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JUNCTION DESIGN

Junction Design

in Rock – A State of

the Art Review

Seth Pollak, Senior Engineer, Arup and Hannes Figure 1: Relationship between the

Lagger, Associate Director, Arup review the additional roof settlement and the

intersection angle of tunnels for the

challenges involved in designing and main tunnel (after Hsiao, 2008)

Main tunnel - Roof settlement

Intersection angle = 90

AS SPACE CONSTRAINTS on land drive how far to extend the range of increased Intersection angle = 60

more facilities underground, the idea of the support due to stress changes and increase 60 Intersection angle = 30

linear tunnel has been replaced by one of in removable block size on either side of the

Δδm/δm0 (%)

complex geometries and intersections as junction. Typically, a value of one adit

engineers struggle to create excavations diameter is applied as a rule of thumb, 40

that fulfill the requirements. This is never based on the fact that the majority of stress

truer than in urban areas where new distribution occurs within this zone. The

projects must be threaded around existing prudent engineer would then verify the 20

utilities, foundations, and other tunnels. The empirical recommendation using a

resulting stress distributions and ground kinematic block analysis such as a 3D

deformations can be difficult to predict, wedge visualization program in order to 0

even with the aid of a full 3D model. The translate joint orientations into wedge 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

application of current analytical design tools volumes and shapes which could be σcm/P0

to the temporary support of junctions is encountered in the junction area. Aside

mainly limited to homogeneous and from the size of the zone of influence, the

isotropic materials – such as soils or drawbacks of the empirical approach are specific factors (such as in situ stress, angle

massive, elastic rock. Few design tools are that no guidance is provided on rock of intersection, etc.) can be accounted for

currently available in the industry to deal reinforcement size or type, no estimate of without sacrificing time.

with discontinuous or weak rock masses, deformation is made, and no extent of A step in the right direction has recently

where stress distributions result in shearing yielding zone is established - all factors been provided by Hsiao et al. (2008) who

and dilation in the rock mass around the which are vital for the stability, construction have presented estimates of crown

excavation. This article aims to address and successful delivery of a tunnel junction. deformation for both the adit and main

where the industry is in terms of a rational The question of rock reinforcement type is tunnel (given as Δδ/δo, where Δδ is the

approach for temporary support design for of interest in terms of performance in additional deformation measured after

junctions in discontinuous rock masses, and design and construction. For example, in an junction formation and δo is the

highlights some recent projects where age where time is money, preference has deformation outside the influence of the

junctions have been successfully designed been given by many contractors to the use junction) for various junction situations. The

and build, with data collected to verify the of friction bolts wherever possible. The results presented are based on 75 different

performance in various types of rock. question of friction bolt performance to numerical model runs, carried out in

that of a fully grouted dowel around a FLAC3D (Itasca Consulting Group) for

Current Junction Design Methodologies junction cannot be answered by application different combinations of depths, rock mass

in Rock of the simplified empirical method quality, lateral stress ratios, and intersection

The most common approach to junction presented by the Q-chart. Although the angle.

design in rock tunnels is through application junction zone may represent an overall small The Δδ/δo ratio is given as a function of

of the empirical Q system (Barton, 1974). portion of the project, using dowels or two key factors: the in situ rock mass

Where an adjustment needs to be made for other reinforcement types still require the strength to stress ratio (σcm/Po) and the

a tunnel intersection, the joint number contractor to have the appropriate intersection angle (30°, 60°, and 90°). The

value (Jn) is multiplied by 3, effectively equipment on site and requires a change in former parameter addresses the probable

reducing the final Q value by 1/3. Intuitively, the usual mining cycle. yield zone size while the latter considers

the method makes sense as the creation of The ideal solution for the designer is to be different geometrical effects, both

additional free faces increases the likelihood able to carry out a more rational design, highlighted as shortcomings of the

of a removable block. However, several one where analytical and numerical empirical design method. Results are

important unknowns exist. One unknown is methods may be applied and more site tabulated and can be applied in the same

24 TUNNELLING JOURNAL

TJ_1012_024_029.qxd:Feature 20/10/12 16:39 Page 25

JUNCTION DESIGN

Figure 2: Relationship between additional roof settlement at main tunnel and the massive 23m x 20m x 20m high

distance from intersection center (Hsiao et al., 2008) intersection, large enough to house a

60

Boeing 737 aircraft, off critical path.

Initial rock mass characterization of the

Main tunnel - Roof settlement 90º 50º 30º

Acute side fractured granite was undertaken based on

0

B Δδm/δm0 (%) 50

Obtuse side borings drilled through the junction area

-Y Y

from ground surface, located 270m above.

40

It was decided to undertake 2D modeling

Area requires

additional D for the bulk of the support design based on

re-inforcement

the unprecedented size and complex

30 construction sequence, with a final 3D

model used to verify the 2D work. Based on

the estimated block size and tunnel spans

20

involved (Stille, 2008), it was decided that a

discontinuum approach using UDEC (Itasca

10 Consulting Group) would most accurately

model the key failure mechanisms expected;

Obtuse angle side Acute angle side namely excessive shear displacement caused

0

5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 by stress re-distribution accompanied by

local block yielding.

-Y/D Y/D

Two sections were modeled in UDEC, one

across the 23m span (including the two

bypass tunnels), and another across the

amount of time it takes to carry out the Application of Numerical Modeling to 20m twin track running tunnel span. The

empirical method. Detailed Junction Design primary goal of 2D modeling was to obtain

As stated previously, the ratio of σcm/Po In the battle between 2D and 3D modeling, an estimate of required temporary support,

has a large influence on the degree of a balance must be struck between the time and the best construction sequence to

yielding and ground deformation strain taken for 3D, and the additional control overstress and yielding.

around a tunnel (Hoek, 1998). Based on information that can be obtained from such At the conclusion of the 2D modeling

approximate ranges of ground behavior for a model compared to a 2D version. program, the temporary support of the

different strength to stress ratios, three Several recent projects where both 2D spans junction was specified to include 6m

levels of warning were established from the

relationship between tunnel crown strain

and rock mass strength. Further Figure 3: Complex intersection geometry for ventilation adit and bypass

categorization can be made regarding the tunnels on Hong Kong’s Express Rail Link Contract 821

σcm/Po ratio into conditions of slightly or

non-squeezing rock (σcm/Po≥0.5),

moderately squeezing rock (0.25≤ CL Sump pit

bypass

σcm/Po≤0.5), and severely squeezing rock

CL Hammer Head

(σcm/Po<0.25).

CL North bypass Adit

The range over which additional support

Extent of T-junction design package

Down track

Up track

Some guidance is given by Hsiao et al. in Kwai Chung Adit

23m

the form of Figure 2. It would be left to the

designer to determine how much Kwai Chung Adit

junctions area

additional strain their temporary support

system could absorb without overstress,

and for that matter how “overstress” is 20m

defined; i.e. maintaining all elements in Unexcavated

outh bypas

s Adit

cracking of fiber reinforced shotcrete, or Excavation heading

utilizing higher tensile capacity for Excavation bench

rockbolts such as 80% 0f Ultimate 300m thick sprayed collar (Type S1)

compared to the typical 60%, given the Excavation complete

0 10

high quality control measures called for in Metres

The methods described above are most and 3D modeling was carried out for long x 32mm diameter fully grouted rock

applicable to the conceptual or scheme junction design in rock was for Express Rail dowels on a 1.25m grid with 100mm of

design stages, where feasibility and Link Contract 821 in Hong Kong, 7 Line fiber reinforced shotcrete. The construction

parametric studies are often investigated. Extension in New York and Brisbane Airport sequence was agreed in principle with the

Detailed design usually requires the use of Link in Australia. In Hong Kong, the contractor and involved some 19 different

numerical analysis to justify the scheme, contractor opted for rearrangement of a stages to break out the junction top

especially for shallow urban junctions critical junction area during value heading and bench to full size.

subject to strict ground deformation engineering exercises to allow for quick It was decided to model the entire

limitations. access down to the running tunnels via two construction sequence and geometry in 3D

TUNNELLING JOURNAL 25

TJ_1012_024_029.qxd:Feature 20/10/12 16:39 Page 26

JUNCTION DESIGN

Figure 4: Comparison of results between 2D and 3D numerical modeling carried

design team that the adopted construction

out for the XRL 821 junction design sequence was acceptable. The largest

difference between the two methods was in

the shotcrete bending moment. Not

surprising, the 2D model which utilizes

beam elements showed higher load

compared to the 3D model, which utilizes

plate elements. As the plate is more efficient

in distributing moment compared to a

beam, the result passes the sense check. The

support remained unchanged from that

predicted by the UDEC model, aside from

localized increases in shotcrete thickness to

200mm. The substitution of macrosynthetic

polypropylene for steel fibers was also

allowed based on the design results.

Deformations obtained from the 3D model

were used in defining trigger levels (set at

80%, 100%, and 120% of the design

convergence) to monitor the behavior of the

rock mass as excavation progressed. Explicit

trigger levels could be defined for almost any

point in the junction area, a large advantage

over 2D modeling.

One extremely beneficial piece of data that

the design team had was results of a series

of hydrofracture in situ stress tests carried

out in a borehole drilled right through the

area. Accurate determination of the 3D state

of stress in the ground was fundamental in

developing a reliable 3D model. Without this

data, there would most certainly be some

doubt associated with the results. It is

strongly recommended that the 3D in situ

stress state be measured prior to design of

any large junction or cavern.

The junction was excavated and supported

without incident with no trigger levels

exceeded. Clearly any sort of empirical

approach would not be valid here based on

little to no past precedent and the complexity

of the geometry. The adopted design was

considered valid down to a mapped Q value

of 1, with the lowest mapped value being

Max. Average Unfactored Unfactored Tangential approximately equal to this value.

Model

crown rock dowel axial lining maximum stress at In terms of numerical modeling of

type

displacement load load bending moment crown, σ1 junctions, it is important that the junction

need not be designed in 3D, In fact, it would

UDEC not be a wise use of time to do so. The 3D

19mm 98kN 951kN 43kN-m 10MPa

[2D] model is most useful in validating 2D work,

after most of the design and sequence has

Midas 876kN (for 85% 6.6kN-m (for been worked out and agreed upon.

GTS 19mm 80kN of points); 98% of points) 11MPa

[3D] Max. = 3MN Maximum = 36kN-m Moving Towards a Rational Design

Approach

The use of 3D modeling as discussed in the

as part of the final verification exercise. continuum model could be used for final preceding section would generally be limited

There are of course elements of the design verification and that this would provide to only the most complex and stringent

that cannot be addressed in 2D; most relatable results to the 2D UDEC, which applications. How about design of “typical”

importantly the intermediate stages of assumes joints dip directly perpendicular to intersections, like that of a cross passage or

construction and associated stress the tunnel axis, albeit at an apparent angle. escalator adit into a station cavern?

distributions coupled with varying shotcrete The software package Midas GTS was used The authors refer back to the work of

stiffness in different areas. and the results compared against the UDEC Hsiao et al. (which interested readers are

As 2D distinct element modeling had models for similar sections. Results for one encouraged to consult) as a starting point.

been undertaken extensively for the section are shown in Figure 4. One project where this work was validated

junction, it was decided that a 3D Similar values for key parameters were was on the 7 Line Extension Subway Project

26 TUNNELLING JOURNAL

TJ_1012_024_029.qxd:Feature 20/10/12 16:39 Page 27

JUNCTION DESIGN

Figure 5: Total displacements obtained from Midas GTS model of the XRL 821

junction area

responsible for the temporary support of a Run 2D numerical model of View of completed XRL 821 junction

large station cavern and associated adit main cavern with standard support looking down the ventilation adit.

and note crown displacement

penetrations. The 34th Street Station Cavern

had an excavated span of 21m and height of

16m. Rock cover was typically 16m, above Figure 6: Arrangement of MPBX

Reduce stiffness of intact rock mass

which foundations rested supporting the (depending on model type) instruments above 34th Street

busy 11th Avenue viaduct structure. until 15% increase in crown

Station Cavern in New York City

displacement is produced

The cavern and junctions were constructed

in a mica schist rock mass with pegmatite

intrusions. Block size analyses and mapping Check capacity of standard support

Cavern

of adjacent outcrops determined that

behavior would most accurately be modeled Overstressed OK

by a discontinuum approach, such as UDEC.

In design of the cavern support, numerous

12.6m

Adit

sections were analysed in 2D. As the

approach by Hsiao et al. is based on the ratio Increase thickness

of shotcrete 0.5D

of additional crown settlement after junction Install heavier

around adit for

support in cavern 4.5m

formation to the typical deformation away and re-run

potential wedge

confinement

from the junction, it was determined that the and adopt

2D work undertaken previously could be

utilized to provide the “δo” input, and that

the same models could effectively be re-run

with reduced rock strength/stiffness Monitoring of ground displacements several feet above the excavation design

properties in order to induce the additional during construction in the cavern and line. Real time continuous monitoring

deformation, Δδ, estimated by the method around the junction penetrations was provided results which could be correlated

(Pollak et al., 2010). The proposed analysis effectively measured using multiple point against each blast carried out as the

requires some degree of trial and error to borehole extensometers (MPBX) installed junctions were developed. A typical layout

match the crown displacements, but once from surface in arrays across the cavern of the MPBX above the penetration location

this is done the temporary support can be section. The lowest anchor points were only is shown in Figure 6.

assessed for overstress due to the extra

strain. Based on Figure 2, it was expected

Table 1: Summary of junction behavior in the 34th Street Station Cavern, 7 Line

that the perpendicular junction formations

Ext. Project, New York.

would result in an additional 15-20% crown

displacement in the cavern. Localized

thickening of the shotcrete was required, but

axial and shear forces in the grouted 32mm

diameter rock reinforcement was considered

acceptable. The process is presented in the

following flowchart:

TUNNELLING JOURNAL 27

TJ_1012_024_029.qxd:Feature 20/10/12 16:39 Page 28

JUNCTION DESIGN

Adits E1 and E2 providing access to the 34th Street Station in non-squeezing rock.

Cavern, New York City Additionally, the extent of influence

around the junction could be measured

based on the measurements obtained by the

MPBXs. As shown by the central orange

shaded box area on Figure 6, neither the

extensometer opposite the intersection nor

the extensometer offset 4.5m from the adit

edge registered any additional displacement

due to junction formation. The area of

influence was only within the area shaded

by the box. Therefore, argument could be

made that only localized increase of support

is necessary within 0.5D around the junction

for cases where the rock mass falls into the

category of “non-squeezing”. The measured

results validate the work of Hsiao et al., as

well as the proposed refinements to include

more detailed 2D numerical methods into

the approach.

Conclusion

It is now possible to carry out temporary

support design of rock tunnel junctions by

applying greater analytical and numerical

Three such intersections were monitored. results are shown in Table 1. tools than ever before, without sacrificing

All three were of the same size and located From Table 1, it can be seen that the time and resources, or relying on empirical

in rock masses having similar quality. Of the measured ratio of Δδm/δmo, where δmo simplifications. The state of the art methods

three instrumented junctions, good results was obtained from the MPBX above the presented here provide a good starting

were obtained from two, the third MPBX main cavern crown prior to junction point to incorporate fundamental, site

being damaged due to overbreak. The formation, agrees well with the 15-20% specific rock mass parameters which are

omitted in the traditional empirical

approaches. From that point forward, a

rational, tailored support design can be

Adit T3 and the interlocking chamber at north end of the 34th

developed to suit each junction geometry

Street Station Cavern, New York City

and characteristics.

REFERENCES

(1974). “Engineering classification of rock

masses for the design of tunnel support”.

Rock Mech. 6(4). pp. 189-239.

2. Hoek, E. (1998). “Tunnel support in weak

rock” Keynote address in Symposium of

sedimentary rock engineering. Taipei,

Taiwan.

3. Hsiao, F.Y., Wang, C.L., and Chern, J.C.

(2009). “Numerical simulation of rock

deformation for support design in tunnel

intersection area” Tunnelling and

Underground Space Technology. 24. pp. 14-

21.

4. Pollak, S.E., Snee, C.P.M., and George, C.

(2010). “Observations made during

construction of a shallow rock cavern in New

York – a case study of the 7 Line Extension

project. Proceedings of the ITA-AITES World

Tunnel Congress and 36th General

Assembly. Vancouver, Can.

5. Stille, H. and Palmstrom, A. (2008).

“Ground behaviour and rock mass

composition in underground excavations”.

Tunnelling and Underground Space

Technology. 23. pp. 46-64.

28 TUNNELLING JOURNAL

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