Plate Tectonics


1.1 The Geosphere

Plate Continental – Continental Convergent


Boundaries Boundary
• Plate collide up, folding together
to create mountains